The Farm (Tennessee)

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Stephen Gaskin at Nambassa Alternatives festival, New Zealand 1981
Ina May Gaskin at Nambassa festival, New Zealand 1981.

The Farm is an intentional community in Lewis County, Tennessee, near the town of Summertown, Tennessee,[1] based on principles of nonviolence, and respect for the Earth. It was founded in 1971 by Stephen Gaskin, and 420 San Francisco hippies;[2] The Farm is well known amongst hippies and other members of similar subcultures as well as by many vegetarians. The Farm now has approximately 150 residents.


The Farm was established after Stephen Gaskin and friends led a caravan of 60 buses, vans, and trucks from San Francisco on a four-month speaking tour across the US. Along the way, they became a community, lacking only in land to put down roots. After returning to California, the decision was made to buy land together. Combining all their resources would finance purchase of only about fifty acres in California. Another month on the road brought the group back to Tennessee, where they checked out various places that might be suitable to settle. They decided on property in Lewis County, about fifty miles south of Nashville.[3] After buying 1,064 acres (4.1 km2) for $70 per acre, the group began building its community in the woods alongside the network of crude logging roads that followed its ridgelines. Shortly thereafter, an adjoining 750 acres (3.0 km2) were purchased for $100 per acre.

From its founding in the 1970s, Farm members took vows of poverty and owned no personal possessions other than clothing and tools, though this restriction loosened as time passed. During that time, Farm members did not use artificial birth control, alcohol, tobacco, man-made psychotropics, or animal products. Many of the early buildings on the Farm were unconventional, ranging from converted school buses to modified 16 x 32 army tents. Over time, larger homes were constructed, each providing shelter for multiple families and single people, often with up to 40 people under one roof. Visitors were also housed in a two-story tent made by sewing two army tents together. Lacking any form of government, distribution of wealth and housing allocation fell initially to Gaskin, a position he did not seek or enjoy. This task was taken over by a "council of elders" and then a "board of directors" consisting of some of the most respected and influential members of the Farm community. The Farm formed a non-profit corporation called The Foundation to provide a common financial structure for the community and members contributed their incomes to it. A security crew constantly maintained a welcome center at the entrance gate where all traffic passed and was logged.

In the original manifestation of The Farm, all members were believers in the holiness of life and that smoking marijuana was a sacrament, though Farm members did not use alcohol or other drugs. What bound them was their shared psychedelic vision. They said that their cultural conditioning had been blown away enough to experience a world of higher consciousness, and that Spirit exists and we are all One. Stephen Gaskin, who had served in the United States Marine Corps, got his start as a religious leader in San Francisco in the 1960s, coming to teach a blend of Eastern religions and Christianity. Due to his devotion to marijuana, he and three followers spent time in 1974 in the Tennessee State Penitentiary in Nashville following convictions for growing marijuana on Farm land.[4]

Community evolution

Early growth pains

The Farm's outreach, combined with notoriety through popular media articles, led to a population boom that eventually peaked at around 1600 members living on the main property. Additionally, some satellite farm affinity communities which were located in the U.S. and other countries consolidated by moving to the Tennessee community. Signs started to appear between 1975 and 1979 that the Tennessee community's weak infrastructure and low income was insufficiently developed to support such a continuously large influx of new members. The Foundation went increasingly into debt. Furthering the Farm's growing pains was a baby boom resulting from the large number of young adults of childbearing age combined with an enthusiastic family philosophy being put into practice. Insufficient capacity of sewage infrastructure resources led to some giardia outbreaks and malcontent. As the Farm's population peaked, a disproportionately higher number of children or less-skilled residents could not significantly contribute to increasing the community's economy.[5]

The Changeover

In 1983, due to financial difficulties and also a challenge to Stephen Gaskin's leadership and direction, the Farm changed its residential community agreement and began requiring members to support themselves with their own income rather than to donate all income to The Foundation central corporation.[5] This decollectivization was called the Changeover, or the Exodus.[5] Many people left due to a variety of reasons, from disillusionment, to perception of inequitable distribution of wealth, to perception of favoritism. The surrounding local rural area provided few possibilities for outside employment. The nearest large city, Nashville, was a 1.5-hour drive 75 miles (121 km) away. Those who could not adapt to the new dynamics of The Changeover found it difficult to remain. Those who had forged independent business opportunities or had reduced overhead could afford to stay.


Eventually the population settled back down to fewer than 200 adults and children. Those who continued living in the community were buoyed by its freedom and peaceful atmosphere, and the safety and security it provided for their children.[5] The $400,000 plus debt was paid off after several years and the community became debt-free. An entrepreneurial spirit took hold, and numerous small businesses were established to provide support for the residents. Many members went back to school to get degrees in the medical field, and many now work at clinics and hospitals throughout Middle Tennessee.

In the 1990s, with the community back on solid ground, The Farm returned to its original purpose of initiating social change through outreach and example. The Ecovillage Training Center was established as an educational facility in new technologies such as solar energy, bio fuels, and construction techniques based on locally available, eco-friendly materials.

Recent status

Today[when?] the Farm's population is approximately 150; residents are mostly baby boomers (about 80%), many of whom have lived on The Farm for most of its existence. Those interested in becoming residents are encouraged to visit during the bi-annual Farm Experience Weekend, which provides a glimpse into how the community operates and functions.[citation needed]

In 2004, the Wholeo Dome (a geodesic dome fourteen feet in diameter and seven feet tall, covered with curved stained glass panels) was installed at The Farm.[6] It was created in 1974 by artist Caroling Geary.[6][7] In May 2010 repairs were completed on the Wholeo Dome.[8]

The Farm maintains contact with some of its 4000-plus former members through email lists, social media forums, an annual reunion each summer, and through the work of its nonprofit organizations.[5] Former members have gone on to become leaders in many different fields and endeavors, maintaining a sense of right livelihood and a commitment to the betterment of the world.

Social and family issues

Stephen Gaskin believed that marriage was a sacred act and that the sexuality between two people was created by the flow of cosmic energy, which was known as “the juice”. “For a community to exist in harmony and balance, both kinds of energy had to be nurtured, and most importantly shared.”[9] The ideology of marriage at the Farm could be described as “synergistic”. Seriousness and commitment were required in marriage. With the exception of the Rhythm Method, birth control was frowned upon, and abortions were prohibited in the community. As an alternative to abortion the Farm publicly offered to deliver any baby for free and then to find a loving family to raise the child. If the birth mother ever wanted the child back she could have her. Childbearing was natural, and births were attended by midwives. Premarital sex was greatly discouraged, and most couples on the Farm were married.[citation needed]

Some of the original community members believed in the practice of group marriage. The “four marriage system” was viewed as an important social structure in the early days of the commune. Gaskin himself was in a “six marriage” in which there were three women and two other men. They shared three beds and would switch partners continuously. This, however, was not required; Gaskin understood that not everyone was ready to be in a group marriage. It was taught only people with great ability and “the juice” were in plural marriages. None of these marriages survived more than ten years, most lasted no longer than five. And in some instances, the couples switched partners when the "four marriage" ended.[citation needed]


The Farm had its own electrical crew, composting crew, farming crew, communications, construction & demolition crew, clinic, firewood crew, alternative energy crew, motor pool, laundromat, tofu plant, bakery, school and ambulance service. It established The Book Publishing Company, which published the works of the Gaskins and other Farm members. The Farm's midwifery school and Ina May Gaskin's seminal book "Spiritual Midwifery" are well known throughout the world for their emphasis on maternal and newborn compassion, safety and success rates.

They also ran a "soy dairy", which developed and later marketed a soymilk ice "cream" called "Ice-Bean", and a vegetable store in the town of Summertown.

Tennessee Farm Band

They maintained The Farm Band, a rock group in the early 'jam band' style, which toured the country performing for free at parks, schools, churches, and other accessible venues. Albums from the 1970s include The Farm Band on Mantra Records, and Up in Your Thing, High On the Rim of the Nashville Basin and Communion on Farm Tapes & Records. There were also a number of 45 releases. All Farm Band recordings were self-produced and distributed. During the 2000s (decade), Akarma Records in Italy have distributed bootleg copies of their albums. The debut album, a self-titled 2-LP set from 1972, is considered a classic among independently released acid-rock albums of the 1970s and has been compared to Ya Ho Wha 13. In addition to the rock music recordings, Stephen Gaskin released a spoken word album titled the Great Western Tour in 1974, which was produced and distributed in the same way as their other LPs.[10]


File:Plenty International.jpg
Plenty International

In 1974, after helping local neighbors after a tornado, the Farm formed Plenty (later, Plenty International), its charitable works arm. It began by gathering and supplying food for local disaster victims and holding weekly "quilting bees" to make blankets for them.

Plenty's most notable early project was its four-year presence in the Guatemalan highlands after the earthquake of 1976, helping to rebuild 1,200 houses and lay 27 kilometers of waterpipe. There, it established a micro-commune of volunteers and their families, living simply among Mayan populations and working under the approval of the military government.

Plenty donated an ambulance in the early 1980s to the Akwesasne Mohawk Reservation in upstate New York. Two Farmies – one a paramedic and one an EMT – taught a licensed Emergency Medical Technician course to 22 reservation residents, helping them set up their first Mohawk-run EMT service, the "Mohawk Council of Akwesasne Ambulance Unit". Plenty has set up clinics in Lesotho and Mexico and created the Jefferson Award-winning South Bronx Ambulance Project in New York City.

Plenty maintains an office in Belize, Central America, which initiated a school lunch program based on organic gardens planted next to each school to help provide more vegetables for the children's diets. A midwifery program helped train over 60 Mayan women from villages throughout the region in prenatal care and safe delivery techniques.

Plenty was one of the first relief organizations to enter New Orleans, getting past federal roadblocks to bring supplies to survivors just three days after Hurricane Katrina. Plenty helped establish a base camp for volunteers and channeled funding to Common Ground Collective, a local group assisting in cleanup, legal defense services, and the operation of free clinics. Plenty volunteers purchased and restored a home in the area to serve as a headquarters for housing relief volunteers and construction crews helping to rebuild homes. Melvyn Stiriss, a Plenty volunteer carpenter wrote about a year of earthquake reconstruction in Mayan Adventure, part 4 of Voluntary Peasants Labor of Love/The Farm Commune published by New Beat Books, Warwick, NY 2015



There was no infrastructure grid on The Farm's land when it was first settled by the nascent community. Originally relying on antique kerosene lanterns and manual message runners, The Farm grew rapidly to adopt appropriate technology for electricity, communications, medical, mass media, education, and entertainment. Some of the early residents of the farm brought their skills as engineers and technicians with them; they took on a multi-year development to build The Farm's novel network of communications and electrical supply.[11]

Initially, a single landline was available for outside telephone calls, with a waiting list for long distance. Spurred mainly by the need for prompt childbirth assistance and emergency medical response, a field-phone style party line system was installed by The Farm's telephone crew in 1971. Telephone lines were expanded to widely cover even the most remote areas over the following year. Instead of common telephone bell ringers, the first telephones used Morse Code beeps to signal a call.[11] The party line, affectionately known as Beatnik Bell, was eventually enabled in 1971 to route calls via a manual operator interconnect link patch to the outside line. Later, a 500 line Kellogg-ITT Relaymatic rotary dial phone system was installed in PBX configuration, with multiple outside trunk lines gated through a plug-style manual switchboard operator.[12] Basic community antenna CATV cable was later run to some areas along the telephone line paths.

The Farm installed its own water system and water towers. Some individuals initially resisted running electricity mains power lines beyond the administration office and publishing center, with the hope of establishing off-grid decentralized utilities instead. The electrical supply 120/240 VAC mains system evolved from supplying only a few industrial buildings near the main Farm Road in 1971 to the point by the 1980s and 1990s where most areas were covered either by 12 Volt automotive battery trickle charge systems, solar or wind powered systems, or wider coverage of AC mains systems.[11] Most homes phased out the use of kerosene lamps by 1975, as they converted to 12 Volt lighting and RV appliances or re-purposed automotive lighting fixtures. Off-grid low voltage 12 Volt DC systems were also sometimes powered by swapping vehicle batteries.

Wireless communications

The first use of wireless communications on The Farm was in 1971, when a ham radio HF SSB system was set up. Ham radio was used for health and welfare regional communications between mobile ham operators who were on the road with The Farm Band. The Farm Net, as the ham radio network was known, evolved into a worldwide daily operations schedule on 21332 kHz and 21442 kHz Upper Sideband in the 15-meter band, and a regional schedule on the 40-meter ham band.[13] At the network's peak in 1978, The Farm Net included over 40 ham radio operators on associated and affinity communities, as well as many HF SSB mobiles. From its main base station, The Farm Net expanded to cover HF SSB communication links to stations in North America, Africa, and Europe using a field of tall radio towers on The Farm's ridgetop. Ham radio operators from The Farm volunteered with the Plenty International disaster relief operations for the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, with the Greenpeace anti-whaling campaigns, and many humanitarian response efforts worldwide. Ham radio was invaluable for voice communications consultations between doctors and field medical teams, and it included the use of HF slow scan TV for the relatively new concept of telemedicine.[14] The ham radio was also used for technical discussions about alternative sources of energy, a popular topic among the back-to-the-land-movement, especially during the time of the 1970s energy crisis. The Farm's ham radio operators also used CB radios, as the cost of CB transceivers had dropped impressively during the mid-1970s.[11] CB radios were widely adopted by The Farm for mobile general purpose local communications during this time, while CB radio was starting to become a nationwide craze.[11] This eventually led to the writing of the book The Big Dummy's Guide to CB Radio,[15] which became a non-fiction bestseller. The popularity and sales of The Big Dummy's Guide To CB Radio fueled the launch of the Book Publishing Company's new printing presses, and provided much-needed income for The Farm at a crucial time in its growth.[15] Later, The Farm's medical and security communications utilized VHF FM handheld two-way radios.


Solar School Building of The Farm School

The Farm is home to many organizations. These organizations include the following:

  • The Midwifery Center, led by Ina May Gaskin, referred to as "the mother of authentic midwifery."[16]
  • The Ecovillage Training Center, which offers conferences and seminars on organic gardening, permaculture, strawbale construction, and sustainable technologies.
  • Plenty International, an international aid and development NGO that helps indigenous populations, at-risk children, and the environment.
  • Kids To The Country, a Plenty project that brings at-risk kids to The Farm to enjoy nature, to relax and be kids, and to study peace education.
  • More Than Warmth, an educational project for students of all ages to learn about world cultures. It fosters understanding, knowledge, and compassion between cultures through nonviolent, nonpolitical, and nonreligious means.
  • The PeaceRoots Alliance links individuals and groups dedicated to peace efforts around the country and beyond with real projects and actions.
  • The Swan Conservation Trust is an organization dedicated to restoring and preserving natural resources and wildlife habitat.
  • SE International, Inc., designer, manufacturer, and distributor of Radiation Alert detectors, Geiger counters, dosimeters, and ionizing radiation spectrum analyzers.
  • The Book Publishing Company publishes books about sustainable and healthful living. Imprints include Books Alive, Healthy Living Publications, Healthy World Cuisine, Botanica Press, and Native Voices. Most of the books are authored by non-members of The Farm.

The Farm School

File:Farmschool logo.png
The Farm School Logo

The Farm School is a K-12 school that provides alternative education to approximately 20 students on its main campus and over 900 homeschooling students in its Satellite Campus Program.[17] Peter Kindfield, Ph.D., principal.

The school's mission is "Supporting individuals learning together as we interact, form relationships and build community with each other and the rest of the world.."[18]

In the media

The Farm was featured in Peter Jenkins' travel book A Walk Across America. Jenkins lived and worked at the farm in the seventies for some time before continuing his trip.

A feature documentary, "American Commune", about growing up on The Farm has been produced by filmmakers, former residents and sisters, Rena Mundo Croshere and Nadine Mundo.

A book on The Farm written by members and former members and edited by Rupert Fike is available: "Voices from The Farm: Revised Edition.". This revised edition includes many never-before-published images from The Farm's early years.

Another book on The Farm written by Douglas Stevenson is also available: "Out To Change The World." This book too includes many never-before-published images from The Farm's early years.


  1. Michael Gavin, The Farm in The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture,
  2. "Frequently Asked Questions". The Farm. Retrieved 9 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Meunier, Rachel (1994) Communal Living in the Late 60s and Early 70s. Human Issues Project. Retrieved on June 23, 2007.
  4. "How They Keep Them Down On The Farm". Harrowsmith, Reprint (May/June 1977). New York Times. 1 May 1977.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Lattin, Don (2 March 2003). "Twilight of hippiedom / Farm commune's founder envisions return to the fold as ex-dropouts age". San Francisco Chronicle, Newspaper (Morning). The San Francisco Chronicle. SFGate. Retrieved 7 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1
  9. (Kern, 1993)
  10. Lundborg, Patrick. The Acid Archives.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Bates, Albert. "Lifeboats: A Memoir". MariposaGroup. MariposaGroup. Retrieved 7 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Massey, David. "A History of the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company" (PDF). Telephone Archive. Chicago, Illinois, USA: Telephone Archive. Retrieved 7 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Macdonald, Copthorne (1 July 1974). "Using Ham Radio, License Tips and Teleprinters, Using Ham Radio on The Farm". Mother Earth News (July/August 1974 ed.). Kansas, USA: Ogden Publications. Retrieved 7 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Macdonald, Copthorne (1 May 1981). "Human Unity Conference, Ham Radio Networks, and Other Amateur Radio Initiatives". Mother Earth News (May/June 1981 ed.). Topeka, Kansas, USA: Ogden Publications. Retrieved 7 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 Houston; et al. (1976). The Big Dummy's Guide To CB Radio (1st ed.). Summertown, Tenn.: The Book Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 0913990043. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Lorente, Carol. (1995) "Mother of midwifery: Ina May Gaskin hopes to birth a local movement of midwives". Vegetarian Times – Special Women's Health Issue. July. Retrieved on June 23, 2007.
  17. [1], The Farm School website
  18. [2], The Farm School website


  • Stiriss, Melvyn (2015) UPI reporter, a founder and 13-year resident, author/publisher of Voluntary Peasants Labor of Love/The Farm Commune
  • Coate, John (1987). "Life on the Bus and Farm: an Informal Recollection."
  • Fike, Rupert (ed), Voices from The Farm: Adventures in Community Living (1998) ISBN 1-57067-051-X
  • Jenkins, Peter. A Walk Across America. Jenkins discusses his stay at The Farm in Chapters 20 through 22. William Morrow & Co., 1979.
  • Kern, Louis (1993). The Farm Midwives. Retrieved February 1, 2008, from The Farm Web site
  • "Why We Left The Farm", Whole Earth Review #49, Winter 1985, pp 56–66 (stories from eight former members)
  • "Farm Stories", Whole Earth Review #60, Fall 1988, pp 88–101 (reprinted from the WELL, by two former members)

External links