Thomas Beddoes

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Thomas Beddoes
Thomas Beddoes by Bird.jpg
Thomas Beddoes, pencil drawing by Edward Bird
Born (1760-04-13)13 April 1760
Died 24 December 1808(1808-12-24) (aged 48)
Nationality British
Education Bridgnorth Grammar School
Alma mater Pembroke College, Oxford, University of Edinburgh
Occupation Physician
Known for History of Isaac Jenkins
Spouse(s) Anna Maria Edgeworth 1773–1824
Children Thomas Lovell Beddoes

Thomas Beddoes (13 April 1760 – 24 December 1808) was an English physician and scientific writer. He was born in Shifnal, Shropshire. He was a reforming practitioner and teacher of medicine, and an associate of leading scientific figures. He worked to treat tuberculosis.

Beddoes was a friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and, according to E. S. Shaffer, an important influence on Coleridge's early thinking, introducing him to the higher criticism.[1] The poet Thomas Lovell Beddoes was his son. A painting of him by Samson Towgood Roch is in the National Portrait Gallery, London.


Beddoes was born in Shifnal on 13 April 1760 at Balcony House. He was educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School and Pembroke College, Oxford. The he enrolled in the University of Edinburgh's medical course in the early 1780s.[2] There he was taught chemistry by Joseph Black and natural history by John Walker. He also studied medicine in London under John Sheldon (1752–1808). In 1784 he published a translation of Lazzaro Spallanzani's Dissertations on Natural History, and in 1785 produced a translation, with original notes, of Torbern Olof Bergman's Essays on Elective Attractions.[3]

He took his degree of doctor of medicine at Pembroke College, Oxford University in 1786.

In 1794, he married Anna, daughter of his associate at the Bristol Pneumatic Institution, Richard Lovell Edgeworth. Their son, poet Thomas Lovell Beddoes, was born in 1803 in Bristol.


Beddoes visited Paris after 1786, where he became acquainted with Lavoisier. Beddoes was appointed professor of chemistry at Oxford University in 1788.[4] His lectures attracted large and appreciative audiences; but his sympathy with the French Revolution excited a clamour against him, he resigned his readership in 1792. In the following year he published the History of Isaac Jenkins, a story which powerfully exhibits the evils of drunkenness, and of which 40,000 copies are reported to have been sold.[3]

Beddoes addressed tuberculosis, seeking treatments for the disease. He had a clinic in Bristol from 1793 to 1799 and later began the Pneumatic Institution to test various gases for the treatment of tuberculosis. The institution was later changed to a general hospital.

Hope Square, Bristol

Beddoes' first tuberculosis clinic in Bristol, at Hope Square
Plaque: Thomas Beddoes MD (1760–1808). Scientist. Worked here 1793–1799. Clifton and Hotwells Improvement Society
Plaque to Beddoes in Hope Square

Between 1793 and 1799 Beddoes had a clinic at Hope Square, Hotwells in Bristol where he treated patients with tuberculosis. On the principle that butchers seemed to suffer less from tuberculosis than others, he kept cows in a byre alongside the building and encouraged them to breathe on his patients.[5] This became the source of local ridicule, amongst claims that animals were kept in the clinic's bedrooms, against the protests of landlords.[5]

Despite the link he saw between proximity to cows and lower incidence of tuberculosis, he remained sceptical when Edward Jenner began using a cow-derived vaccination for smallpox a few years later.[5]

Bristol Pneumatic Institution

Pneumatic Institution premises,
6 Dowry Square, with 7 to the right

While living in Hotwells he began work on a project to establish an institution for treating disease by the inhalation of different gases, which he called pneumatic medicine.[6][7] He was assisted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. In 1799 the Pneumatic Institution was established at Dowry Square, Hotwells. Its first superintendent was Humphry Davy,[8] who investigated the properties of nitrous oxide in its laboratory. The original aim of the institution was gradually abandoned; it became a general hospital, and was relinquished by its founder in the year before his death.[3]

Beddoes was a man of great powers and wide acquirements, which he directed to noble and philanthropic purposes. He strove to effect social good by popularizing medical knowledge, a work for which his vivid imagination and glowing eloquence eminently fitted him.

— Encyc.Brit (1911), [2]

Selected writings

Besides the writings mentioned above, Beddoes was also associated with the following:

Beddoes edited the second edition of John Brown's Elements of Medicine (1795).


  1. Shaffer, E. S. (1980). Kubla Khan and The Fall of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0521298075.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Beddoes, Thomas (1760–1808). 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 614. Unknown parameter |encyclopedia= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Chisholm 1911.
  4. Cartwright, F.F. (1967). "The Association of Thomas Beddoes, M.D. with James Watt, F.R.S." Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. pp. 131–143. Retrieved 2014-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Mike Jay; John Carey (reviewer) (26 April 2009). "The Atmosphere of Heaven: The Unnatural Experiments of Dr Beddoes and his Sons of Genius". The Sunday Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Miller, D. P.; Levere, T. H. (2008). ""Inhale it and see?" the collaboration between Thomas Beddoes and James Watt in pneumatic medicine". Ambix. 55 (1): 5–28. PMID 18831152.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Stansfield, D. A.; Stansfield, R. G. (1986). "Dr Thomas Beddoes and James Watt: Preparatory work 1794-96 for the Bristol Pneumatic Institute". Medical history. 30 (3): 276–302. doi:10.1017/s0025727300045713. PMC 1139651. PMID 3523076.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Levere, Trevor H (1977). "Dr Thomas Beddoes and the Establishment of His Pneumatic Institution: A Tale of Three Presidents". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 32 (1): 41–49. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1977.0005. PMID 11615622.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "biology, n". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). [ "Beddoes, Thomas" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Barzun, Jacques (1972). Thomas Beddoes M.D. Harper Collins.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> – essay reprinted in A Jacques Barzun Reader (2002)
  •  Garnett, Richard (1885). [ "Beddoes, Thomas (1760-1808)" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 4. London: Smith, Elder & Co.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jay, Mike (2009). The Atmosphere Of Heaven: The Unnatural Experiments of Dr Beddoes and His Sons of Genius. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12439-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Levere, Trevor H. (1981). "Dr. Thomas Beddoes at Oxford: Radical politics in 1788–1793 and the fate of the Regius Chair in Chemistry". Ambix. 28 (2): 61–69. doi:10.1179/000269881790224318. PMID 11615866.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Porter, Roy (1992). Doctor of Society: Thomas Beddoes and the Sick Trade in Late Enlightenment England. London: Routledge.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Robinson, Eric (June 1955). "Thomas Beddoes, M.D., and the reform of science teaching in Oxford". Annals of Science. 11 (2): 137–141. doi:10.1080/00033795500200135.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stansfield, Dorothy A. (1984). Thomas Beddoes, M.D., 1760–1808: Chemist, Physician, Democrat. Springer. ISBN 90-277-1686-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Stock, John Edmonds (1811). Memoirs of the Life of Thomas Beddoes, M.D. London: John Murray.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links