Tiger 131

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Tiger 131
280px
Tiger 131 on display at Tankfest 2012
Location The Tank Museum
Designer Henschel & Son
Type Tiger tank
Length

6.316 m (20 ft 8.7 in)

8.45 m (27 ft 9 in) (gun forward)
Width 3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)
Height 3.0 m (9 ft 10 in)

Tiger 131 is a German Tiger I Heavy tank captured by the British 48th Royal Tank Regiment in Tunisia during World War II. Preserved at The Tank Museum in Bovington, England, it is the only operating Tiger tank in the world.

German service

Known to the Allies as a Tiger I, the German model designation was a Panzerkampfwagen VI, Tiger I (E), SdKfz 181. It was built in Kassel, Germany with the hull being constructed by Henschel while the turret was made by Wegmann A. The tank was completed in January or February 1943 with the chassis number 250122. It was shipped to Tunisia between 12 March and 16 April 1943. The tank was assigned to No. 3 Platoon in No. 1 Company of the 504th Schwere Heerespanzerabteilung (German heavy tank battalion) in Tunisia during the North African Campaign bearing the turret number 131 by which it has come to be known.[1]

Capture

File:Tiger131ricochet.JPG
The damage that immobilized the turret on Tiger 131.

Knowing that the Allies were preparing a major push towards Tunis, the Germans launched a spoiling attack on the night of 20/21 April 1943.[2] Four points were attacked simultaneously, including a pass on the north side of a hill called Djebel Djaffa.[3] Two Tigers and several other tanks advanced through this pass before dawn, and were gradually driven back during the day. Tiger 131 was hit by three shots from 6-pounders from British Churchill tanks of A Squadron, 4 Troop of the 48th Royal Tank Regiment. A solid shot hit the Tiger's gun barrel and ricocheted into its turret ring, jamming its traverse, wounding the driver and front gunner and destroying the radio. A second shot hit the turret lifting lug, disabling the gun's elevation device. A third shot hit the loader's hatch, deflecting fragments into the turret. The German crew bailed out, taking their wounded with them and leaving the knocked-out but still driveable and largely intact tank behind.[4] Their identity and fate are unknown. The tank was secured by the British as they captured Djebel Djaffa hill.[5] Tiger 131 was the first intact Tiger tank captured by British forces.

A 2012 article in the Daily Mail followed by a book by Noel Botham and Bruce Montague entitled Catch that Tiger claimed that Major Douglas Lidderdale, the engineering officer who oversaw the return of Tiger 131 to England, was responsible for the capture of Tiger 131 as the leader of a secret mission appointed by Winston Churchill to obtain a Tiger for Allied intelligence.[6]

Though the account has been considered plausible (if only in light of Churchill's reputation for being 'hands on' in his dealings with military affairs during wartime) it has been rejected by The Tank Museum as inaccurate. The story as told in the book contradicts Lidderdale's own letters and papers written in the years before his death, in which he stated that he was not personally present when the Tiger was captured.[7]

Preservation

File:The British Army in Tunisia 1943 NA3693.jpg
King George VI inspects Tiger 131, Tunis June 1943. The badge of the British First Army has been painted onto the tank

Tiger 131 was repaired with parts from other destroyed Tigers and inspected to judge its performance. It was displayed in Tunis and formally inspected there by King George VI and Winston Churchill. The tank was sent to England in October 1943 where it was displayed as a trophy at various locations to raise wartime morale before it was subjected to extensive testing and evaluation by the School of Tank Technology who produced detailed reports on its construction.[8] The captured tank was transferred to The Tank Museum by the British Ministry of Supply on 25 September 1951 where it was given the accession number 2351 (later E1951.23).

In 1990, the tank was removed from display at the museum for restoration by the museum and the Army Base Repair Organisation. The restoration involved an almost complete disassembly of the tank. The Maybach HL230 engine from the museum's Tiger II was installed as the Tiger's original Maybach HL210 had been cut into cross sections for display. A modern fire-suppressant system was added to the engine compartment, the only other significant alteration.[9] The wear and performance of the refitted Tiger engine was studied by metallurgists to explore the alloys and performance of WW II German manufacturing.[10]

Tiger 131 at The Tank Museum in Bovington, England, 2008.

In December 2003, Tiger 131 returned to the museum with a working engine, making it the only working Tiger tank in the world and the most popular exhibit at the museum.[11] Further work and repainting in period colours completed the restoration in 2012, for a total cost quoted at £80,000.[12]

This tank was used in the 2014 film Fury,[13] the first time a real Tiger has appeared in a feature film since Theirs Is the Glory in 1946 and They Were Not Divided (1950).[13]

See also

References

External links