Timeline of the American-led intervention in Syria

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The following is a timeline of the American-led intervention in Syria.

Timeline

September 2014

On September 22, the United States and other partner nations began undertaking strikes in Syria using fighters, bombers, and Tomahawk missiles in strikes authorized by President Obama.[1] Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were identified as countries conducting or supporting airstrikes the first night.[2] The initial strikes were coordinated by United States Central Command[3] and targeted about 20 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant targets, including headquarters buildings.[4] Sources in Syria claimed that among the targets was also Brigade 93, a Syrian army base that the militants had recently captured and targets in the towns of Tabqa and Tel Abyad in Raqqa province.[5]

The US also targeted the al Qaeda affiliated Al-Nusra Front and the Khorasan Group[6] in the Aleppo and Idlib governorates of Syria.[7]

At least 70 ISIL fighters, 50 fighters affiliated with al-Qaeda, and an unknown number of civilians were killed overnight by the airstrikes, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights while eight strikes were launched against the Khorasan group.[8]

On September 24, the United States and coalition partners conducted a second round of airstrikes on ISIL facilities in Syria. The airstrikes were targeting oil production facilities controlled by ISIL who had been using the oil in order to fund their activities. Some targets were apparently also mobile production facilities which were most likely not refineries.[9]

In a third round of airstrikes on ISIL targets on September 25, Arab partners lead the United States in strikes against militant-held oil facilities in northeastern Syria. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates dropped 80 percent of the bomb tonnage in the third round of strikes, compared to other strikes in which the United States lead Arab partners.[10]

On September 26, the United States carried out a fourth round of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Eastern Syria. The strikes were targeting IS heavy equipment and destroyed four of their tanks in the Deir ez-Zor Province.[11]

In a fifth round of airstrikes in Syria on September 27, the United States lead strikes along with Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces in the Kobanî Canton of Syrian Kurdistan. The strikes destroyed two armored vehicles and an unknown number of fighters in an area that had been put under siege by ISIL militants. The siege by Islamic State fighters had recently forced over 100,000 Syrian Kurds to flee across the border to Turkey.[12]

On September 28 and 29, the United States carried out two rounds of strikes against IS positions across Syria in 4 provinces. Among the facilities targeted was the entrance to the largest gas plant in Syria, in the Deir ez-Zor Province, and ISIL training camp and vehicles near an ISIL controlled grain silo in Manbij, Aleppo province.[13]

October 2014

In an eighth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 1, the United States and coalition partners struck ISIL targets in Northern Syria. The daytime strikes targeted ISIL forces laying siege to Kobanî, a primarily Kurdish city in Syrian Kurdistan, in support of the YPG and Free Syrian Army, who were defending the city.[14]

On October 2, the United States lead a ninth round of strikes along with the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces across Syria. The strikes destroyed an ISIL checkpoint near Kobanî, damaged a tank north of Sinjar Mountain, destroyed a tank west of Ar-Raqqah, and multiple IS facilities east of Aleppo.[15]

In a tenth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 3, the United States, assisted by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates struck ISIL forces in Northern and Eastern Syria. The strikes destroyed an ISIL garrison south of Al-Hasakah, destroyed two tanks southeast of Deir ez-Zor, destroyed two modular oil refineries and a training camp south of Ar-Raqqah, and struck an ISIL building northeast of Aleppo.[16]

On October 4, the United States lead an eleventh round of airstrikes, along with Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, against ISIL forces across Syria. The US and partner nations carried out nine strikes, destroying an ISIL infantry unit, armored personnel carrier, and a vehicle south of Kobanî, destroying a tank and a vehicle southeast of Deir ez-Zor, damaging the Taqba airfield and destroying an artillery piece near Ar-Raqqah, as well as destroying an IS depot and logistics complex south of Al-Hasakah.[17]

In a twelfth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 5, the United States carried out three airstrikes against ISIL forces in Central and Eastern Syria. The strikes destroyed an ISIL bulldozer, two ISIL tanks and another vehicle northwest of Al Mayadin, and destroyed six firing positions and a large ISIL unit northwest of Ar-Raqqah.[18]

On October 6, the United States carried out a thirteenth round of airstrikes in Syria against ISIL forces across Syria. The strikes destroyed an ISIL tank near Taqba airfield west of Ar-Raqqah, destroyed two fighting positions south of Kobanî, and destroyed a tank southeast of Deir ez-Zor.[19]

In a fourteenth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 7, the United States, assisted by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces across Syria. The United States and partner nations carried out nine strikes damaging multiple ISIL controlled buildings west of Al-Hasakah, damaging a staging area and IED production facility northeast of Deir ez-Zor, destroying 3 armed vehicles, damaging one armed vehicle, destroying a vehicle carrying anti-aircraft artillery, destroying an ISIL tank, and an ISIL unit in and around Kobanî, as well as killing a small group of fighters southwest of Rabiyah.[20]

On October 8, the United States lead a fifteenth round of airstrikes along with the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces across Syria. The US and the United Arab Emirates carried out nine strikes destroying an armored personnel carrier, four armed vehicles, an artillery piece, and damaged another armed vehicle in and around Kobanî, striking an ISIL training camp and fighters northwest of Ar-Raqqah, and destroying a tank northwest of Deir ez-Zor.[21]

In a sixteenth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 9, the United States carried out nine airstrikes in the areas in and around the border town of Kobanî that is under siege. The US carried out six airstrikes south of Kobanî that destroyed two ISIL-held buildings, one tank and one heavy machine gun along, a fighting position along with one large and two small ISIL units. Along with strikes south of Kobanî, the US carried out three airstrikes north of Kobanî which struck two small ISIL units and destroyed two ISIL-held buildings.[22]

On October 10, the United States led a seventeenth round of airstrikes along with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces across Syria. The US and coalition partners carried out nine strikes, destroying two ISIL training facilities, three vehicles, damaging a tank and striking two ISIL units in and around Kobanî. The strikes also destroyed an armored vehicle staging facility east of Deir ez-Zor and struck a small ISIL unit northeast of Al-Hasakah.[23]

In an eighteenth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 11, the United States carried out six airstrikes in and around the border town of Kobanî that is under siege by ISIL forces. The US carried out four strikes north of Kobanî striking a fighting position, damaging a command and control facility, destroying a staging building, and striking two small ISIL units. South of Kobanî, two airstrikes destroyed three trucks.[24]

On October 12, the United States led a nineteenth round of airstrikes along with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates against ISIL forces across Syria. The US and partner nations carried out four strikes, three in Kobanî, destroying a fighting position and a staging area, and one strike northwest of Ar-Raqqah, destroying an armored vehicle compound.[25]

Also, on October 12, the United States announced that the Turkish government had approved the use of Turkish military bases by coalition forces fighting ISIL in Syria and Iraq. These installations will include key bases only 100 miles from the Syrian border and important US military bases in Turkey such as the Incirlik Air Base.[26][27] Despite the announcement of Turkish government approval, on October 13, Turkish officials denied that any agreement had been made over coalition use of Turkish Airbases including Incirlik.[28]

In a twentieth round of airstrikes in Syria on October 13, the United States and Saudi Arabia carried out eight airstrikes against ISIL forces in Syria. The United States and Saudi Arabia carried out seven strikes in and around Kobanî, striking a large ISIL unit, two small units; damaging one staging location and destroying another, destroying a heavy-machine-gun firing position, destroying three buildings, and damaging two others. One other strike northwest of Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL garrison.[29]

On October 14, the United States and Saudi Arabia carried out the twenty-first round and the largest set of strikes against ISIL in Syria since the beginning of the intervention, with twenty-one strikes against targets in and around Kobanî, and an additional strike near Deir ez-Zor. According to the Department of Defense, the strikes were designed to interdict ISIL reinforcements and resupply zones and prevent ISIL from massing combat power on the Kurdish held portions of Kobanî. The strikes destroyed two staging locations and damaged another, destroyed one ISIL building and damaged two others, damaged three ISIL compounds, destroyed one truck, one armed vehicle, and one other vehicle near Kobanî in support of Kurdish forces resisting the siege of the town. In addition to those targets, the airstrikes struck seven staging areas, two mortar positions, three ISIL occupied buildings, and an artillery storage facility. An additional strike near Deir ez-Zor struck a modular oil refinery.[30]

In a twenty-second round of airstrikes on October 15, the United States carried out eighteen strikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed multiple fighting positions and also successfully struck sixteen ISIL-occupied buildings.[31]

On October 16, the United States carried out a twenty-third round of airstrikes with fourteen airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî striking nineteen ISIL controlled-buildings, two command posts, three fighting positions, three sniper positions, one staging location, and one heavy machine gun position.[32]

In a twenty-fourth round of airstrikes on October 17, the United States carried out seven airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî and in north-eastern Syria. Six airstrikes took place near Kobanî, striking three ISIL controlled buildings; destroyed two fighting positions, suppressed three fighting positions, and destroyed two vehicles. One other airstrike near Al-Shaddadeh struck ISIL controlled oil collection equipment, including several petroleum, oil, and lubricants tanks, and a pump station.[33]

On October 20, the United States carried out a twenty-fifth round of airstrikes, with six airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed ISIL fighting positions, ISIL mortar positions, a vehicle, and one stray equipment supply bundle from a U.S. airdrop of Kurdish supplies in order to prevent the supplies from being captured.[34]

In a twenty-sixth round of airstrikes on October 21, the United States carried out four airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed several ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL controlled building, and a large ISIL unit.[35] The British Royal Air Force began operating over Syria in a surveillance role on the same date, making the UK the first Western country other than the United States to operate in both Iraq and Syria simultaneously.[36]

On October 22, the United States carried out a twenty-seventh round of airstrikes with six airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed several ISIL fighting positions, two ISIL vehicles, an ISIL controlled building and an ISIL logistical center.[37]

In a twenty-eighth round of airstrikes on October 23, the United States carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Four strikes destroyed several ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL vehicle, and an ISIL command and control center near Kobanî. Two strikes east of Deir ez-Zor destroyed several ISIL oil holding tanks.[38]

On October 24, the United States carried out a twenty-ninth round of airstrikes with six airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed an ISIL vehicle and struck three ISIL units.[39]

In a thirtieth round of airstrikes on October 25, the United States carried out one strike near Kobanî, destroying an ISIL artillery piece.[40]

On October 26, the United States carried out a thirty-first round of airstrikes with five airstrikes against ISIL targets near Kobanî, destroying seven ISIL vehicles and an ISIL-controlled building.[41]

In a thirty-second round of airstrikes on October 27, the United States carried out four strikes near Kobanî, destroying five ISIL vehicles and an ISIL occupied building.[42]

On October 28, the United States carried out a thirty-third round of airstrikes, with four airstrikes against ISIL targets near Kobanî, destroying four ISIL fighting positions and a small ISIL unit.[43]

In a thirty-fourth round of airstrikes on October 29, the United States carried out eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî. The strikes destroyed five ISIL fighting positions, a small ISIL unit, six ISIL vehicles, an ISIL controlled building, and an ISIL command and control node.[44]

On October 30, the United States carried out a thirty-fifth round of airstrikes, with twelve airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî, as well as targets near Deir ez-Zor and Ar-Raqqah. 10 strikes near Kobanî struck two small ISIL units, destroyed seven ISIL fighting positions, and five ISIL controlled buildings. One strike near Deir ez-Zor damaged an ISIL headquarters building while another strike near Ar-Raqqah damaged an ISIL security building.[45]

In a thirty-sixth round of airstrikes on October 31, the United States carried out four airstrikes in and around Kobanî, damaging four ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL controlled building.[46]

November 2014

On November 1, the United States carried out a thirty-seventh round of airstrikes with five airstrikes against ISIL targets in and around Kobanî. The strikes suppressed or destroyed nine ISIL fighting positions, and struck one ISIL-controlled building.[47]

In a thirty-eighth round of airstrikes on November 2, the United States carried out seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck five small ISIL units and destroyed three ISIL vehicles. Two airstrikes southeast of Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL tank and two vehicle shelters.[47]

On November 3, the United States and coalition partners carried out a thirty-ninth round of airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Four airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck an ISIL fighting position, a small ISIL unit, and destroyed two ISIL controlled buildings. One airstrike near Deir ez-Zor damaged an ISIL controlled building.[47]

In a fortieth round of airstrikes on November 4 and 5, the United States carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî and north of Sinjar just across the Iraqi-Syrian border into Syria. Three airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck a small ISIL unit, two ISIL fighting positions, and an ISIL dump truck that was used in the construction of fighting positions. One airstrike north of Sinjar destroyed an ISIL fighting position used to launch mortar attacks, and struck a small ISIL unit manning the position. Two additional strikes north of Sinjar struck a small ISIL unit and destroyed an ISIL armored vehicle.[48]

On November 6 and 7, the United States carried out a forty-first round of airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Tal Abyad. Seven strikes in and around Kobanî struck three small ISIL units, seven ISIL fighting positions, and destroyed an ISIL artillery piece. One airstrike near Tal Abyad destroyed an ISIL weapons stockpile.[49]

In a forty-second round of airstrikes between November 8 and November 10, the United States carried out twenty-three airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Thirteen airstrikes conducted in and around Kobanî struck an ISIL vehicle and five small ISIL units, destroyed an ISIL-occupied building used as an ammunition stockpile, an ISIL command and control building, and seven ISIL fighting positions, as well as damaging two ISIL fighting positions. In addition, eight airstrikes southeast of Deir ez-Zor damaged several structures of an ISIL oil collection facility, which was used to trans-load oil for the black market, while two airstrikes east of Deir ez-Zor damaged an ISIL oil collection point.[50]

Between November 11 and 12, the United States carried out a forty-third round of airstrikes with sixteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Al-Hasakah. Ten airstrikes conducted in and around Kobanî struck eight small ISIL units, damaged three ISIL fighting positions, and destroyed an ISIL logistics facility. Additionally, four airstrikes near Deir ez-Zor damaged an ISIL crude oil collection facility, struck a small ISIL unit, and damaged an ISIL vehicle. Two airstrikes near Al-Hasakah damaged a crude oil collection point.[51]

In a forty-fourth round of airstrikes between November 13 and 14, the United States carried out twenty airstrikes in and around Kobanî, east of Deir ez-Zor, west of Aleppo, and east of Ar-Raqqah. Seventeen airstrikes conducted in and around Kobanî struck 10 ISIL units, destroyed 10 fighting positions, an ISIL controlled building, two ISIL vehicles, and an ISIL motorcycle. One airstrike east of Ar-Raqqah destroyed an ISIL training camp and another airstrike east of Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL oil collection point. One other airstrike west of Aleppo struck militants associated with the Khorasan group.[52]

Between November 15 and 17, the United States carried out a forty-fifth round of airstrikes with eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed seven ISIL fighting positions, suppressed an ISIL fighting position, destroyed four ISIL staging areas, and struck one tactical ISIL unit. Two airstrikes near Deir ez-Zor struck an ISIL crude oil collection facility and destroyed one ISIL tank.[47]

In a forty-sixth round of airstrikes between November 18 and 19, the United States carried out seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî, southeast of Al-Hasakah, and near Hazm. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed an ISIL fighting position, an ISIL staging area and three ISIL controlled buildings, suppressed two ISIL fighting positions, struck two tactical ISIL units, and a large ISIL unit. One airstrike southeast of Al-Hasakah damaged a crude oil collection point operated by ISIL while another airstrike near Hazm struck and destroyed a storage facility associated with the Khorasan Group.[53]

Between November 20 and 21, the United States and coalition partners carried out a forty-seventh round of airstrikes with seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Ar-Raqqah. Six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed four ISIL staging areas, two ISIL controlled buildings, two ISIL tactical units, and suppressed an ISIL fighting position. One airstrike near Ar-Raqqah damaged an ISIL barracks building.[47]

In a forty-eighth round of airstrikes between November 22 and 24, the United States and coalition partners carried out nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Ar-Raqqah. Seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed three ISIL fighting positions along with two ISIL staging areas, damaged an ISIL staging area, and suppressed four ISIL fighting positions. Two strikes near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL headquarters building.[54]

Between November 25 and 26, the United States carried out a forty-ninth round of airstrikes with ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî striking an ISIL fighting position, a large ISIL unit, two tactical ISIL units, and destroying four ISIL staging areas as well as six ISIL fighting positions.[55]

In a fiftieth round of airstrikes between November 27 and 28, the United States carried out two airstrikes near Kobanî and Aleppo. One airstrike near Kobanî struck an ISIL fighting position as well as an ISIL staging area while one airstrike near Aleppo struck a tactical ISIL unit.[47]

Between November 29 and December 1, the United States carried out a fifty-first round of airstrikes with twenty-seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Ar-Raqqah, and near Aleppo. Seventeen airstrikes near Kobanî destroyed two ISIL-occupied buildings, three ISIL tanks, three ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL armored personnel carrier, three ISIL vehicles and two ISIL staging areas, as well as striking seven tactical ISIL units, targeting six ISIL fighting positions and damaging an ISIL controlled building. Nine airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL electronic warfare garrison, an ISIL military garrison, an ISIL headquarters building, an ISIL jamming system, an ISIL tank and fourteen ISIL vehicles while one airstrike near Aleppo struck a target associated with the Khorasan Group.[56]

December 2014

In a fifty-second round of airstrikes between December 1 and 3, the United States carried out fourteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroying an ISIL vehicle, seventeen ISIL fighting positions, and an ISIL staging area as well as suppressing eight other fighting positions and striking a large ISIL unit.[57]

Between December 4 and 8, the United States and coalition partners carried out a fifty-third round of airstrikes with fifteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Ar-Raqqah. Fourteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed four ISIL fighting positions, three ISIL-occupied buildings, two ISIL staging areas, two ISIL tanks, an ISIL motorcycle, a mortar, and struck eight tactical ISIL units along with two ISIL fighting positions. One airstrike near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL electronic warfare garrison.[58]

In a fifty-fourth round of airstrikes between December 9 and 10, the United States carried out seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroying five ISIL fighting positions, striking three ISIL fighting positions, and striking a large ISIL unit.[59]

Between December 11 and 12, the United States and coalition partners carried out a fifty-fifth round of airstrikes with seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Aleppo, and near Al-Qa'im. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed five ISIL fighting positions and struck one ISIL fighting position. One airstrike near Aleppo struck five ISIL-occupied buildings while another airstrike near Al-Qa'im on the Syrian border destroyed two ISIL fortifications.[60]

In a fifty-sixth round of airstrikes between December 13 and 15, the United States and coalition partners carried out nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Bukamal. Eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed nine ISIL fighting positions, two ISIL controlled buildings, and two ISIL staging positions as well as striking one ISIL fighting position. One airstrike near Al-Bukamal destroyed an ISIL vehicle.[61]

Between December 16 and 17, the United States and coalition partners carried out a fifty-seventh round of airstrikes with six airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Bukamal. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed an ISIL controlled building, one ISIL staging area, one ISIL bunker, and an ISIL mortar as well as striking two ISIL tactical units, two additional buildings, and two ISIL fighting positions. One airstrike near Al-Bukamal destroyed an ISIL tactical vehicle.[62]

In a fifty-eighth round of airstrikes on December 18, the United States and coalition partners carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroying seven ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL building as well as striking an ISIL tactical unit.[63]

On December 19, the United States and coalition partners carried out a fifty-ninth round of airstrikes with four strikes in and around Kobanî and near Ar-Raqqah. Three airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed two ISIL controlled buildings and an ISIL staging area as well as striking two ISIL tactical units. One airstrike near Ar-Raqqah damaged an ISIL training compound.[64]

In a sixtieth round of airstrikes on December 20, the United States and coalition partners carried out five airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroying eight ISIL fighting positions.[47]

On December 21, the United States and coalition partners carried out a sixty-first round of airstrikes with three strikes in and around Kobanî destroying an ISIL staging position and two ISIL fighting positions as well as striking two ISIL fighting positions.[47]

In a sixty-second round of airstrikes on December 22, the United States and coalition partners carried out twelve airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Aleppo, near Al-Hasakah, and near Ar-Raqqah. Six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed six ISIL fighting positions as well as striking four ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL tactical unit. Three airstrikes near Aleppo destroyed artillery equipment and struck 10 ISIL buildings, two airstrikes near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL tactical vehicle, two ISIL trucks, an ISIL building, and two ISIL storage containers, and one airstrike near Ar-Raqqah destroyed an ISIL checkpoint complex.[65]

On December 23, the United States and coalition partners carried out a sixty-third round of airstrikes with seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Bargooth. Six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed seven ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL building and struck several ISIL fighting positions with one airstrike near Barghooth striking ISIL oil collection equipment.[66]

In a sixty-fourth round of airstrikes on December 24, the United States and coalition partners carried out ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Ar-Raqqah. Eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed five ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL building, an ISIL staging position, as well as striking three ISIL tactical units, an ISIL tactical vehicle and an ISIL fighting position. One airstrike near Deir ez-Zor struck a crude oil collection point and another airstrike near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL weapons stockpile.[47]

On December 25, the United States and coalition partners carried out a sixty-fifth round of airstrikes with fifteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Al-Hasakah, and near Ar-Raqqah. Thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed three ISIL buildings, one ISIL vehicle, 17 ISIL fighting positions, two ISIL staging positions as well as striking two ISIL fighting positions, three large ISIL units and four ISIL tactical units. One airstrike near Al-Hasakah struck an ISIL drilling tower and destroyed 2 ISIL support vehicles and another airstrike near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL assembly area.[47]

In a sixty-sixth round of airstrikes on December 26, the United States and coalition partners carried out four airstrikes in and around Kobanî, destroying three ISIL buildings and two ISIL vehicles.[47]

On December 29, the United States and coalition partners carried out a sixty-seventh round of airstrikes with twelve airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Ar-Raqqah. Ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed 11 ISIL fighting positions, two ISIL buildings, and an ISIL storage container as well as striking an ISIL tactical unit. One airstrike near Deir ez-Zor struck several ISIL controlled buildings while another airstrike near Ar-Raqqah also struck several ISIL controlled buildings.[67]

In a sixty-eighth round of airstrikes on December 30, the United States and coalition partners carried out seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed three ISIL buildings, damaged one ISIL building, and struck an ISIL tactical unit while one airstrike near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL shipping container.[68]

On December 31, the United States and coalition partners carried out a sixty-ninth round of airstrikes with seven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed five ISIL buildings and six ISIL fighting positions while two airstrikes near Al-Hasakah destroyed four oil derricks controlled by ISIL.[69]

January 2015

In a seventieth round of airstrikes on January 1, 2015, the United States and coalition partners carried out seventeen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Ar-Raqqah. Thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed 12 ISIL controlled buildings, four ISIL fighting positions, one ISIL vehicle as well as striking two ISIL tactical units and two large ISIL units. Two airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah destroyed five ISIL checkpoints and struck an ISIL staging area, while two airstrikes near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL fighting position and struck an ISIL shipping container.[47]

On January 2, the United States and coalition partners carried out a seventy-first round of airstrikes with thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Ar-Raqqah, and near Al-Hasakah. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck a large ISIL unit and an ISIL fighting position and destroyed four ISIL buildings, 10 ISIL fighting positions, and an ISIL tank. Two airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah destroyed 20 ISIL armored vehicles while one airstrike near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL armored vehicle.[70]

In a seventy-second round of airstrikes on January 3, the United States and coalition partners carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî striking an ISIL tactical unit as well as an ISIL fighting position and destroying three ISIL vehicles, four ISIL buildings, three ISIL fighting positions, and two ISIL staging areas.[47]

Between January 4 and 5, the United States and coalition partners carried out a seventy-third round of airstrikes with fourteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two large ISIL units and an ISIL fighting position as well as destroying 11 ISIL fighting positions while six airstrikes near Deir ez-Zor struck five ISIL crude oil collection points and an ISIL crude oil pipeline while destroying two ISIL armored vehicles and an ISIL shipping container.[71]

In a seventy-third round of airstrikes on January 6, the United States and coalition partners carried out ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Ar-Raqqah. Eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed 13 ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL building and damaged an ISIL building. One airstrike near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL bunker while one strike near Ar-Raqqah destroyed two ISIL tanks.[72]

On January 7, the United States and coalition partners carried out a seventy-fourth round of airstrikes with eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. 10 airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck an ISIL tactical unit, four ISIL fighting positions, and an ISIL heavy weapons position as well as destroying an ISIL artillery system, an ISIL building, and 13 ISIL fighting positions. One airstrike near Al-Hasakah struck an ISIL crude oil collection point.[47]

In a seventy-fifth round of airstrikes on January 8, the United States and coalition partners carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL staging area and destroyed four ISIL fighting positions while one airstrike near Al-Hasakah struck four ISIL crude oil pumps and five ISIL crude oil well heads.[73]

On January 9, the United States and coalition partners carried out a seventy-sixth round of airstrikes with five airstrikes in and around Kobanî that struck an ISIL fighting position and two ISIL tactical units and destroyed an ISIL building and seven ISIL fighting positions.[74]

In a seventy-seventh round of airstrikes on January 10, the United States and coalition partners carried out twelve airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. Eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two large ISIL units and an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed an ISIL building and 15 fighting positions. One airstrike near Al-Hasakah destroyed two ISIL guard facilities.[75]

On January 11, the United States and coalition partners carried out a seventy-eighth round of airstrikes with ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Bukamal. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed 15 ISIL fighting positions while one airstrike near Al-Bukamal struck an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed an ISIL shipping container, an ISIL vehicle and an ISIL supply cache.[76]

In a seventy-ninth round of airstrikes on January 12, the United States and coalition partners carried out eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Deir ez-Zor, and near Al-Bukamal. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two large ISIL units and an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed 10 ISIL fighting positions, five ISIL buildings and two ISIL staging positions. One airstrikes near Al-Bukamal destroyed an ISIL excavator while one airstrike near Deir ez-Zor struck an ISIL oil refinery.[77]

On January 13, the United States and coalition partners carried out an eightieth round of airstrikes with four airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Three airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroyed five ISIL fighting positions while one airstrike near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL tank.[78]

In an eighty-first round of airstrikes on January 14, the United States and coalition partners carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî striking an ISIL fighting position and destroyed eight ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL armored vehicle.[79]

On January 15, the United States and coalition partners carried out an eighty-second round of airstrikes with eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Al-Hasakah, and near Ar-Raqqah. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck an ISIL tactical unit and an ISIL building and destroyed four ISIL fighting positions. Three airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL weapon storage facility and an ISIL tactical unit and destroyed five ISIL buildings and an ISIL vehicle while three airstrikes near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL checkpoint, an ISIL fighting position, and three ISIL vehicles.[80]

In an eighty-third round of airstrikes on January 16, the United States and coalition partners carried out six airstrikes in and around Kobanî destroying two ISIL staging positions and nine ISIL fighting positions near Kobani.[81]

Between January 17 and 19, the United States and coalition partners carried out an eighty-fourth round of airstrikes with fifteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Al-Hasakah, and near Aleppo. Eleven airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two large ISIL units and eight ISIL tactical units and destroyed three ISIL fighting positions, two ISIL staging positions, and an ISIL vehicle. One airstrike near Aleppo struck an ISIL tactical unit and three airstrikes near Al-Hasakah struck two ISIL tactical units and an ISIL artillery system.[47]

In an eighty-fifth round of airstrikes on January 20, the United States and coalition partners carried out ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck seven ISIL tactical units and destroyed four ISIL staging positions, five ISIL fighting positions, four ISIL vehicles, and an ISIL mortar system while one airstrike near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL bunker.[47]

On January 21, the United States and coalition partners carried out an eighty-sixth round of airstrikes with thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Al-Bukamal, and near Ar-Raqqah. Ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck seven ISIL tactical units and a large ISIL unit and destroyed eight ISIL staging positions, 13 ISIL fighting positions and two ISIL vehicles. One airstrike near Al-Bukamal destroyed an ISIL bunker while two airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah struck an ISIL tactical unit and an ISIL weapon cache and destroyed an ISIL guard facility.[82]

In an eighty-seventh round of airstrikes on January 22, the United States and coalition partners carried out ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Ar-Raqqah. Nine airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck six ISIL tactical units and destroyed 17 ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL vehicle while one airstrike near Ar-Raqqah destroyed an ISIL weapons storage facility.[83]

On January 23, the United States and coalition partners carried out an eighty-eighth round of airstrikes with twelve airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Ar-Raqqah, and near Al-Hasakah. Ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck six ISIL tactical units and a large ISIL unit and destroyed 12 ISIL fighting positions and an ISIL vehicle. One airstrike near Ar-Raqqah destroyed an ISIL trailer and one airstrike near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL mobile oil drilling rig.[84]

In an eighty-ninth round of airstrikes on January 24, the United States and coalition partners carried out thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Al-Hasakah. Twelve airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck eight ISIL tactical units and a large ISIL unit and destroyed an ISIL vehicle, an ISIL building, and eight ISIL fighting positions while one airstrike near Al-Hasakah destroyed an ISIL mobile oil drilling rig.[85]

Between January 25 and 26, the United States and coalition partners carried out a ninetieth round of airstrikes with twenty one airstrikes in and around Kobanî, near Al-Qa'im, near Ar-Raqqah, and near Deir ez-Zor. Seventeen airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck 14 ISIL tactical units, a large ISIL unit and two ISIL fighting positions and destroyed six ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL vehicle and an ISIL staging area. One airstrike near Al-Qa'im destroyed three ISIL armored vehicles, two airstrikes near Ar-Raqqah destroyed six ISIL armored vehicles and an ISIL vehicle, and one airstrike near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL armored vehicle.[86]

In a ninety-first round of airstrikes between January 27 and 28, the United States and coalition partners carried out thirteen airstrikes in and around Kobanî striking 12 ISIL tactical units and an ISIL vehicle, and destroyed nine ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL staging area, and three ISIL buildings.[87]

On January 29, the United States and coalition partners carried out a ninety-second round of airstrikes with six airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Five airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck an ISIL fighting position, three ISIL tactical units, and a large ISIL unit while one airstrike near Deir ez-Zor destroyed an ISIL crude oil collection point.[88]

In a ninety-third round of airstrikes on January 30, the United States and coalition partners carried out two airstrikes in and around Kobanî striking two ISIL staging positions and destroyed two ISIL fighting positions and one ISIL vehicle.[89]

On January 31, the United States and coalition partners carried out a ninety-fourth round of airstrikes with ten airstrikes in and around Kobanî and near Deir ez-Zor. Eight airstrikes in and around Kobanî struck two ISIL tactical units and an ISIL building and destroyed five ISIL fighting positions, an ISIL vehicle, an ISIL artillery system and an ISIL staging position. Two airstrikes near Deir ez-Zor destroyed four ISIL buildings, an ISIL bunker, and an ISIL vehicle.[90]

September 2015

In early September, reports began to surface that CENTCOM intelligence were complaining that their reports were being manipulated by the Obama Administration to give a rosier picture of the war. Eventually, 50 intelligence analysts would sign on to a complaint to the Pentagon's Inspector General regarding the manipulation.[91]

October 2015

President Obama ordered several dozen Special Operations troops into Kurdish-controlled territory in northern Syria to assist local fighters battling the Islamic State, authorizing the first open-ended mission by American ground forces into the country.[92]


November 2015

After the deadly attacks in Paris, French President Francois Hollande sent its only aircraft carrier, the Charles de Gaulle, with its 26 fighters to intensify air strikes.[93]

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