Torzhok

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Torzhok (English)
Торжок (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Town of oblast significance[1]
Torzhok 018.jpg
View of Torzhok
Map of Russia - Tver Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tver Oblast in Russia
Torzhok is located in Tver Oblast
Torzhok
Torzhok
Location of Torzhok in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Coat of Arms of Torzhok (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Torzhok (Tver oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of December 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Torzhok Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Torzhoksky District,[2] Torzhok Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of September 2006)
Urban okrug Torzhok Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Torzhok Urban Okrug,[3] Torzhoksky Municipal District[3]
Mayor[citation needed] Yevgeny Ignatov[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 47,644 inhabitants[4]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[5]
First mentioned 1139[6]
Town status since 1775[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 172000-172011
Dialing code(s) +7 48251[citation needed]
Official website
Torzhok on Wikimedia Commons

Torzhok (Russian: Торжо́к) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Tvertsa River along the federal highway M10 and a branch of the Oktyabrskaya Railway division of the Russian Railways. The town is famous for its folk craft of goldwork embroidery. Population: 47,644 (2010 Census);[4] 48,967 (2002 Census);[8] 49,982 (1989 Census).[9]

History

Historical affiliations

Novgorod Republic 1139–1478
Grand Duchy of Moscow 1478–1547
Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
 Russian Empire 1721–1917
Russia Russian Republic 1917
Soviet Russia 1917–1922
 Soviet Union 1922–1991
 Russian Federation 1991–present

General view of the town in the 1910s

Torzhok was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1139 as Novy Torg.[6] The Mongols burned it in 1238, but did not proceed northward to Novgorod. At that time, the town commanded the only route whereby grain was delivered to Novgorod. Once Torzhok blocked the route, a great shortage of grain and famine in Novgorod would follow. Consequently, Torzhok was known as a key to the Novgorod Republic and frequently changed hands during feudal internecine wars.

The town was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow with the rest of the Novgorod Republic in 1478. The Polish army frequently ravaged it during the Time of Troubles. During the imperial period, Torzhok was known as an important post station on the highway from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Alexander Pushkin, for instance, used to pass through Torzhok on a number of occasions, and there is a museum dedicated to him in the town.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Torzhok was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and Torzhok was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate. In 1775, Novotorzhsky Uyezd was established, with the center in Torzhok, and Torzhok was granted town status.[6]

On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Novotorzhsky District, with the administrative center in Torzhok, was established within Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Novotorzhsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[10] In February 1963, during the abortive administrative reform by Nikita Khrushchev, Torzhoksky, Likhoslavlsky, and Kamensky District were merged into a new district which was called Torzhoksky District. On March 4, 1964 Likhoslavlsky District, and on January 12, 1965 Kuvshinovsky District (which occupied the same area as the former Kamensky District) were re-established. Torzhoksky District retained the new name.[10] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Torzhok serves as the administrative center of Torzhoksky District,[2] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Torzhok Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Torzhok Okrug is incorporated as Torzhok Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy

Torzhok has twenty-two large and medium-sized industrial enterprises.[citation needed] Two of them are especially significant. JSC Pozhtekhnika and OAO Torzhok Plant Printing Inks account for 70% of all industrial output.

Transportation

A railway line which connects Likhoslavl with Soblago via Selizharovo runs through Torzhok. Another railway line branches off in Torzhok and heads south to Rzhev via Vysokoye. Both lines are served by infrequent passenger traffic.

The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, passes close to Torzhok. A road to Ostashkov branches off to the west. There is also a road connecting Torzhok with Staritsa. There are local roads as well, with the bus traffic originating from Torzhok.

Architecture

Architectural monuments of Torzhok include a number of parish churches, dating back to the late 17th or early 18th centuries. Under Catherine the Great, the old monastery of Sts. Boris and Gleb was redesigned in Neoclassical style by a local landowner, Prince Lvov. The main city church is the Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral, founded in 1374. The current edifice was consecrated in 1822. There is also Catherine the Great's diminutive travel palace.

Military

There is an air base located near the town which has in residence the 344th Center for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel of Army Aviation.[11] The center operates the "Golden Eagles" combat helicopter aerobatic team. The 696th Regiment tests all current models and modifications of Russian military helicopters. The center uses Ka-50, Mi-8, Mi-24, Mi-26, and Mil Mi-28Н helicopters for training purposes.

In 2002 the center consisted of the:[11]

  • 696th Research-Instructor Helicopter Regiment (Troop Transport Helicopters) (Torzhok, Tver Oblast)
  • 92nd Research-Instructor Helicopter Squadron (Sokol, Vladimir Oblast)
  • 118th independent Helicopter Squadron (Chebenki, Orenburg Oblast) (though on 1.12.07 absorbed by the 4215th Aircraft Reserve Base)
  • 2881st Helicopter Reserve Base (Totskoye-2, Orenburg Oblast)
  • Kushalino test range (from 2005) (Military Unit: 15478)

Notable people

Painter Alexej von Jawlensky was the native of Torzhok.

International relations

Tvertsa Embankment

Twin towns and sister cities

Torzhok is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #34-ZO
  2. 2.0 2.1 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 254», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 254, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Law #4-ZO
  4. 4.0 4.1 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 472-74. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 1 March 2014. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/schools/344tsbppls.htm
  12. "Savonlinnan ystävyyskaupungit". savonlinna.fi. Retrieved 26 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #66-ZO of October 1, 2014 On Amending Article 18 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Template:RussiaAdmMunRef/tve/munlist0

Further reading

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External links