Junge in 1945
16 March 1920
Munich, Bavaria, Germany
|Died||10 February 2002
Munich, Bavaria, Germany
|Cause of death||Cancer|
|Occupation||Secretary, sub-editor science reporter|
|Known for||Adolf Hitler's personal secretary during the Second World War|
|Spouse(s)||Hans Junge (killed in combat in 1944)|
|Parent(s)||Max Humps and Hildegard Humps (née Zottmann)|
|Relatives||Sister; Inge Humps|
Gertraud "Traudl" Junge (née Humps; 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitler's last private secretary from December 1942 to April 1945. After typing out Hitler’s will, she remained in the Berlin Führerbunker until his death. She was arrested in June 1945, imprisoned and interrogated by both the Soviet and the American military. Later, in post-war West Germany, she worked as a secretary. Junge remained in obscurity until her old age, when she decided to publish her memoirs, claiming ignorance of the Nazi atrocities during the war, but blaming herself for missing opportunities to investigate reports about them. Her story has been part of several dramatizations, in particular the 2004 German film Downfall (Der Untergang).
Gertraud "Traudl" Humps was born in Munich, the daughter of a master brewer and lieutenant in the Reserve Army, Max Humps and his wife Hildegard (née Zottmann). She had a sister, Inge, born in 1923. She once expressed her desire to become a ballerina as a teenager.
Working for Hitler
Traudl Junge began working for Hitler in December 1942. She was the youngest of his private secretaries.
"I was 22 and I didn't know anything about politics; it didn't interest me", Junge said decades later, also saying that she felt great guilt for "...liking the greatest criminal ever to have lived."
She said, "I admit, I was fascinated by Adolf Hitler. He was a pleasant boss and a fatherly friend. I deliberately ignored all the warning voices inside me and enjoyed the time by his side, almost until the bitter end. It wasn't what he said, but the way he said things and how he did things."
At Hitler's encouragement, in June 1943, Junge married Waffen-SS officer Hans Hermann Junge (1914–1944), who died in combat in France in August 1944. She worked at Hitler's side in Berlin, the Berghof in Berchtesgaden, at Wolfsschanze in East Prussia, and lastly back in Berlin in the Führerbunker.
In 1945, Junge was with Hitler in Berlin. During Hitler's last days in Berlin, he would regularly eat lunch with his secretaries Junge and Gerda Christian. After the war, Junge recalled Gerda asking Hitler if he would leave Berlin. This was firmly rejected by Hitler. Both women recalled that Hitler in conversation made it clear that his body must not fall into the hands of the Soviets. He would shoot himself. Junge typed Hitler's last private and political will and testament in the Führerbunker a day and a half before his suicide. Junge later wrote that while she was playing with the Goebbels children on 30 April, "Suddenly [...] there is the sound of a shot, so loud, so close, that we all fall silent. It echoes on through all the rooms. 'That was a direct hit,' cried Helmut [Goebbels] with no idea how right he is. The Führer is dead now."
On 1 May, Junge left the Führerbunker with a group led by Waffen-SS Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke. Also in the group were Hitler's personal pilot Hans Baur, chief of Hitler's Reichssicherheitsdienst (RSD) bodyguard Hans Rattenhuber, secretary Gerda Christian, secretary Else Krüger, Hitler's dietician Constanze Manziarly and Dr. Ernst-Günther Schenck. Junge, Christian and Krüger made it out of Berlin to the River Elbe. The remainder of the group were found by Soviet troops on 2 May while hiding in a cellar off the Schönhauser Allee. The Soviet Army handed those who had been in the Führerbunker over to SMERSH for interrogation, to reveal what had occurred in the bunker during the closing weeks of the war.
Although Junge had reached the Elbe, she was unable to reach the western Allied lines, and so she went back to Berlin. Getting there about a month after she had left, she had hoped to take a train to the west when they began running again. On 9 July, after living there for about a week under the alias "Gerda Alt", she was arrested by two civilian members of the Soviet military administration and was kept in Berlin for interrogation. While in prison she heard harrowing tales from her Soviet guards about what the German military had done to members of their families in Russia and came to realise that much of what she thought she knew about the war in the east was only what the Nazi propaganda ministry had told the German people and that the treatment meted out to Germans by the Russians was a response to what the Germans had done in the Soviet Union.
Junge was held in sundry jails, where she was often interrogated about her role in Hitler's entourage and the events surrounding Hitler's suicide. By December 1945, she had been released from prison but was restricted to the Soviet sector of Berlin. On New Year's Eve 1946, she was admitted to a hospital in the British sector for diphtheria, and remained there for two months. While she was there, her mother was able to secure for Junge the paperwork required to allow her to move from the British sector in Berlin to Bavaria. Receiving these on 2 February 1946, she travelled from Berlin and across the Soviet occupation zone (which was to become East Germany) to the British zone, and from there south to Bavaria in the American Zone. Junge was held by the Americans for a short time during the first half of 1946, and interrogated about her time in the Führerbunker. She was then freed, and allowed to live in postwar Germany.
Following the war, Junge appeared in two episodes (No. 16, "Inside the Reich" (1940–1944) and No. 21, "Nemesis: Germany (February – May 1945)") of the Thames Television (ITV) 1974 television documentary series The World at War and was interviewed for the 1975 book The Bunker by James P. O'Donnell and Uwe Bahnsen. She worked in secretarial jobs and for many years as chief secretary of the editorial staff of the weekly illustrated magazine Quick. Junge twice resided briefly in Australia, where her younger sister lived; her application for permanent residency was denied due to her past Nazi association.
In 1989, Junge's manuscript about her life throughout the war was published in the book Voices from the Bunker by Pierre Galante and Eugene Silianoff (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons). Also in that year, she was interviewed in the BBC documentary The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler and discussed at length her impressions of Hitler and the final days with him in the Führerbunker. In 1991, she appeared in the documentary series Hitler's Henchmen produced by German television channel ZDF. The 2002 release of her memoirs Until the Final Hour, co-written with author Melissa Müller and describing the time she worked for Hitler, brought media coverage. She was also interviewed for the 2002 documentary film Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary, which drew much attention.
Junge died from cancer in Munich on 10 February 2002 at the age of 81, reportedly having said shortly before her death, "Now that I've let go of my story, I can let go of my life." Further attention came two years later, when some of Junge's experiences with Hitler were portrayed in the Academy Award-nominated film Der Untergang (Downfall). Excerpts from her interviews are seen at the beginning and at the end of the film. At the end, she states:
Of course, the horrors, of which I heard in connection of the Nuremberg trials; the fate of the 6 million Jews, their killing and those of many others who represented different races and creeds, shocked me greatly, but, at that time, I could not see any connection between these things and my own past. I was only happy that I had not personally been guilty of these things and that I had not been aware of the scale of these things. However, one day, I walked past a plaque on the Franz-Joseph Straße (in Munich), on the wall in memory of Sophie Scholl. I could see that she had been born the same year as I, and that she had been executed the same year I entered into Hitler’s service. And, at that moment, I really realised that it was no excuse that I had been so young. I could perhaps have tried to find out about things.
Portrayal in the media
Traudl Junge has been portrayed by the following actresses in film and television productions.
- Wanda Moore in the 1973 British television production The Death of Adolf Hitler.
- Ann Lynn in the 1973 British film Hitler: The Last Ten Days.
- Sarah Marshall in the 1981 United States television production The Bunker, which is based on the book The Bunker by James P. O'Donnell and Uwe Bahnsen, who interviewed Traudl Junge among others.
- Alexandra Maria Lara in the 2004 German film Downfall (Der Untergang). The film was based on Junge's book and includes clips of Junge herself, taken from the 2002 documentary film Im toten Winkel (Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary), but the film's ending, depicting Junge being saved by a boy with whom she walks through the Russian line, is a fictional and metaphorical device.
- Stacy Hart in the 2005 British television production Uncle Adolf.
- Junge, Traudl (June 14, 2004). Melissa Muller (ed.). Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary. Phoenix. ISBN 0753817926.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 131, 169, 170.
- Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 169, 170.
- Beevor, pp. 382, 383, 388, 389
- Junge, pp. 219–222
- Junge, pp. 223–230
- "Hitler's secretary lived in Australia". The Age. 2005-08-06. Retrieved 2007-07-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hooper, obituary
- Der Untergang (Downfall).
- "Traudl Junge (Character)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Bunker (1981) (TV)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin – The Downfall 1945. Viking-Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) . The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth. Trans. Helmut Bögler. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Junge, Traudl; Müller, Melissa (editor). Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary, Arcade Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-1-55970-728-2
- Childs, David, Obituary The Independent, 18 February 2002
- Hooper, John. Traudl Junge obituary, The Guardian, 14 February 2002
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Traudl Junge|
- Traudl Junge at Find a Grave
- Traudl Junge at the Internet Movie Database
- "The Line".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> A comic that juxtaposes Traudl Junge with Sophie Scholl
- "Witness: The Death of Hitler" Interview in BBC Radio's oral history series "Witness". Speaking in English, Traudl Junge recalls her memories of working with Hitler, and of events in the bunker at the time of his death.