A triskelion or triskele (which invariably has rotational symmetry) is a motif consisting of three interlocked spirals, three bent human legs, or three bent/curved lines extending from the center of the symbol. Both words are from Greek "τρισκέλιον" (triskelion) or "τρισκελής" (triskeles), "three-legged", from prefix "τρι-" (tri-), "three times" + "σκέλος" (skelos), "leg". A triskelion is the symbol of Sicily, where it is called trinacria, as well as of the Isle of Man, Brittany, and the town of Füssen in Germany.
Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age use in Europe
The triskelion symbol appears in many early cultures, the first in Malta (4400–3600 BC) and in the astronomical calendar at the famous megalithic tomb of Newgrange in Ireland built around 3200 BC, Mycenaean vessels, on coinage in Lycia, and on staters of Pamphylia (at Aspendos, 370–333 BC) and Pisidia. It appears as a heraldic emblem on warriors' shields depicted on Greek pottery.
The triskelion is an ancient symbol of Sicily, with the head of the Gorgon, whose hair are snakes, from which radiate three legs bent at the knee. The symbol dates back to when Sicily was part of Magna Graecia, the colonial extension of Greece beyond the Aegean. Pliny the Elder attributes the origin of the triskelion of Sicily to the triangular form of the island, the ancient Trinacria (from the Greek tri- (three) and akra (end, limb)), which consists of three large capes equidistant from each other, pointing in their respective directions, the names of which were Pelorus, Pachynus, and Lilybæum.
The Celtic symbol of three conjoined spirals may have had triple significance similar to the imagery that lies behind the triskelion. The triple spiral motif is a Neolithic symbol in Western Europe. Though popularly considered a "Celtic" symbol it is in fact a pre-Celtic symbol. It is carved into the rock of a stone lozenge near the main entrance of the prehistoric Newgrange monument in County Meath, Ireland. Newgrange, which was built around 3200 BC, predates the Celtic arrival in Ireland, but has long since been incorporated into Celtic culture. The symbol is also found carved in rock in Castro Culture settlement in Portugal, Galicia and Asturias in northwest Spain.
A triskelion is featured on the seal of the United States Department of Transportation.
A triskelion shape was used in the design of RCA's "Spider" 45 rpm adapter, a popular plastic adapter for vinyl records, which allows larger center-holed 45 rpm records (commonly used on 7" singles and EPs) to spin on players designed for smaller center-holed 33-1/3 rpm records (the standard for 10" and 12" LPs). The design was practical, the three curved arms providing equal spring and thus keeping the hole centred. The iconic design of the Spider has led to its adoption as a popular symbol for record and music enthusiasts.
Reconstructionists and neopagans
The triskele, usually consisting of spirals, but also the "horned triskelion", is used by some polytheistic reconstructionist and neopagan groups. As a Celtic symbol, it is used primarily by groups with a Celtic cultural orientation and, less frequently, can also be found in use by various eclectic or syncretic traditions such as Neopaganism. The spiral triskele is one of the primary symbols of Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism. Celtic Reconstructionists use the symbol to represent a variety of triplicities in their cosmology and theology; it is also a favored symbol due to its association with the god Manannán mac Lir.
Occurrence in nature
The endocytic protein, clathrin, is triskelion-shaped.
Triskelion of Sicily of the Minoan period (archaeological museum of Agrigento)
A version of the Neolithic triple spiral symbol
The BDSM community's triskele-type emblem.
Irish Air Corps roundel. A modern interpretation of the Celtic triskele
Solar emblem of Ingush represents not only the sun and the universe but also awareness of the oneness of the spirit in the past, present and future.
The seal of the US Department of Transportation.
Coat of Arms of Füssen
Slinger standing left, triskelion to right. Reverse of an ancient Greek silver stater from Aspendos, Pamphylia.
Triskelion and spirals on a Galician torc terminal.
The Korean Sam Taegeuk
The flag of the South African Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging
Logo of Trisquel GNU/Linux
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- τρισκελής, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- τρι-, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- σκέλος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- Angelo & Mario Grifasi (1999-01-28). "Sicilia: Il Perchè del nome Trinacria". Grifasi-sicilia.com. Retrieved 2010-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Isle of Man Government". Retrieved 2012-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Newgrange Ireland - Megalithic Passage Tomb - World Heritage Site". Knowth.com. 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2013-08-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- For example, the trislele on Achilles' round shield on an Attic late sixth-century hydria at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, illustrated in John Boardman, Jasper Griffin and Oswyn Murray, Greece and the Hellenistic World (Oxford History of the Classical World) vol. I (1988), p. 50.
- Matthews, Jeff (2005) Symbols of Naples
- Anthony Murphy and Richard Moore, Island of the Setting Sun: In Search of Ireland's Ancient Astronomers, 2nd ed., Dublin: The Liffey Press, 2008, pp. 168–169
- The Aircraft Encyclopedia by Roy Braybrook, ISBN 0-671-55337-2, p. 51
- "We Love Life: Music - 45 RPM Adapters". Welove-music.com. 2009-11-26. Retrieved 2013-08-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boing Boing: Gadgets - Twenty 45 adapters". Gadgets.boingboing.net. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2013-08-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Luminais, Misty (May 2012). In the Habit of Being Kinky: Practice and Resistance in a BDSM Community, Texas, USA (PDF). Washington State University. p. 121. Retrieved 10 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. p. 132: [Among Celtic Reconstructionists] "...An Thríbhís Mhòr (the great triple spiral) came into common use to refer to the three realms." Also p. 134: [On CRs] "Using Celtic symbols such as triskeles and spirals"