Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt

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The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.


The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty are as follows:

Dynasty XXI pharaohs
Pharaoh Throne name Reign (BC) Burial Consort(s)
Smendes (Nesbanebdjed I) Hedjkheperre-Setepenre 1077 BC - 1051 BC unknown Tentamun
Amenemnisu Neferkare-Heqawaset 1051 BC - 1047 BC unknown
Psusennes I (Pasebkhanut I) Akheperre-Setepenamun 1047 BC - 1001 BC NRT III, Tanis Mutnedjemet
Amenemope Usermaetre-Setepenamun 1001 BC - 992 BC Tanis
Osorkon the Elder Akheperre-Setepenre 992 BC - 986 BC unknown
Siamun Netjerkheperre-Meryamun 986 BC - 967 BC unknown
Psusennes II (Pasebkhanut I) Tyetkheperure-Setepenre 967 BC - 943 BC unknown
The gold funerary mask of pharaoh Psusennes I

After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-First Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".[1]


  1. Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 3rd edition, 1986, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.531

Further reading

  • Jaroslav Černý, Studies in the Chronology of the Twenty-First Dynasty, JEA 32 (1946), 24-30

See also