Typhoon Haiyan

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Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Haiyan Nov 7 2013 1345Z.png
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity on November 7
Formed November 3, 2013
Dissipated November 11, 2013
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 230 km/h (145 mph)
1-minute sustained: 315 km/h (195 mph)
Lowest pressure 895 hPa (mbar); 26.43 inHg
Fatalities 6,340 confirmed, 1,061 missing
Damage $2.86 billion (2013 USD)
(Preliminary total)
Areas affected
Part of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Haiyan, known as Super Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded, which devastated portions of Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, on November 8, 2013.[1] It is the deadliest Philippine typhoon on record,[2] killing at least 6,300 people in that country alone.[3] Haiyan is also the strongest storm recorded at landfall. In January 2014, bodies were still being found.[4]

The thirtieth named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Haiyan originated from an area of low pressure several hundred kilometers east-southeast of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia on November 2, 2013. Tracking generally westward, environmental conditions favored tropical cyclogenesis and the system developed into a tropical depression the following day. After becoming a tropical storm and attaining the name Haiyan at 0000 UTC on November 4, the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity by 1800 UTC on November 5. By November 6, the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) assessed the system as a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale; the storm passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau shortly after attaining this strength.

Thereafter, it continued to intensify; at 1200 UTC on November 7, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds to 230 km/h (145 mph), the highest in relation to the cyclone. The Hong Kong Observatory put the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds at 285 km/h (180 mph)[5] prior to landfall in the central Philippines, while the China Meteorological Administration estimated the maximum two-minute sustained winds at the time to be around 78 m/s (280 km/h or 175 mph). At the same time, the JTWC estimated the system's one-minute sustained winds to 315 km/h (195 mph), unofficially making Haiyan the strongest tropical cyclone ever observed based on wind speed, a record which would then be surpassed by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 at 345 km/h (215 mph).[6] It's also the strongest tropical cyclone in the Eastern Hemisphere; several others have recorded lower central pressure readings. Several hours later, the eye of the cyclone made its first landfall in the Philippines at Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Gradually weakening, the storm made five additional landfalls in the country before emerging over the South China Sea. Turning northwestward, the typhoon eventually struck northern Vietnam as a severe tropical storm on November 10. Haiyan was last noted as a tropical depression by the JMA the following day.

The cyclone caused catastrophic destruction in the Visayas, particularly on Samar and Leyte. According to UN officials, about 11 million people have been affected – many have been left homeless.[7]

Meteorological history

Map showing the path of a storm as represented by colored dots connected by a white line; the position of the dots indicates the storm's position at six-hour intervals, while color denotes the storm's intensity at that point.

On November 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring a broad low-pressure area about 425 kilometers (265 miles) east-southeast of Pohnpei, one of the states in the Federated States of Micronesia.[nb 1] Moving through a region favoring tropical cyclogenesis,[9] the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the developing system as a tropical depression early on November 3.[10][nb 2] Subsequent intensification resulted in the JMA upgrading the system to a tropical storm and assigning it the name Haiyan (Chinese: 海燕; literally: "petrel") at 0000 UTC on November 4.[10] Tracking generally westward along the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge,[12] rapid intensification ensued by November 5 as a central dense overcast with an embedded eye began developing; the JMA classified Haiyan as a typhoon later that day.[10] By November 6, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigned the storm the local name Yolanda as it approached their area of responsibility.[13] Intensification slowed somewhat during the day, though the JTWC estimated the storm to have attained Category 5-equivalent super typhoon status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale around 1200 UTC.[nb 3][15] Later, the eye of the typhoon passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau.[16]

Comparison between Haiyan and Katrina

Around 1200 UTC on November 7, Haiyan attained ten-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h (145 mph) and a maximum intensity (lowest barometric pressure) of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg).[10] Six hours later, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have attained one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph) and gusts up to 378 km/h (235 mph), according to preliminary track data.[17]

The storm displayed some characteristics of an annular tropical cyclone, though a strong convective band remained present along the western side of the system.[17] At 2040 UTC on November 7, Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at peak intensity with ten-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h (145 mph) as measured by PAGASA.[18] The JTWC's unofficial estimate of one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph) would, by that measure, make Haiyan the most powerful storm ever recorded to strike land.[19] Interaction with land caused slight degradation of the storm's structure, though it remained an exceptionally powerful storm when it struck Tolosa, Leyte around 2300 UTC.[20] The typhoon made four additional landfalls as it traversed the Visayas:[21] Daanbantayan, Bantayan Island, Concepcion, and Busuanga Island. A weakened Haiyan, with its core disrupted by interaction with the Philippines, emerged over the South China Sea late on November 8.[22] Environmental conditions ahead of the storm soon became less favorable, as cool stable air began wrapping into the western side of the circulation.[23] Continuing across the South China Sea, Haiyan turned more northwesterly late on November 9 and through November 10 as it moved around the southwestern edge of the subtropical ridge previously steering it westward.[24] Rapid weakening ensued as Haiyan approached its final landfall in Vietnam,[25] ultimately striking the country near Haiphong around 2100 UTC as a severe tropical storm.[10] Once onshore, the storm quickly diminished and was last noted as it dissipated over Guangxi Province, China during November 11.[10]

Preparations

Micronesia and Palau

Typhoon Haiyan near Palau on November 6

Upon JTWC's declaration of Tropical Depression 31W on November 3, a tropical storm warning was issued for Chuuk Lagoon, Losap, and Poluwat in the Federated States of Micronesia. Further west, Faraulep, Satawal, and Woleai, were placed under a typhoon watch while Fananu and Ulul were placed under a tropical storm watch.[26] The following day, the tropical storm warning expanded to include Satawal while a typhoon warning was issued for Woleai.[27] Much of Yap State and the islands of Koror and Kayangel in Palau were placed under a typhoon watch.[28] The government issued a mandatory evacuation for Kayangel, and although most residents ignored the warning, they all survived the storm.[16] As Haiyan progressed westward, the easternmost advisories were gradually discontinued.[28] As Haiyan intensified into a typhoon on November 5, warnings were raised across Palau and Yap State.[29][30] Government offices in Melekeok were used as an evacuation building for Palau.[31] Despite mandatory evacuation orders, most residents on Kayangel remained on the island and rode out the typhoon.[32]

Philippines

PAGASA raised rainfall warning advisory in the Central and Eastern Visayas during the passage of Haiyan (Yolanda).

Shortly before Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility on November 6, PAGASA raised Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS) No.1, the lowest of four levels, for much of the Visayas and Mindanao.[33] As the storm continued to approach the country, warnings expanded into Luzon and increased in severity for eastern areas.[34] By the evening of November 7, PSWS No. 4, the highest level of warning which indicates winds in excess of 185 km/h (115 mph) are expected, was raised for Biliran Island, Eastern Samar, Leyte, Northern Cebu, Metro Cebu, Samar, and Southern Leyte.[35][36] Through November 8, the coverage of PSWS No. 4 continued to expand, with areas in southern Luzon being included.[37]

File:Yolanda PSWS Map.png
PSWS Map in the Philippines during the passage of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).

Officials placed police officers in the Bicol Region ahead of the storm.[38] In the provinces of Samar and Leyte, classes were canceled, and residents in flood- and landslide-prone areas were required to evacuate.[39] Some of the storm-threatened areas were affected by an earlier earthquake in Bohol.[40] The Philippine President requested the military to deploy planes and helicopters to the region expected to be affected.[41] As Haiyan was moving very fast, PAGASA issued warnings at different levels to about 60 of the 80 provinces, including the capital Metro Manila.[42] On November 8, the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated, providing widespread charitable satellite coverage to relief organizations.[43]

Southern China

The State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters hoisted a level three emergency response in the provinces of Hainan, Guangdong and Guangxi. All fishing vessels were urged to return to ports by noon on 9 November.[44] The Hong Kong Observatory issued the Strong Monsoon Signal at 19:10 HKT on 9 November,[45] and it was still in place on 13 November.[46]

Vietnam

On November 8, Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung activated the highest state of preparedness in the country.[47] Approximately 600,000 people across southern and central provinces were evacuated while a further 200,000 were evacuated in northern provinces. Alerts were sent to 85,328 seagoing vessels, with a collective crew of 385,372 people, to sail to safer waters away from the storm. Requests were sent to China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines to aid any fishermen who needed immediate shelter from the typhoon.[48] Threatening Vietnam after two other typhoons, Wutip and Nari, there were concerns that the storm would cause significant damage to homes with makeshift repairs.[49] Roughly 460,000 military personnel and other authorities were mobilized to assist in evacuation efforts.[48] Hundreds of flights were canceled across the country while schools were closed on November 11. On the small island of Cồn Cỏ, all residents were moved to underground shelters with enough supplies for several days.[50] The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) branches in Vietnam prepared relief stockpiles, consisting of food, water, housing material, and 6.6 billion (US$310,000) in funds.[48] The local United Nations Resident Coordinator, Pratibha Mehta, praised the government's actions and credited them with saving numerous lives.[47] However, there were complaints by many residents that the warnings came too late.[50]

Impact

Micronesia and Palau

On Kayangel in Palau, a high storm surge damaged several houses,[31] while strong winds downed trees.[16] Despite residents' refusal to evacuate, no fatalities or major injuries took place on the island. Helicopters were flown to the island to survey damage and provide relief supplies. The government planned to evacuate those who were left homeless from the island.[32] Koror, Babeldaob and Kayangel each lost access to water and power.[16] In Koror, winds reaching as high as 120 km/h (75 mph) blew out rooftops and downed trees and power lines. A causeway linking an offshore hospital to the main island was temporarily shut down after being inundated by water.[51] On the northern end of Babeldaob, Haiyan damaged schools and buildings.[31] Lying closest to Haiyan at the time of the typhoon's passage, Kayangel was flooded in its entirety, and all homes were destroyed. Though no people were killed there, 69 others were displaced by the storm.[51]

Philippines

Animated enhanced infrared satellite loop of Typhoon Haiyan from peak intensity to landfall in the Philippines
File:Radar loop of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) making landfall on Leyte Island.gif
Weather radar reflectivity loop of Haiyan's landfall on Leyte Island. Tacloban City was struck by the northern eyewall, the most powerful part of the storm.[53]

Typhoon Haiyan, called typhoon "Yolanda" in the Philippines, caused catastrophic damage throughout much of the islands of Leyte, where cities and towns were largely destroyed.[55] As of April 17, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) confirmed 6,300 fatalities across the country, 5,877 of those taking place in the Eastern Visayas.[3] The actual death toll remains unclear, being claimed to be at least 10,000 by the victims from Tacloban City, Leyte alone. As of November 13, Red Cross estimated that 22,000 people were missing while approximately 65,500 people were listed as such through Google Person Finder. Google, however, cautioned that this value is not to be read into, as shown during the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami when more than 600,000 names were listed in contrast to the final death toll of roughly 20,000.[55]

In Surigao City, 281.9 mm (11.10 in) of rainfall was recorded, much of which fell in under 12 hours.[56] Storm surges were also recorded in many places. In the island of Leyte and Samar, PAGASA measured 5–6 meter (15–19 ft) waves.[57] In Tacloban, Leyte, the terminal building of Tacloban Airport was destroyed by a 5.2 m (17 ft) storm surge up to the height of the second story.[58] Along the airport, a storm surge of 4 m (13 ft) was estimated.[59] Waves of 4.6 m (15 ft) were also estimated.[60] On the western coast of Samar, the storm surge was not as significant.[61]

Guiuan in Eastern Samar was the point of Haiyan's first landfall, and was severely affected due to the typhoon's impacts.[62] Nearly all structures in the township suffered at least partial damage, many of which were completely flattened.[63] For several days following Haiyan's first landfall, the damage situation in the fishing town remained unclear due to lack of communication.[64] However, the damage could finally be assessed after Philippine Air Force staff arrived in Guiuan on November 10.[65]

There was widespread devastation from the storm surge in Tacloban City especially in San Jose, with many buildings being destroyed, trees knocked over or broken, and cars piled up.[60] The low-lying areas on the eastern side of Tacloban city were hardest hit, with some areas completely washed away. Flooding also extended for 1 km (0.62 mi) inland on the east coast of the province.[60] City administrator Tecson John Lim stated that roughly 90 percent of the city had been destroyed.[55] Journalists on the ground have described the devastation as, "off the scale, and apocalyptic".[66] Most families in Samar and Leyte lost some family members or relatives; families came in from outlying provinces looking for relatives, especially children, who may have been washed away.[67] The entire first floor of the Tacloban City Convention Center, which was serving as an evacuation shelter, was submerged by storm surge. Many residents in the building were caught off-guard by the fast rising waters and subsequently drowned or were injured in the building.[68]

Although wind speeds were extreme, the major cause of damage and loss of life appears to have been storm surge. The major focus of devastation appears to have been on the east coast of Samar and Leyte, with a particular focus on Tacloban, because of its location between Samar and Leyte, and the large population in low-lying areas.[61] Philippine Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Secretary Mar Roxas said the scale of the relief operation that was now required was overwhelming, with some places described as a wasteland of mud and debris.[69]

Sebastian Rhodes Stampa, head of a UN disaster assessment co-ordination team, said there was "destruction on a massive scale" in Tacloban. "There are cars thrown like tumbleweed and the streets are strewn with debris. The last time I saw something of this scale was in the aftermath of the [2004] Indian Ocean tsunami."[60] There is little communication in the city, and no mobile phone coverage. Up the east coast of the Leyte there are numerous towns and villages that are completely cut off without any assistance. Large parts of Leyte and Samar are without power and may have no power for a month.[66]

The storm crossed the Visayas region for almost a day, causing widespread flooding. In Cebu and Bohol, struck by a magnitude 7.2 earthquake two weeks before, cities were also severely devastated.[70] During the morning of November 8, media stations across the country were able to broadcast live the destruction of Haiyan. However, before afternoon, all communications on the Visayas region failed. The Presidential Communications Department of President Benigno Aquino III had difficulty contacting DILG Secretary Mar Roxas and Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin in Tacloban City to plan relief.[71] Widespread power interruptions, landslides and flash floods were also reported. Major roads were blocked by trees, and impassable. 453 domestic and international airline flights were canceled. Some airports were also closed on November 8 and 9. Ferries were affected. Relief and rescue efforts were underway by November 9, but some places remained isolated and out of communication due to severe damage.[72]

China and Taiwan

Typhoon Haiyan reached Hainan Province, where severe damage took place and six people were killed in various incidents.[73] The hardest hit area was Qionghai, where roughly 3,500 people across 20 villages were isolated due to extensive flooding.[74] Direct economic losses in Hainan amounted to ¥4.9 billion (US$803 million).[73] In Guangxi Province to the north, heavy rains up to 380 mm (15 in) fell and wind gusts reached 100 km/h (60 mph).[75] An estimated 1.21 million people were affected, of whom 26,300 were evacuated. Two people died while four others went missing after a car fell off a flooded road into a river near Beihai.[76] Losses throughout Guangxi amounted to ¥275 million (US$45 million).[73][75] Approximately 900 homes and 25,500 hectares of crops were destroyed, while 8,500 homes were damaged. Additionally, an estimated 3 million people were affected by the storm throughout Southern China.[77] A cargo ship broke moorings at Sanya on November 8;[78] three members of the crew drowned while four others went missing.[75] One person also went missing off the coast of Lantau Island, Hong Kong.[79]

Along the coast of New Taipei, 16 people were swept out to sea by three 8 m (26 ft) waves. After several hours of search and rescue, eight were hospitalized while the other eight drowned. This was considered the largest loss of life from waves in Taiwan in several years.[80]

Vietnam

Haiyan made landfall as a severe tropical storm in Quảng Ninh Province on November 10 and produced high winds and widespread heavy rainfall which affected northern Vietnam.[81] Rainfall totals of up to 461 mm (18.1 in) and wind gusts of up to 147 km/h (91 mph) were recorded.[81] Ten people were killed while they were preparing for Haiyan's landfall, while no one was killed after the system made landfall, however 4 people are missing in Quangninh Province.[81]

Aftermath

Due to extensive damage and high death toll, PAGASA announced that the name Yolanda would be stricken off the typhoon naming lists.[82][83] PAGASA chose the name Yasmin to replace Yolanda for the 2017 season. During their 2014 annual session the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee announced that the name Haiyan would also be retired from its naming lists on January 1, 2015, and was therefore replaced by the name Bailu.[84]

Philippines

File:Visayas, Philippines power outage before and after Haiyan 2013.gif
Animated satellite comparison of power outages across the Visayas following Typhoon Haiyan.
File:ReliefNet Map of Damaged houses Typhoon Haiyan.pdf
Map of damaged houses by municipality showing track of storm, from the United Nations, as of November 18, 2013
An aerial view of Guiuan, the town where the typhoon made its first landfall

By November 11, the provinces of Aklan, Capiz, Cebu, Iloilo, Leyte, Palawan, and Samar, were placed under a state of national calamity, allowing the government to use state funds for relief and rehabilitation and to control prices of basic goods.[85] Additionally, approximately ₱30.6 million (US$700,000) had been allocated in relief assistance by the NDRRMC. Local and national agencies deployed a collective 18,177 personnel, 844 vehicles, 44 seagoing vessels, and 31 aircraft for various operations.[3] CBCP also declared 8 days of mourning for victims of the typhoon on the same date.[86]

World Health Organization Representative in the Philippines Dr Julie Hall noted that while many survivors requiring medical attention in the first week suffer from trauma and fractures, the concern shifts toward chronic conditions as the weeks pass. The WHO coordinated the massive international response to help the Philippine government meet the acute need for healthcare services in the affected areas.[87]

Extreme damage to infrastructure throughout the region posed logistical problems that greatly slowed relief efforts. Though aid was flown into local airports, most of it remained there as roads remained closed.[88] According to estimates on November 13, only 20 percent of the affected population in Tacloban City was receiving aid. With lack of access to clean water, some residents dug up water pipes and boiled water from there in order to survive. Thousands of people sought to evacuate the city via C-130 cargo planes, however, the slow process fueled further aggravation. Reports of escaped prisoners raping women in the city prompted a further urgency to evacuate. One resident was quoted as saying "Tacloban is a dead city."[55] Due to the lack of electricity, planes could only operate during the daylight, further slowing the evacuations. At dawn on November 12, thousands of people broke through fences and rushed planes only to be forced back by police and military personnel. A similar incident occurred later that day as a U.S. cargo plane was landing.[89]

On November 14, a correspondent from the BBC reported Tacloban to be a "war zone," although the situation soon stabilized when the presence of government law enforcement was increased. Safety concerns prompted several relief agencies to back out of the operation, and some United Nations staff were pulled out for safety reasons. A message circulating among the agencies urged them to not go into Tacloban for this reason.[90] On the west coast of Leyte Island, residents in Ormoc were fearing that the focus on Tacloban City would leave them without aid. Though not as hard hit, roughly 90 percent of the city was damaged or destroyed and supplies were running low. Hospitals in the city were either shut down or working at partial capacity, leaving many of the nearly 2,000 injured in the city without medical assistance. In nearby Baybay, lack of assistance fueled anger and incited looting for survival.[91]

In the coastal community Guiuan, which took the full brunt of the typhoon, Mayor Christopher Gonzalez is credited with saving countless lives after he incessantly urged residents to evacuate. He referred to the storm as "delubyo (deluge)," which roughly translates to Armageddon. Of the town's 45,000 residents, 87 died, 931 were injured, and 23 others were listed as missing. U.S. Navy Capt. Russell Hays, a medical officer, estimated that a storm of Haiyan's caliber could have killed as many as 4,500 in Guiuan alone had it not been for the mayor's efforts.[92]

On November 18, the government of the Philippines launched an online portal, called the Foreign Aid Transparency Hub (FaiTH), that provides the public a transparency view of the funds and other aids received by the government from the international community.[93][94]

To lead the management and rehabilitation efforts of the central provinces in the Philippines affected by Typhoon Haiyan, Philippines President Benigno Aquino III appointed Panfilo Lacson as Typhoon Haiyan Rehabilation Czar.[95]

Environmental impact

Typhoon Haiyan knocked over Power Barge 103 of Napocor in Estancia, Iloilo causing an oil spill.[96][97][98][99] As a result of the typhoon, the government is planning to replant mangroves in coastal areas while preserving the remaining ones.[100] Affected residents were allowed to return to their homes by the Department of Health on December 7, 2013 after an air quality test found out that benzene levels in affected areas reached near-zero parts per million. Earlier, residents were asked to evacuate affected areas as the benzene levels had reached unhealthy amounts.[101]

Looting and violence

File:Tacloban Typhoon Haiyan 2013-11-13.jpg
The remains of a home destroyed by the storm in Tacloban City.

Throughout Tacloban City, widespread looting took place in the days following Haiyan's passage. In some instances, relief trucks were attacked and had food stolen in the city. Two of the city's malls and numerous grocery stores were subjected to looting. A fuel depot in the city was guarded by armed police while 200 additional officers were dispatched to assist.[102] Security checkpoints have since been set up all over Tacloban and a curfew was imposed on residents to prevent more attacks.[103] Philippine military forces also prevented members of the New People's Army from ambushing a relief convoy bound for Samar in Matnog, Sorsogon, killing two.[104] President Benigno Aquino III considered declaring martial law in hopes of restoring order in affected areas.[105][106]

Looting intensified as slow recovery efforts forced residents to seek any means necessary to survive. Tacloban city administrator Tecson John Lim stated, "The looting is not criminality. It is self-preservation." The Chicago Tribune reported that some areas were on the brink of anarchy, though Interior Secretary Mar Roxas denied such claims.[55] Further complicating efforts to retain order was the lack of officers reporting for work. In Tacloban, only 100 of the city's 1,300 police personnel reported for duty.[89] In Alangalang, just west of Tacloban, eight people were crushed to death after the walls of a warehouse collapsed during a raid on a government rice stockpile. Approximately 33,000 bags of rice, each weighing 50 kg (110 lb), were stolen. Warehouses were also raided in Jaro and Palo. Throughout the city of Tacloban itself, people began looting from homes as stores had been completely emptied.[55]

Criticism of government response

File:Typhoon Haiyan deaths in Eastern Visayas map.png
Color coded map of Eastern Visayas showing the number of deaths caused by Typhoon Haiyan.
      More than 1,000
      500-999
      100-499
      50-99
      25-49
      1-24
      0

Condemnations of slow government action in the relief effort in response to the typhoon mounted days after the storm had passed. Media reports criticized the Aquino administration for apparent lack of preparation and coordination among government agencies in the aid operation.[107][108] Up until November 12, five days after the typhoon struck, survivors continued to struggle with basic necessities such as food, water, and shelter while remote towns in Leyte and Samar were yet to be reached by aid.[109] The Philippine government responded by saying that they have dealt with the tragedy "quite well" but the response had been slow due to the breakdown of the local governance in affected areas where officials and employees, who were usually the first to respond in these events, were victims of the typhoon themselves.[110] Cabinet Secretary Jose Rene Almendras said that the national government had to take over despite logistical challenges and assured it is working toward providing aid the quickest way possible to the survivors.[111] The national Government was also criticized for putting the responsibility of handling the dead to the Bureau of Fire instead to the Department of Health. Dr. Racquel Fortun, one of the forensic experts to go to the area three days after the typhoon insisted that handling of the bodies is a health matter and therefore a responsibility of DOH.[112]

Humanitarian crisis and population displacement

The Philippines faced a humanitarian crisis days after the typhoon hit much of the Visayas with 1.9 million homeless and more than 6,000,000 displaced.[113] In Tacloban alone, ninety percent of the structures are either destroyed or damaged while other cities, such as Ormoc, are reporting similar damage.[114] The United Nations fear that the possibility of the spread of disease is high due to the lack of food, water, shelter, and medication. Casualties have been reported as a result of the lack of aid in affected areas and the number of dead is likely to rise.[115]

As a result of the damage in Tacloban and much of Leyte, thousands of people who once lived in the area left and made their way into less affected areas such as Cebu and Manila.[116] Catbalogan reported that their population more than doubled after the typhoon with the influx of refugees into the city.[117] Around 20,000 people have fled to Manila as a result of the storm.[118]

International response

Summary of international relief efforts in the Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan
Country Cash donation
(in US dollars)
Humanitarian aid and supplies Other aid Source
 Australia $70 million Emergency and humanitarian supplies. Royal Australian Air Force and Royal Australian Navy deployed with Australian Medical Assistance Team and supplies. [119][120]
[121]
 Bahrain 90 tons of relief supplies. [122]
 Bangladesh $1 million [123]
 Belgium $677 thousand Humanitarian aid. Field hospital, water purification system, 5 medical doctors, 13 nurses, and 10 logistic personnel. [124]
 Brunei Humanitarian aid and relief supplies. Emergency team deployed. Aircraft from the Royal Brunei Air Force deployed with supplies. [125]
 Canada $40 million Humanitarian aid;
water purification units;
infrastructure repair teams;
medical units
Three hundred members of the Canadian military Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) and their equipment are sent, along with three additional Griffon helicopters. Canadian Medical Assistance Team deployed several mobile primary medical teams, to assist under-serviced rural and remote communities in northern Cebu, and western and central Leyte. GlobalMedic, a Toronto-based NGO has three teams of rescuers and medics dispatched to the disaster zone along with large quantities of water purification supplies and equipment. [126][127]
[128][129]
[130][131]
 Chile Humanitarian aid. [132]
 China $1.4 million Deployed the naval hospital ship, Peace Ark. [133][134]
 Denmark $7.8 million Humanitarian aid. Provided UN with the emergency response base camp and infrastructure to facilitate the rapid humanitarian relief efforts. [135][136]
 France $1.4 million Sent 70 tons of relief supplies and a team of 61 persons from the Sécurité Civile, to restore electricity and water supplies, and others. [137]
 Germany 23 tons of aid. Rescue teams sent. [138]
 Holy See $150 thousand [139]
 Hong Kong Call to postpone economic sanctions. $5.16 million given to international charities. [140][141]
[142]
 Iceland $100 thousand [143]
 India 15 tonnes of relief supplies. [144]
 Indonesia $1 million Humanitarian aid of goods and logistics worth $1 million. Indonesian Red Cross sent 688,862 tonnes emergency supplies. Three Indonesian Air Force Hercules aircraft deployed with supplies to affected areas. Logistical aid including aircraft, food, generators and medicine. The Indonesian Red Cross deployed KM Emir cargo ship loaded with emergency supplies and also 30 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers. [145][146]
[147][148]
 Ireland $1.36 million 100 tonnes of emergency supplies. [149]
 Israel Sent members of the Israeli Foreign Ministry and the Israeli Defense Forces' Home Command. [150]
 Italy $1.36 million [151]
 Japan $52 million Humanitarian aid. Deployed the JDS Ise (DDH-182) and JDS Ōsumi (LST-4001) and Boeing KC-767 along with 1,180 members of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces.The Japan Disaster Relief team was also deployed. [152][153]
[154][155]
[156]
 Kuwait $10 million [157]
 Malaysia $1 million Essential relief supplies and humanitarian aid. Malaysian Filipino community collected supplies to be sent. Aircraft from the Royal Malaysian Air Force deployed with supplies. The Malaysian disaster relief team was also deployed. [158][159]
[160][161]
[162]
 Mexico $1 million [163]
 New Zealand $1.22 million 30 tonnes of food and medical supplies. [164][165]
 Norway $41.6 million 100 tonnes of food and 70 tonnes of communication equipment. In addition to the aid provided by the Norwegian government, Norwegians supported various aid agencies, such as the Norwegian Red Cross and the Norwegian branch of Save the Children, with donations through texting reaching 30 million NOK (US$4.9 million). On October 24, a relief concert with various Norwegian artists was held in Norway for the victims of the typhoon in the Philippines. During the 70 min. TV sendt broadcast, Norwegians donated another 24.7 million NOK (4 million USD). [166][167]
[168][169]
[170][171]
[172][173]
 Panama 200,000 worth of humanitarian aid. [174]
 Qatar 80 tonnes of relief supplies. [175]
 Russia Over 200 personnel from the Ministry of Emergency Situations deployed for medical and relief efforts. [176][177]
 Saudi Arabia $10 million Relief supplies. Saudi Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz pledged $100,000 in behalf of the Arab Gulf Program for Development (AGFUND). [178][179]
[180]
 Singapore $276 thousand Humanitarian aid. Aircraft from the Republic of Singapore Air Force deployed with supplies. [181][182]
 South Africa Rescue South Africa Disaster Response Team sent. The 50 man trauma/rescue team treated patients and repaired the Abuyog District Hospital. [183]
 South Korea $25 million Humanitarian aid including Humanitarian teams and Relief goods(family tents, water purifiers, beef fried rice, blankets, and sanitation kits) turned over to DSWD. Deployed Emergency relief team (two batches of medical and rescue personnel, 17-man survey team). Pledged USD 5M worth of assistance and USD 20M ODA for construction and rehabilitation from 2014-2016. Deployed 2 C-130 planes, Bi Ro Bong LST and Sung In Bong LST for humanitarian transport along with 520 members of the Korean Army. [184]

[185][186][187] [188]

 Spain $1.8 million The Spanish government also chartered two flights that brought 35 tons of humanitarian aid to the disaster area. [189]
  Switzerland $5.4 million 21 tons of Emergency Assistance. Members of Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit sent. [190]
 Taiwan $200 thousand 680 tons of relief supplies. Estimated total amount of donated relief materials and money reached US$12.3 million as of mid-December. Taiwan, by Navy and Air Force, is the first country delivering relief supplies to Philippines.[191] A 35-person team organized by the Taiwan Root Medical Peace Corps arrived in the affected areas to provide free medical assistance.

Aircraft from the Republic of China Air Force and Republic of China Navy vessel deployed with supplies.

[192][193]
 Thailand Humanitarian aid. [194]
 Turkey Humanitarian supplies. [195]
 United Arab Emirates $10 million [196]
 United Kingdom $131 million Deployed HMS Daring and HMS Illustrious and Royal Air Force C-130J - stationed in Cebu delivering over 235,000 of aid - and Royal Air Force Boeing C-17 Globemaster III for Humanitarian Aid and Relief (HADR) efforts. [197][198]
[199]
 United States $86.7 million Deployed the USS George Washington (CVN-73) and her embarked carrier strike group, along with the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, embarked aboard the USS Ashland (LSD 48) and USS Germantown (LSD 42), of Amphibious Squadron 11. At its peak, the U.S. military efforts included more than 13,400 military personnel from the US Marine Corps, US Navy and US Air Force. 66 aircraft were involved in the mission including the fixed-wing C17 Globemaster, C-130 Hercules, and MV-22 Osprey, as well as HH-60 helicopters. 12 U.S. Navy vessels responded in all. The US also deployed the United States Agency for International Development and Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance crisis response teams to oversee military operations, and coordinate the US government response with the government of the Philippines. [200][201]
[202][203][204][205][206]
 Vietnam $100 thousand [207][208]
Supranational bodies
Debris littering the streets of Tacloban City on November 14, nearly a week after the storm struck.

The United Nations said it was going to increase critical relief operations as a result of the devastation caused by the typhoon. Its Manila office issued a statement that read, "Access remains a key challenge as some areas are still cut off from relief operations. Unknown numbers of survivors do not have basic necessities such as food, water and medicines and remain inaccessible for relief operations, as roads, airports and bridges were destroyed or covered in wreckage."[209] The United Nations also began relief operations by this time; however, the severe damage to infrastructure hampered efforts to distribute supplies.[102] The UN activated the Cluster System, in which groups of humanitarian organizations (UN and non-UN) work to restore health, shelter, nutrition and economic activity.[210]

The World Health Organization, which leads the Health Cluster, the largest one, has developed guidance on donations of medicine and healthcare equipment, so that the Philippines receives supplies appropriate for this emergency. According to WHO, many people suffered cuts, wounds, and broken bones during the disaster and others were injured in flooding that followed the typhoon.[211] Interpol announced that they would send in Interpol officers from Lyon to help local law enforcement identify any of the corpses that are unidentified.[212]

The World Health Organization has spearheaded initiatives among help workers, especially from the Department of Health (Philippines), in extending Psychological First Aid to people in typhoon-affected areas. WHO Representative in the country Dr Julie Hall foresees long-lasting effects from the typhoon. She calls for increased preparedness to give support to families and communities for the long-term, citing the need for more trained field workers.[213]

Celebrities, companies, and NGOs

American band Journey donated $350,000 to help relief efforts in the Philippines, and its lead singer had a message for his homeland: "Don't Stop Believin'". Arnel Pineda (the band's Filipino vocalist) and the rest of the band announced the donation on November 15, 2013. It will go to the United Nations World Food Programme, which is providing Filipinos with food assistance. The donation should provide 1.4 million meals.[214] IKEA, Walmart, Samsung, and HSBC are among those taking advantage of the event to donate to those in need.[215][216] Northwestern Mutual announced they will donate $100,000 to the American Red Cross.[217] The Coca-Cola Company says they have donated $2.5 million of their advertising budget to the relief efforts as of November 25.[218] By mid-December FIFA donated $1 million.[219] DHL deployed its Asia Pacific Disaster Response Team to the disaster areas to provide on-the-ground logistics support to assist with the relief effort in the aftermath of the devastating Typhoon Haiyan. Three rotating teams made up of volunteer employees from the Asia Pacific region were based at the Mactan Cebu Airport on Cebu island, providing support and assistance to the country's most affected areas west of Leyte Island, including Guiuan, Roxas, and Tacloban city.[220] Many smaller initiatives were founded as well - e.g. to prepare by donating to children a typhoon-ready backpack as floating device.[221]

U.S. Marines assisting in the Philippine disaster relief.

Major League Baseball donated $200,000 to UNICEF and the American Red Cross, with Commissioner Bud Selig encouraging fans to donate to the organizations.[222] UNICEF delivered portable toilets and hygiene supplies to the region and also appealed for $34 million to help the four million children affected.[223] The American Red Cross announced that they collected $11 million in donations for the Philippines Relief Fund.[224] Mercy Corps dispatched a "emergency response" team to help with humanitarian efforts.[225] MAP International launched medical relief efforts providing over $10 million in medicines and supplies to the Philippines.

Among the NGO responses, among the most comprehensive disaster response came from the Taiwan-based "Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, which organized a large-scale cash-for-work program in Tacloban from Nov 20 to Dec 8 with up to 31,000 participants per day, totaling nearly 300,000 day shifts. This operation not only helped clean out the thousands of tons of debris covering the city, but also kick-started the local economy. Tzu Chi also contributed emergency cash aid of 8000, 12000 or 15000 pesos depending on family size for over 60,000 families in the affected areas of Tacloban, Ormoc, Palo, Tanauan and Tunga, and has been providing free clinics, hot meals, and temporary class rooms for over 15 schools in the area. Doctors Without Borders is sending 200 tons of aid.[207][226] The International Society for Krishna Consciousness's Food For Life Global, the world's largest vegan food relief organisation, raised money and provided vegan meals in the Philippines to Typhoon Haiyan survivors.[227][228] Other NGOs run by faith-based organisations that raised money and/or aided in the disaster relief efforts of Typhoon Haiyan included Catholic Relief Services,[229] Catholic Medical Mission Board (CMMB),[229] Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA),[229] LDS Philanthropies,[230] American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (AJJDC),[229] Samaritan's Purse,[229] Salvation Army,[229] Christian Children's Fund of Canada,[229] MAP International and World Vision.[229]

The Iglesia Ni Cristo (INC), the largest indigenous Christian church based in the Philippines held series of massive relief distributions and medical and dental missions to affected population of the storm to different parts of Visayas.[231] The humanitarian mission was done under the "Lingap sa Mamamayan" (Aid for Humanity) project in cooperation with the Felix Y. Manalo (FYM) Foundation Inc., the INC’s charitable arm.[232][233] The church conducted the largest walk for a cause in the world (walkathon) on February 15, 2014, dubbed as 'Iglesia Ni Cristo World Wide Walk for Those Affected by Typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan'.[234][235] The walk for a cause raised millions of money to help the victims of the super typhoon for the construction of their houses and shelters. The aim of the activity is to make the world understand that Haiyan survivors are still in dare need of help and financial assistance. Indeed, the worldwide walk caught the attention of the world when it breaks two Guinness world records as the largest charity walk in a single venue (Manila, Philippines) with 175,000 participants, and largest charity walk in 24 hours for multiple venues (from Christchurch, New Zealand to Hawaii, USA) in 13 time zones, 54 countries, 24 hours with 519, 521 participants.[236][237]

Celebrities such as David and Victoria Beckham,[238] Stephen Colbert,[239] Kim Kardashian,[240] David Guetta,[241] and The X Factor contributed to the fundraisng.[242] On November 26, iTunes released a compilation album entitled Songs for the Philippines featuring different artists, including Katy Perry, Madonna, Bob Dylan, and The Beatles.[243] All proceeds will go to the Philippine Red Cross.[243] One Republic donated $100,000 on November 30, 2013.[244] Other celebrities that offered their support included Linkin Park, The Offspring,[245] Alicia Keys,[246] and Justin Bieber.[247]

On the day of his death, actor Paul Walker attended a charity event for his organization, Reach Out Worldwide, for the victims of the typhoon that was held right before his accident.[248]

On March 11, 2014, a benefit concert called The Pinoy Relief Benefit Concert was held at Madison Square Garden in New York, City. Jennifer Hudson, Pentatonix, A Great Big World, Plain White T's, Jessica Sanchez, Charice and REO Brothers performed. Special guests also included Dr. Oz, Dante Basco, Bobby Lopez, Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Apl.de.ap. 100% of proceeds raised directly went to the Typhoon Haiyan survivors.[249] Pinoy Relief was created to help survivors and focus on three specific areas: restoring livelihoods, building classrooms and providing shelter in partnership with local NGOs, Habitat for Humanity Philippines and Operation Blessing Philippines.[250]

On March 13, 2016, former United States of America vice president Al Gore, visited Tacloban and delivered his speech in front of the survivors of Haiyan. He also dropped by at the MV Eva Jocelyn, a cargo ship that washed out inland during the typhoon and now converted into a memorial park.[251]

Politics involving aid relief
First UK-funded humanitarian flight arrives at Mactan-Cebu International Airport.
The island of Binuluanguan overflown by a helicopter from HMS Daring.

The aid contributions of China and the United States were given focus with regards to their involvement in the politics of the Philippines.[252] Apart from having the two largest economies in the world, both countries are involved in a complex relationship with the island country. China is currently disputing the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea with the Philippines while the United States used to be an occupying power and currently has a mutual defense treaty with the islands.[253]

China was initially criticized for its meager contribution of US $100,000 cash each from the government and the Chinese Red Cross to the typhoon victims, which led to commentary about its disputes with the Philippines.[254] Earlier in 2013, the Philippines sued China over the nine-dotted line. Commentators attribute this low amount to China's intentions to isolate the Philippines while strengthening its ties with the rest of Southeast Asia.[255] The move had mixed reactions from the public of China with some commending its decision while others, such as The Global Times, insisted that China should be a responsible power. China later increased its contributions by US$1.64 million in supplies [133][256] and sent its naval hospital ship Peace Ark for disaster relief."[134]

The contributions of the United States was in contrast to that of China. It gave the Philippines an amount of US$51.9 million worth of aid apart and deployed the United States Marines, United States Navy and United States Air Force in order to assist with the humanitarian operations.[257] This was seen by observers as part of the Asia pivot that the United States government had previously announced. The Philippine government had been discussing with the U.S. plans regarding the deployment of U.S. military troops within the country. Aid contributions of the U.S. was seen as a sign of goodwill in order to further strengthen relations.[258]

Vietnam

Following Typhoon Haiyan's landfall in Vietnam, widespread search and rescue missions took place in the affected provinces. Damage assessments were also conducted in 13 provinces to determine what aid was needed. The IFRC began distribution of relief supplies and assisted residents in returning home by November 12. Operations regarding the aftermath of Typhoon Wutip were temporarily suspended due to Haiyan.[48]

In popular media

A detailed analysis of Typhoon Haiyan and its destruction in the Philippines was featured in a documentary called Megastorm: World's Biggest Typhoon. It aired on December 30, 2013 on Discovery Channel.[259]

See also

Other most intense tropical cyclones

Notes

  1. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States NavyUnited States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[8]
  2. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[11]
  3. A super typhoon is defined as a tropical cyclone with one-minute sustained winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph).[14]
  4. Total damages figure includes agriculture, infrastructure, casualties, etc. damages.

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External links

General information about the typhoon
General information about the response operation in the Philippines
Media coverage of Typhoon Haiyan's destruction in the Philippines
Relief operations of the Government of the Philippines
Others