Ubuntu (operating system)
Screenshot of Ubuntu Desktop 15.10 Wily Werewolf
|Developer||Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community|
|Source model||Open source (with exceptions)|
|Initial release||20 October 2004|
|Latest release||Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak / 13 October 2016|
|Marketing target||Personal computers, servers, smartphones, tablet computers (Ubuntu Touch), smart TVs (Ubuntu TV)|
|Available in||More than 55 languages by LoCos|
|Update method||APT (Software Updater, Ubuntu Software Center)|
|Package manager||dpkg, Click packages|
|Platforms||IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARM64, Power|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface|
|License||Free software licenses
Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux operating system and distribution for personal computers, smartphones and network servers. It uses Unity as its default desktop environment. It is based on free software and named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu (literally, "human-ness"), which often is translated as "humanity towards others" or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".
Development of Ubuntu is led by UK-based Canonical Ltd., a company owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue through the sale of technical support and other services related to Ubuntu. The Ubuntu project is publicly committed to the principles of open-source software development; people are encouraged to use free software, study how it works, improve upon it, and distribute it.
- 1 Features
- 2 Security
- 3 History and development process
- 4 Installation
- 5 Package classification and support
- 6 Releases
- 7 Variants
- 8 Adoption and reception
- 9 Local communities (LoCos)
- 10 Hardware vendor support
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess. Many additional software packages, including titles no longer in the default installation such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic, are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software Center as well as any other APT-based package management tool. Execution of Microsoft Office and other Microsoft Windows applications can be facilitated via the Wine compatibility package or through the use of a virtual machine such as VirtualBox or VMware Workstation.
Ubuntu's goal is to be secure "out-of-the box". By default, the user's programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system or other users' files. For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes. PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system. Most network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking. A built-in firewall allows end-users who install network servers to control access. A GUI (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) is available to configure it. Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and buffer overflow protection to harden its software. These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32 bit and 0.01% in 64 bit.
The home and Private directories can be encrypted.
History and development process
Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, to provide Linux server, desktop, phone, tablet and TV operating systems. Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months, and each release receives free support for nine months (eighteen months prior to 13.04) with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes. The first release was in October 2004.
It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support (LTS). Long-term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure). The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well. LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date.
Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch. Both distributions use Debian's deb package format and package management tools (APT and Ubuntu Software Center). Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however; packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu. Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian, although there has been criticism that this does not happen often enough. Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, has expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible. Before release, packages are imported from Debian Unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. One month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together.
Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd., announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation as an "emergency fund"; which in such a case, Canonical's involvement ends.
The system requirements vary among Ubuntu products. For the Ubuntu desktop release 14.04, a PC with at least 768 MB of RAM and 5 GB of disk space is recommended. For less powerful computers, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and Xubuntu. As of version 12.04, Ubuntu supports the ARM architecture. Ubuntu is also available on PowerPC, and SPARC platforms, although these platforms are not officially supported.
Live images are the typical way for users to assess and subsequently install Ubuntu. These can be downloaded as a disk image (.iso) and subsequently burnt to a DVD and booted, or run via UNetbootin directly from a USB drive (making, respectively, a live DVD or live USB medium). Running Ubuntu in this way is typically slower than running it from a hard drive, but does not alter the computer unless specifically instructed by the user. If the user chooses to boot the live image rather than execute an installer at boot time, there is still the option to then use an installer called Ubiquity to install Ubuntu once booted into the live environment. Disk images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site. Various third-party programs such as remastersys and Reconstructor are available to create customized copies of the Ubuntu Live DVDs (or CDs). "Minimal CDs" are available (for server use) that fit on a CD.
Additionally, USB flash drive installations can be used to boot Ubuntu and Kubuntu in a way that allows permanent saving of user settings and portability of the USB-installed system between physical machines (however, the computers' BIOS must support booting from USB). In newer versions of Ubuntu, the Ubuntu Live USB creator can be used to install Ubuntu on a USB drive (with or without a live CD or DVD). Creating a bootable USB drive with persistence is as simple as dragging a slider to determine how much space to reserve for persistence; for this, Ubuntu employs casper.
The desktop edition can also be installed using the Netboot image (a.k.a. netbook tarball) which uses the debian-installer and allows certain specialist installations of Ubuntu: setting up automated deployments, upgrading from older installations without network access, LVM and/or RAID partitioning, installs on systems with less than about 256 MB of RAM (although low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably).
Package classification and support
Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available. Some unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd.
|Free software||Non-free software|
Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Exceptions, however, include firmware and fonts, in the Main category, because although they are not allowed to be modified, their distribution is otherwise unencumbered.
Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for important non-free software. Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers. The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code. It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment. Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories.
In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained.
The -updates repository provides stable release updates (SRU) of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Each release is given its own -updates repository (e.g. intrepid-updates). The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse. All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public. Updates are scheduled to be available until the end of life for the release.
In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression. Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community.
Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software. The software in the partner repository is officially supported with security and other important updates by its respective vendors. Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu and provides guidance to vendors. The partner repository is disabled by default and can be enabled by the user. Some popular products distributed via the partner repository as of 28 April 2013[update] are Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Skype.
Ubuntu has a certification system for third-party software. Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun's Java runtime environment, Adobe's Flash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the RAR file format.
Additionally, third party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software Center, including many high-quality games such as Braid and Oil Rush, software for DVD playback and media codecs.
|Version||Code name||Release date||Supported until|
|12.04 LTS||Precise Pangolin||2012-04-26||Older version, yet still supported: 2017-04|
|12.10||Quantal Quetzal||2012-10-18||Old version, no longer supported: 2014-05-16|
|13.04||Raring Ringtail||2013-04-25||Old version, no longer supported: 2014-01-27|
|13.10||Saucy Salamander||2013-10-17||Old version, no longer supported: 2014-07-17|
|14.04 LTS||Trusty Tahr||2014-04-17||Older version, yet still supported: 2019-04|
|14.10||Utopic Unicorn||2014-10-23||Old version, no longer supported: 2015-07-23|
|15.04||Vivid Vervet||2015-04-23||Older version, yet still supported: 2016-01|
|15.10||Wily Werewolf||2015-10-22||Current stable version: 2016-07|
|16.04 LTS||Xenial Xerus||2016-04-21||Future release: N/A|
Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release. For example, the first release was Ubuntu 4.10 as it was released on 20 October 2004. Version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed the version number changes accordingly.
Ubuntu releases are also given alliterative code names, using an adjective and an animal (e.g., "Trusty Tahr" and "Precise Pangolin"). With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. "We might skip a few letters, and we'll have to wrap eventually." says Mark Shuttleworth while describing the naming scheme. Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name; for example, the 14.04 LTS release is commonly known as "Trusty".
Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases (which in turn are about one month after releases of X.org). As a result, every Ubuntu release was introduced with an updated version of both GNOME and X. After each release, the Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS) is held, at which the Ubuntu community sets the development direction for the next cycle.
Upgrades between releases have to be done from one release to the next release (e.g. Ubuntu 13.10 to Ubuntu 14.04) or from one LTS release to the next LTS release (e.g. Ubuntu 12.04 LTS to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS).
Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat), was released on 10 October 2010 (10–10–10). This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10", and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary, 101010 equals decimal 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series.
The variant officially recommended for most users, and officially supported by Canonical, is Ubuntu Desktop (formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu), designed for desktop and laptop PCs using Unity Desktop interface (earlier versions used GNOME). A number of other variants are distinguished simply by each featuring a different desktop environment: Ubuntu GNOME (with the GNOME desktop environment), Ubuntu MATE (with the MATE desktop environment), Kubuntu (with KDE Plasma Workspaces), Lubuntu (with LXDE), and Xubuntu (with Xfce). LXDE and Xfce are sometimes recommended for use with older PCs that may have less memory and processing power available.
These five are not commercially supported by Canonical.
Besides Ubuntu Desktop, there are several other official Ubuntu editions, which are created and maintained by Canonical and the Ubuntu community and receive full support from Canonical, its partners and the Community. They include the following:
- Ubuntu Business Desktop Remix, a release meant for business users that comes with special enterprise software including Adobe Flash, Canonical Landscape, OpenJDK 6 and VMware View, while removing social networking and file sharing applications, games and development/sysadmin tools. The goal of the Business Desktop Remix is not to copy other enterprise-oriented distributions, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but to make it, according to Mark Shuttleworth's blog, "easier for institutional users to evaluate Ubuntu Desktop for their specific needs."
- Ubuntu TV, labeled "TV for human beings" by Canonical, was introduced at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show by Canonical's marketing executive John D. Bernard. Created for smart TVs, Ubuntu TV aimed to provide access to popular Internet services and stream content to mobile devices running Android, iOS and Ubuntu. Launchpad.net has not shown any development activity since late 2011.
There are many Ubuntu variants (or derivatives) based on the official Ubuntu editions. These Ubuntu variants install a default set of packages that differ from the official Ubuntu distributions.
The variants recognized by Canonical as contributing significantly towards the Ubuntu project are the following:
- Edubuntu, a subproject and add-on for Ubuntu, designed for school environments and home users.
- Mythbuntu, designed for creating a home theater PC with MythTV and uses the Xfce desktop environment.
- Ubuntu Studio, a distribution made for professional video and audio editing, comes with higher-end free editing software.
Edubuntu, Mythbuntu and Ubuntu Studio are not commercially supported by Canonical.
Other variants are created and maintained by individuals and organizations outside of Canonical, and they are self-governed projects that work more or less closely with the Ubuntu community.
Chinese derivative UbuntuKylin
As of Ubuntu 10.10, a Chinese version of Ubuntu Desktop called "Ubuntu Chinese Edition", had been released alongside the various other editions. However, in 2013, Canonical reached an agreement with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China to make Ubuntu the new basis of the Kylin operating system starting with Raring Ringtail (version 13.04). The first version of Ubuntu Kylin was released on 25 April 2013.
Ubuntu has a server edition that uses the same APT repositories as the Ubuntu Desktop Edition. The differences between them are the absence of an X Window environment in a default installation of the server edition (although one can easily be installed including Unity, GNOME, KDE or Xfce) and the installation process. The server edition uses a screen mode character-based interface for the installation, instead of a graphical installation process.
Ubuntu 10.04 Server Edition[dated info] can also run on VMware ESX Server, Oracle's VirtualBox and VM, Citrix Systems XenServer hypervisors, Microsoft Hyper-V, QEMU, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, or any other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer. Ubuntu 10.04 turns on AppArmor (security module for the Linux kernel) by default on key software packages, and the firewall is extended to common services used by the operating system.
Ubuntu Touch is an alternate version of Ubuntu developed for smartphones and tablets which was announced on 2 January 2013. Ubuntu Touch was Released To Manufacturing on 16 September 2014. The first device to run it was the Galaxy Nexus. A demo version for higher-end Ubuntu smartphones was shown that could run a full Ubuntu desktop when connected to a monitor and keyboard, which was to ship as Ubuntu for Android. A concept for a smartphone running Ubuntu for Phones was published[when?] on Ubuntu's official channel on YouTube. The platform allows developing one app with two interfaces: a smartphone UI, and, when docked, a desktop UI. Ubuntu for Tablets was previewed at 19 February 2013. According to the keynote video, an Ubuntu Phone will be able to connect to a tablet, which will then utilize a tablet interface; plugging a keyboard and mouse into the tablet will transform the phone into a desktop; and plugging a television monitor into the phone will bring up the Ubuntu TV interface.
On 6 February 2015, the first smartphone running Ubuntu Touch pre-installed was announced. The BQ Aquaris E4.5 Ubuntu Edition features a 4.5-inch (110 mm) qHD display, a 1.3 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 processor, and 1 GB of RAM. It is currently priced at €169.90, while the 5-inch Aquaris E5 HD Ubuntu Edition is available for €199.90.
Ubuntu offers Ubuntu Cloud Images which are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on cloud-platforms such as Amazon EC2, OpenStack, Windows and LXC. Ubuntu is also prevalent on VPS platforms such as DigitalOcean.
Ubuntu 11.04 added support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools added by Canonical in Ubuntu Server 11.10. Ubuntu 11.10 added focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu's preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also supported. Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server.
Adoption and reception
Because of a lack of registration, any number provided for Ubuntu usage can only be estimated. In 2015, Canonical's Ubuntu Insights page stated "Ubuntu now has over 40 million desktop users and counting".
W3Techs estimated in October 2013 that:
- Ubuntu is used by 26.1% of all Linux websites, behind only Debian (on which Ubuntu is based), which is used by 32.7% of all Linux websites.
- Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution among the top 1000 sites and gains around 500 of the top 10 million websites per day.
- Ubuntu is used by 8.2% of all websites analyzed, growing from less than 7% in October 2012.
According to thecloudmarket.com, Ubuntu is on at least 54% of the images it scanned on Amazon EC2.
The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu. As of January 2009[update], the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu-based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations; the Spanish school system has 195,000 Ubuntu desktops. The French police, having already started using open-source software in 2005 by replacing Microsoft Office with OpenOffice.org, decided to transition to Ubuntu from Windows XP after the release of Windows Vista in 2006. By March 2009, the Gendarmerie Nationale had already switched 5000 workstations to Ubuntu. Based on the success of that transition, it planned to switch 15,000 more over by the end of 2009 and to have switched all 90,000 workstations over by 2015 (GendBuntu project). Lt. Colonel Guimard announced that the move was very easy and allowed for a 70% saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities. In 2011, Ubuntu 10.04 was adopted by the Indian justice system. The Government of Kerala adopted Ubuntu for the legislators in Kerala and the government schools of Kerala began to use customized IT@School Project Ubuntu 10.04 which contains specially created software for students. Earlier, Windows was used in the schools. Textbooks were also remade with an Ubuntu syllabus and are currently used in schools.
The city of Munich, Germany, has forked Kubuntu 10.04 LTS and created LiMux for use on the city's computers. After originally planning to migrate 12,000 desktop computer to LiMux, it was announced in December 2013 that the project had completed successfully with the migration of 14,800 out of 15,500 desktop computers. In March 2012, the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software. Already several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu. The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open source software avoids vendor lock-in. A 12-month project was launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to open-source, and help ease the migration for others. Incumbent U.S. president Barack Obama's successful campaign for re-election in 2012 used Ubuntu in its IT department. In August 2014, the city of Turin, Italy, announced the migration from Windows XP to Ubuntu for its 8,300 desktop computers used by the municipality, becoming the first city in Italy to adopt Ubuntu.
Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London, received favorable reviews in online and print publications, and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS. In early 2008 PC World named Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today", though it criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager. Chris DiBona, the program manager for open-source software at Google, said "I think Ubuntu has captured people’s imaginations around the Linux desktop," and "If there is a hope for the Linux desktop, it would be them". As of January 2009[update], almost half of Google’s 20,000 employees used a slightly modified version of Ubuntu.
In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series Mythbusters, advocated Linux (giving the example of Ubuntu) as a solution to software bloat. Other celebrity users of Ubuntu include science fiction writer Cory Doctorow and actor Stephen Fry.
In March 2013, Canonical announced that it had decided to develop Mir, reversing an earlier plan to move to Wayland as the primary Ubuntu display server and causing widespread objection from the open source desktop community. X.Org contributor Daniel Stone opined: "I'm just irritated that this means more work for us, more work for upstream developers, more work for toolkits, more work for hardware vendors...." In September 2013, an Intel developer removed XMir support from their video driver and wrote "We do not condone or support Canonical in the course of action they have chosen, and will not carry XMir patches upstream".
In January 2014, the UK's authority for computer security, CESG, reported that Ubuntu 12.04 LTS was "the only operating system that passes as many as 9 out of 12 requirements without any significant risks".
Ubuntu's developers acknowledged battery life problems from version 10.04 and sought to solve the issues of power consumption in the 12.04 LTS release. The 14.04 release improved the situation, but still lagged other operating systems in the battery life metric.
One of the new features of Unity in Ubuntu 12.10 was the shopping lens – Amazon search results displayed in the Unity dash. It was alternately described as the "Amazon controversy", "privacy fiasco" and "spyware".
From October 2012, it sent the user's queries through a secure HTTPS connection from the home lens to productsearch.ubuntu.com, which then polled Amazon.com to find relevant products; Amazon then sent product images directly to the user's computer through HTTP. If the user clicked on one of these results and then bought something, Canonical got a small fraction of the sale.
In 2012, many reviewers criticized it: as the home lens is the normal means to search for content on the local machine, reviewers were concerned about the disclosure of queries that were intended to be local, creating a privacy problem. As the feature is active by default instead of opt-in, many users could be unaware of it.
Some users chose to turn it off or to remove the feature using a patch. An April 2014 article by Scott Gilbertson stated that the online search components of Ubuntu could be turned off with a couple of clicks in version 14.04. The feature may be changed to opt-in in a future release.
Local communities (LoCos)
In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities, better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world. Originally, each country had one LoCo Team. However, in some areas, most notably the United States and Canada, each state or province may establish a team. A LoCo Council approves teams based upon their efforts to aid in either the development or the promotion of Ubuntu.
Hardware vendor support
Ubuntu works closely with OEMs to jointly make Ubuntu available on a wide range of devices. A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell, Hasee, Sharp Corporation, Specifically, Dell offers the XPS 13 laptop, Developer Edition with Ubuntu pre-installed. Together, Dell, Lenovo, HP, and ASUS offer over 200 desktop and close to 500 laptop PCs preloaded with Ubuntu. Certified OEM images are also available for Ubuntu Advantage customers. System76, WeWi and Tesco. System76 PCs are sold exclusively with Ubuntu. Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical. Dell computers (running Ubuntu 10.04) include extra support for ATI Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI, Bluetooth, DVD playback (using LinDVD), and MP3/WMA/WMV. Asus is also selling some Asus Eee PCs with Ubuntu pre-installed and announced that "many more" Eee PC models running Ubuntu for 2011. Vodafone has made available a notebook for the South-African market called "Webbook".
Dell sells computers (initially Inspiron 14R and 15R laptops) pre-loaded with Ubuntu in India and China, with 850 and 350 retail outlets respectively. Starting in 2013, Alienware began offering its X51 model gaming desktop pre-installed with Ubuntu at a lower price than if it were pre-installed with Windows.
While Linux already works in IBM's mainframe system (zLinux), IBM in collaboration with Canonical (and SUSE; "Linux Foundation will form a new Open Mainframe Project") announced Ubuntu support for their z/Architecture (IBM claims their latest system, IBM zEnterprise System, version z13 is the most powerful computer in the world; it is the largest computer by transistor count) for the first time, at the time of their "biggest code drop" ("LinuxOne") in Linux history.
- "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems". the Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "Canonical releases Ubuntu 16.10". Ubuntu Insights. 2016-10-13. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- "Supported Hardware". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 7 July 2012.[dead link]
- "Ubuntu 11.10 will support ARM processors to take on Red Hat". The Inquirer. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Paul, Ryan (26 April 2012). "Precise Pangolin rolls out: Ubuntu 12.04 released, introduces Unity HUD". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Larabel, Michael (23 January 2012). "Ubuntu's Already Making Plans For ARM In 2014, 2015". Phoronix. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (22 August 2011). "Ubuntu Linux bets on the ARM server". ZDNet. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Ubuntu for IBM POWER8". Ubuntu. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Nelson Mandela (11 January 2006). The Ubuntu Experience (Nelson Mandela Interview) (Motion picture).
- Tutu, Desmond. "Who we are: Human uniqueness and the African spirit of Ubuntu".
- "Desmond Tutu on Ubuntu". Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "About Ubuntu. The Ubuntu Story". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "This is How You Pronounce Ubuntu". www.danelmiessler.com. Daniel Miessler. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- 'Ubuntu' is a Nguni Bantu word pronounced // uu-BOON-tuu. According to the company website the Ubuntu OS is pronounced // uu-BUUN-too
- "About the Name". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Canonical and Ubuntu". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Overview". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Morgan, Timothy Prickett (20 April 2010). "Ubuntu Server primed for the bigtime". The Register. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Ubuntu Project". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "The Free Software Definition". What is free software?. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Games/NativeFreeUbuntuGames – Community Help Wiki". Help.ubuntu.com. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Apps/Games – GNOME Wiki!". Wiki.gnome.org. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "RootSudo". Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "Default Network Services – Ubuntu Wiki".
- "Gufw". Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Ubuntu Wiki CompilerFlags". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "Debian Secure by Default". Debian: Secure by Default Project. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "EncryptedHome". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Ubuntu and Debian". Canonical. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (20 March 2013). "Ubuntu To Halve Support Window for 'Regular' Releases". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Time Based Releases". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Ubuntu 12.04 to feature extended support period for desktop users". Canonical.com. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Paul, Ryan (28 May 2012). "Precision and purpose: Ubuntu 12.04 and the Unity HUD reviewed". Ars Technica. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "TimeBasedReleases". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Art of Release". 12 May 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Mark Shuttleworth: What about binary compatibility between distributions?". Ubuntu Team Wiki. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Website does not reference Debian visibly". Ubuntu in Launchpad. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "Ubuntu vs. Debian, reprise". 20 April 2005. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- Hill, Benjamin Mako (8 July 2005). "Announcing Launch of ($10 m) Ubuntu Foundation". Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "RightScale Adds Full Support for Ubuntu Server to its Cloud Management Platform". Canonical Ltd. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Noyes, Katherine (May 2011). "Natty Narwhal: the First Linux for Newbies?". PC World. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Noyes, Katherine (26 October 2010). "Is Unity the Right Interface for Desktop Ubuntu?". PC World. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Desktop". Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Larabel, Michael (14 March 2012). "Ubuntu Plans To Drop Non-SMP PowerPC Support". Phoronix. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Technical Board Decision". February 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2008.
- "Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx)". cdimage.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- "Installing Ubuntu from the Live CD". Integrity Enterprises. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu Releases". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Ubuntu 8.10 Persistent Flash Drive Installation". Pendrivelinux. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- "Casper, the Friendly (and Persistent) Ghost". linuxjournal.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Ubuntu Manpage: casper – a hook for initramfs-tools to boot live systems.". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal). Alternate install CD". Ubuntu Releases. Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- "About Ubuntu. Licensing". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "UbuntuBackports". Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "StableReleaseUpdates". Canonical. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "SRU Verification". Canonical. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "Application packaging". Canonical. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- Thomason, Brian. "Partner Repository Forum FAQ". Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "Desktop support features". Canonical. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "RepositoriesUbuntu". Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Certification. Application packaging". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Ubuntu Software Center". Shop.canonical.com. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Planella, David. "Top 10 Ubuntu Software Centre app downloads for November | Ubuntu App Developer". Developer.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Mark Shuttleworth (18 October 2013). "Quantal, raring, saucy…". Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Mark Shuttleworth (23 April 2014). "U talking to me?". Mark Shuttleworth | here be dragons. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Utopic Unicorn Schedule". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Mark Shuttleworth (20 October 2014). "V is for Vivid". Mark Shuttleworth | here be dragons. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Mark Shuttleworth (4 May 2015). "W is for Wily". Mark Shuttleworth | here be dragons. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "WilyWerewolf/ReleaseSchedule – Ubuntu Wiki". ubuntu.com.
- Mark Shuttleworth (21 October 2015). "X marks the spot". Mark Shuttleworth | here be dragons. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "XenialXerus/ReleaseSchedule – Ubuntu Wiki". ubuntu.com.
- "CommonQuestions. Ubuntu Releases and Version Numbers.". Ubuntu Community Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
- "DevelopmentCodeNames". Ubuntu. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- "About: Ubuntu Developer Summit". Summit.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "UpgradeNotes. General Upgrade Information.". Ubuntu Community Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Mark Shuttleworth (2 April 2010). "Shooting for the Perfect 10.10 with Maverick Meerkat". Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- Mark Shuttleworth (11 May 2010). "ubuntu-marketing: 10.10.10". Ubuntu Mailing Lists. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Ubuntu 12.04.5 LTS (Precise Pangolin)". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS (Trusty Tahr)". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Download Ubuntu Desktop". Ubuntu. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "LXDE, the New Lightweight Linux Desktop". linuxplanet.com. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Jack Wallen. "Lightweight Linux Desktop Alternative: Xfce - Linux.com". Linux.com – The source for Linux Information. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "DerivativeTeam/Derivatives". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "About Ubuntu. Derivatives". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Business Desktop Remix 12.04 LTS". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Remixing Ubuntu for the Enterprise Desktop". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Ubuntu TV readies for battle with Google and Apple". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Features and Specs". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "~ubuntutv-dev-team/ubuntutv/trunk". launchpad.net. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "About Edubuntu". Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Index of /releases". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Heath, Nick (22 March 2013). "Chinese government builds national OS around Ubuntu.". Zdnet.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "UbuntuKylin". DistroWatch.com. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Preparing to Install". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Landing team 16.09.14 : Mailing list archive : ubuntu-phone team in Launchpad". launchpad.net. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Holly, Russell (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu for Phones unveiled, no hardware on the horizon". Geek.com. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Ubuntu for tablets – Full video". YouTube. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "BQ’s new Aquaris E4.5 Ubuntu Edition – the smartphone that puts content and services at your fingertips.". Canonical. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Cloud Images". ubuntu.com. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Digital Ocean Where Do Droplets Form". digitalocean.com. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Canonical switches to OpenStack for Ubuntu Linux cloud". Zdnet.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Prickett, Timothy (10 May 2011). "Ubuntu eats OpenStack for clouds". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Dustin Kirkland of Canonical". YouTube. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "ServerTeam/Orchestra – Ubuntu Wiki". Wiki.ubuntu.com. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Kerner, Sean Michael (7 April 2010). "Ubuntu Claims 12 Million Users as Lucid Linux Desktop Nears". Linux Planet. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- "About Ubuntu Insights".
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Linux for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Debian/Ubuntu extend the dominance in the Linux web server market at the expense of Red Hat/CentOS". W3Techs. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Ubuntu for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Web Technologies Statistics and Trends". W3Techs. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Unix for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Cloud Market: EC2 Statistics". thecloudmarket.com. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Zachte, Eric. "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Operating Systems". Wikimedia Statistics. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Relph-Knight, Terry (10 February 2012). "A tale of two distros: Ubuntu and Linux Mint". ZDNet. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Vance, Ashlee (10 January 2009). "A Software Populist Who Doesn't Do Windows". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
- "Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-Powered Computer Workstations". Canonical Ltd. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Paul, Ryan (11 March 2009). "French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "India's Justice Sytem[sic] Switches to Ubuntu 10.04 – Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Kerala Schools switches to Ubuntu 10.04". insights.ubuntu.com. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "Landeshauptstadt München – Das Projekt LiMux" [City of Munich – The project LiMux (Google translation)] (in German). Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Loek Essers (13 December 2013). "Munich open-source switch 'completed successfully'".
- Brown, Mark (23 March 2012). "Icelandic government makes a push for open-source software". Wired UK. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Gallagher, Sean (20 November 2012). "How Team Obama's tech efficiency left Romney IT in dust". Ars Technica. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Stahie, Silviu (8 August 2014). "Turin to Be First Italian City to Adopt Ubuntu, Unshackle from the "Tyranny of Proprietary Software"". Softpedia. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Guccione, Gabriele (4 August 2014). "Il Comune di Torino rinnova i pc e dà l’addio a Microsoft: "Risparmiamo 6 milioni"". Gruppo Editoriale L′Espresso. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Masters, John (June 2005). "LinuxWorld Expo UK 2005" (PDF). Linux Magazine. Linux New Media. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Adelstein, Tom (19 April 2005). "Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 6 – Ubuntu". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- McAllister, Neil (January 2008). "Gutsy Gibbon: Desktop Linux OS Made Easy". 26. PC World: 84
- Venenzia, Paul (10 September 2007). "Best of open source in platforms and middleware". InfoWorld. IDG. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Strohmeyer, Robert (2 June 2008). "Desktop Linux Face-Off: Ubuntu 8.04 vs. Fedora 9". PC World. IDG. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- Hyneman, Jamie (18 February 2008). "MythBusters: 7 Tech Headaches—and How to Fix Them". Popular Mechanics. Hearst. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Thomas, K.; Channelle, A.; Sicam, J. (2009). Beginning Ubuntu Linux. Apress. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-1-4302-1999-6.
- Sneddon, Joey. "Stephen Fry: "I Use Ubuntu"". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Canonical reveals plans to launch Mir display server — Update — The H Open: News and Features". H-online.com. 24 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (4 November 2010). "Unity on Wayland".
The next major transition for Unity will be to deliver it on Wayland....
- Larabel, Michael (5 March 2013). "A Note To Canonical: "Don't Piss On Wayland"".
- Gräßlin, maintainer of KWin, the KDE window manager, Martin (8 March 2013). "War is Peace".
Will KWin support Mir? No!
- Edmundson, David (12 March 2013). "KDE, LightDM and the Mir Kerfuffle".
If you know for 6 months that you're not going to do something you said you would it's rude not to tell people.
- Larabel, Michael (13 March 2013). "GNOME Will Move Full-Speed With Wayland Support".
What's GNOME doing about Mir? They're laying out plans right now to move hard and fast with Wayland support!
- Larabel, Michael (4 March 2013). "Upstream X/Wayland Developers Bash Canonical, Mir".
- Intel (7 September 2013). "xf86-video-intel 2.99.902 snapshot". Chris Wilson. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Michael Larabel (7 September 2013). "Intel Reverts Plans, Will Not Support Ubuntu's XMir". Phoronix. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Brodkin, Jon (9 September 2013). "Intel rejection of Ubuntu’s Mir patch forces Canonical to go own way". Ars Technica. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Hillenius, Gijs (20 January 2014). "Ubuntu 'highest score' in UK gov security test". JoinUp from the European Commission. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "MacBook 5,1 and Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid)". Ubuntu. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- King, Colin. "Improving Battery Life in Ubuntu Precise 12.04 LTS". Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Scott Gilbertson (23 April 2014). "Ubuntu 14.04 review: Missing the boat on big changes". Ars Technica. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Lynch, Jim (5 December 2012). "Ubuntu 12.10". Linux Desktop Reviews. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Controversy Erupts over Amazon Search in Ubuntu 12.10", C.Tozzi, 2012, thevarguy.com
- "Ubuntu 13.04: No privacy controls as promised, but hey – photo search!", S. Gilbertson, 2013, theregister.co.uk
- "Richard Stallman calls Ubuntu "spyware" because it tracks searches", J.Brodkin, 2012, arstechnica.com
- Lee, Micah (29 October 2012). "Privacy in Ubuntu 12.10: Amazon Ads and Data Leaks". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Gilbertson, Scott (18 October 2012). "Ay caramba, Ubuntu 12.10: Get it right on Amazon!". The Register. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Samson, Ted (25 September 2012). "Canonical wants to shill for Amazon on Ubuntu users' desktops". InfoWorld. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Shuttleworth defends Ubuntu Linux integrating Amazon". ZDnet. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "'Fix Ubuntu' site accused of trademark violation, asked to change domain name", J.Brodkin, 2013, arstechnica.com
- As an emblematic 2013's resignations, Austria's Big Brother Awards awarded the coveted Big Brother Award to Ubuntu's founder Mark Shuttleworth for Ubuntu Dash's privacy reducing online extensions to local searches."
- "Ubuntu Local Community Teams".
- "Ubuntu LoCo Team Portal". Canonical. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "About Local Community (LoCo) Teams". Canonical. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "XPS 13 Developer Edition". www.dell.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Dell and Ubuntu". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Marcel Hilzinger. "Günstiges Netbook aus China". LinuxCommunity. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Sharp NetWalker PC-Z1: What you get when you shrink a netbook". Liliputing. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "XPS 13 Laptop™, Developer Edition".
- "System76: About Ubuntu". System76. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Vaughan-Nicholes, Steven J. (9 August 2013). "First solar-powered Linux laptop". ZDNet. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "System76 announces servers with Ubuntu 7.10 and Canonical support services". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Your Blog " Blog Archive " Dell Upgrades Consumer Linux PCs to Ubuntu 8.04". Dell. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
- "Asus will preload ubuntu linux on three eee pcs". The Inquirer. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- Woods, Ben (3 June 2011). "Asus preloads Eee PC models with Ubuntu | ZDNet UK". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Asus Launching Eee PC Netbooks with Ubuntu". Tomshardware.com. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Vodafone brings ARM and Ubuntu together for South African Webbook". Engadget. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "The Ubuntu Powered ‘Vodafone Webbook’ Launched". Omgubuntu.co.uk. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Ubuntu 11.10 Powered Webbook Sells at $190 – Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Dell launch with Ubuntu at retail in India" (Press release). Canonical. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Murphy, Mark (18 June 2012). "Dell Extends Ubuntu Retail into India". Canonical. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "Alienware X51 gaming PC now available with Ubuntu, starts at $600". Engadget. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Chris Merriman (17 August 2015). "IBM makes 'biggest code drop' as Canonical and Suse tie-up brings better Linux to mainframes: UbuntuOne brings industry standard tools to a mainframe environment".
- "Intel Compute Stick Product Brief" (PDF). Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Gagne, Marcel (27 August 2006). Moving to Ubuntu Linux (1st ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. p. 496. ISBN 978-0-321-42722-9.
- Grant, Rickford; Bull, Phil (7 July 2010). Ubuntu for Non-Geeks: A Pain-Free, Get-Things-Done Guide (4th ed.). No Starch Press. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59327-257-9.
- Hill, Benjamin Mako; Bacon, Jono; Burger, Corey; Jesse, Jonathan; Krstic, Ivan (21 August 2006). The Official Ubuntu Book (1st ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-13-243594-9.
- Hudson, Andrew; Hudson, Paul; Helmke, Matthew; Troy, Ryan (25 December 2009). Ubuntu Unleashed 2010 Edition: Covering 9.10 and 10.4 (5th ed.). Sams. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-672-33109-1.
- Keir, Thomas (15 March 2006). Beginning Ubuntu Linux: From Novice to Professional. Apress. p. 608. ISBN 978-1-59059-627-2.
- Oxer, Jonathan; Rankin, Kyle; Childers, Bill (14 June 2006). Ubuntu Hacks: Tips & Tools for Exploring, Using, and Tuning Linux (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-596-52720-4.
- von Hagen, William (3 January 2007). Ubuntu Linux Bible (1st ed.). Wiley. p. 936. ISBN 978-0-470-03899-4.
- Paporovic, Sasa (August 2014). Ubuntu 14.04 – Everyday usage(Video-Tutorial). CreateSpace Independent Publishing.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|