United States Minor Outlying Islands

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United States Minor Outlying Islands
Flag
Motto: 
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Locations of the United States Minor Outlying Islands in the Pacific Ocean; note that Navassa Island is not visible on this map.
Locations of the United States Minor Outlying Islands in the Pacific Ocean; note that Navassa Island is not visible on this map.
Administrative center Washington, D.C.
Largest village Wake Island
National language English
Demonym
  • American
  • Islander
Government
 •  President Barack Obama (D)
 •  Governor none
 •  Lieutenant Governor none
Area
 •  Total 34.2 km2 (190th)
13.2 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 88.6
Population
 •  2009 estimate 300 (232nd)
 •  2000 census 316
 •  Density n/a/km2 (n/a)
n/a/sq mi
GDP (PPP) estimate
 •  Total n/a (n/a)
 •  Per capita $46,381a (6th)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
ISO 3166 code UM
Internet TLD .us b
a. 2000 estimate.
b. .um was retired in 2008.
Brown boobies atop pier posts at Johnston Atoll, 2005

The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code, consist of eight United States insular areas in the Pacific Ocean (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island) and one in the Caribbean Sea (Navassa Island).

Overview

Among them, Palmyra Atoll is the only incorporated territory. As of 2008, none of the islands have any permanent residents. The only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on Johnston Atoll and one person on Wake Island.[1]

There has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936 a colonization program began to settle Americans on Baker, Howland, and Jarvis, but all three islands were evacuated in 1942 as a result of World War II.[2][3]

The islands are grouped together as a statistical convenience. They are not administered collectively, nor do they share a single cultural or political history beyond being uninhabited islands under the sovereignty of the United States.

They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM. The individual islands have ISO 3166-2 numerical codes, see ISO 3166-2:UM. The Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) ".um" has historically been assigned to the islands; however, the .um ccTLD was retired in January 2007.[4]

ISO introduced the term "United States Minor Outlying Islands" in 1986. From 1974 until 1986, five of the islands (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef) were grouped under the term United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands, with ISO 3166 code PU. The code of Midway Atoll was MI, the code of Johnston Atoll was JT, and the code of Wake Island was WK. The Pacific islands are surrounded by large Exclusive Economic Zones.

See also Organized incorporated territories, Unincorporated territories and List of territorial disputes in North America.

Airports

The following is a list of island airports with ICAO (IATA) codes:

Other airports include:

Ports

Three of the islands are listed with ports in the World Port Index,[7] with World Port Number:

  • 56325 JOHNSTON ATOLL: Johnston Atoll
  • 56328 MIDWAY ISLAND: Midway Atoll
  • 56330 WAKE ISLAND: Wake Island
  • not listed WEST LAGOON: Palmyra Atoll

Baker Island, Howland Island and Jarvis Island have a small boat landing place on each. Kingman Reef and Navassa Island have offshore anchorage only.

Islands

Atoll or island Island area
km²
Lagoon
km²
coordinates NWR
established
Date of
acquisition

Northern Pacific Ocean, scattered isolated islands

Wake IslandA 7.4 6 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2009 January 6[8][9] 1899 January 17
Johnston AtollB 2.52 130 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1926 July 29[10] 1859 September 6

Northern Pacific Ocean, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Midway Atoll 5.18 40 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1996 November 1[11] 1867 August 28

Central Pacific Ocean, Northern Line Islands

Kingman Reef 0.01 76 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2001 January 18[12] 1860 February 8
Palmyra AtollB 6.56 15 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 2001 January 18[13] 1912 February 21

Central Pacific Ocean, Central Line Islands

Jarvis Island 4.45 - Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1974 June 27[3] 1856 October 28

Central Pacific Ocean, Northern Phoenix Islands

Baker Island 1.24 - Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1974 June 27[2] 1856 October 28
Howland Island 1.62 - Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1974 June 27[2] 1856 October 28

Caribbean Sea

Navassa IslandC 5.2 - Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. 1999 December 3[14] 1858 October 31
Bajo Nuevo BankD 0.02 155 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. N/A 1869 November 22
Serranilla BankE 0.02 1200 Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. N/A 1879 September 8
1880 September 13
U.S. Minor Outlying Islands 34.2 267      
A Claimed by the Marshall Islands
B Previously claimed by Hawaii when independent. Palmyra was officially part of Hawaii until 1959.
C Claimed by Haiti
D Administered by Colombia and claimed by Jamaica and Nicaragua, not included in the ISO list of territories; its area is not included in the total
E Administered by Colombia and claimed by Honduras and Nicaragua, not included in the ISO list of territories; its area is not included in the total

See also

References

  1. US Census 2000 Population Summary — see Table I
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Office of Insular Affairs: Baker and Howland Islands". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2015-03-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Office of Insular Affairs: Jarvis Island". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2015-03-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Jesdanun, Anick (24 January 2007). "Unused Domain Name for U.S. Isles Gone". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2007-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Search results". e-Archives. Purdue University Libraries. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Kingman Reef". The World Factbook. FAQs.org. 2002. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "NGA.mil". National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Presidential Proclamation 8336" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: Monday, January 12, 2009 Volume 45—Number 1, Page 14" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Office of Insular Affairs: Johnston Island - History". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Executive Order 13022: Administration of the Midway Islands". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3223". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3224". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Department of the Interior: Secretary's Order #3210". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links