University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

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University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Established June 4, 1883
Type State-related[1]
Dean Arthur S. Levine, M.D.
Academic staff
Location Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Campus Urban
MD Students 599[2]
Scaife Hall, home of the Pitt School of Medicine.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (UPSOM) is a medical school located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The School of Medicine, also known as Pitt Med, is consistently ranked as a "Top Medical School" by U.S. News & World Report in both research and primary care. UPSOM is currently ranked 16th in the category of research by U.S. News and is separately ranked 11th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities list of best medical schools in the world.[3][4] The school encompasses both a medical program, offering the doctor of medicine, and graduate programs, offering doctor of philosophy and master's degrees in several areas of biomedical science, clinical research, medical education, and medical informatics. The School of Medicine is one of sixteen schools that comprise the University of Pittsburgh and is located in the Oakland neighborhood of the city of Pittsburgh.

Pitt Med is a national leader in biomedical research, as evidenced by Pitt and its affiliates, ranking fifth among all institutions in the amount of NIH funding received ($318 million) during the 2013 fiscal year.[5][6] Admissions to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine are highly competitive; the incoming class averaged a score of 35 on the MCAT with an average GPA of 3.79 (median MCAT score of 36 and median GPA of 3.84).[7][8] In 2014, 5,534 people applied and 859 were interviewed for 147 positions in the medical school's entering class.[8][9]

The School of Medicine is closely affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC).[10] UPMC is considered a leading American health care provider, as its flagship facilities have ranked in the U.S. News & World Report "Honor Roll" of the approximately 15 to 20 best hospitals in America for well over a decade.[11][12] As of 2014, UPMC is ranked 10th nationally among the best hospitals (and first in Pennsylvania) by US News & World Report and ranked in 14 of 16 specialty areas, including six specialties for which UPMC placed in the top 10.[13] This does not include Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC which ranked in the top 10 of pediatric centers in a separate US News ranking. Becker's Hospital Review ranks UPMC first on its list of Top-Grossing Hospitals in America with $11.87 billion in gross revenue.[14]


Chartered on June 4, 1883, as the Western Pennsylvania Medical College, the school opened with a class of 57 students in September 1886.[15] Originally a free-standing school formed by local physicians, the college founders had sought affiliation with the Western University of Pennsylvania even prior to its founding,[16] and in 1892, the School became affiliated with the university becoming the Medical Department of Western University. By 1895 the college had begun a four-year course of study,[17] and in 1908 the college was completely integrated into the Western University of Pennsylvania, the same year the university was renamed to the University of Pittsburgh.[18][19] Abraham Flexner, a renowned educator, published his first report, Medical Education in the U.S. and Canada,[20] in 1910 after he had visited 155 medical schools, including the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In his report, Flexner made the following comments relative to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: “Since the present management took hold last fall, the admission of students has been more carefully supervised, the building has been put in excellent condition.... Whole-time instructors of modern training and ideals have been secured... A new building is in the process of erection...”

Flexner went on to cite the School as an example of what could be accomplished through sound University Management.

For the next four decades the School continued to evolve. At the end of World War II, active planning for a major change was initiated with the encouragement and assistance of the Mellons, a prominent Pittsburgh family. The University accepted the University Health Center concept and, in 1953, appointed the first vice chancellor of the Schools of the Health Professions. Plans were made to house the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy in a new building contiguous to the principal teaching hospitals and the Graduate School of Public Health.

To generate the necessary capital, the University planned a fund drive to raise an endowment. A handsome beginning was made when, by mid-December 1953, $15 million was assured by grants of $5 million each from the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, the Richard King Mellon Foundation, and the Sarah Mellon Scaife Foundation.[21]

The new building, Scaife Hall, was completed in 1956 and recruitment of additional full-time faculty was begun. With increased facilities and faculty, the School of Medicine began to be recognized as a major center for research in a number of areas. In turn, the faculty of the School of Medicine attracted appreciable support for research and training from the National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies. Moreover, the School became assured of financial support for medical education when, in 1967, the University became state related as part of the higher education system of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[22]


The position of Senior Vice Chancellor for Health Sciences and Dean of the School of Medicine is a single leadership position.[23]

The School of Medicine is one of six schools of the health sciences. The other five schools of the health sciences include; School of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Public Health, School of Nursing, School of Pharmacy, and School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences.[23]

The School of Medicine is home to 29 departments:[24]


The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Liaison Council on Medical Education. The residency programs of the medical school are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.[25]

Doctor of Medicine Program

The doctor of medicine program is a full-time four-year program providing a general professional education that prepares students to pursue any career option in medicine. The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine curricular infrastructure combines a lecture-and problem-based curriculum with early and in-depth clinical experiences and an integrated organ systems approach to the preclinical sciences. The clinical years are characterized by an integrated clerkship structure and an emphasis on student flexibility.

The current curriculum was implemented in 2004 and features active, participatory learning, a problem-based approach, an early introduction to the patient and the community, and the integration of a rigorous foundation in basic and clinical biomedical sciences with the social and behavioral aspects of medicine. Key subject matter is longitudinally integrated throughout the curriculum, building upon a foundation of prior learning while providing a level-appropriate and well-synchronized introduction of new content.

Scheduled instructional time in the first two years of the curriculum is apportioned approximately as one-third lecture; one-third small group learning (much of which is problem-based learning; the remainder includes demonstrations, faculty-directed problem-solving exercises, skill-practice sessions, and other activities); and one-third activities (which includes observation of and appropriate participation in patient care, community-site visits, experience with standardized patients, high-fidelity simulations, laboratory exercises, and other activities).

Patient focus in the curriculum begins on day one, in the introduction to being a physician course. Students interview patients about their experience of illness and experiences with their physicians, and they visit community settings to develop an understanding of their roles as medical professionals. Medical interviewing and physical examination courses follow, along with exercises examining the many facets of physician life—in society, ethical settings, and at the patient bedside. Throughout the first two years, students apply their new skills in local practices and hospitals one afternoon per week. The basic science block runs through three-fourths of the first year and provides language and concepts that underlie the scientific basis of medical practice. Organ system block courses integrate physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, and patient with concurrent courses in the patient care and patient, physician and society blocks. Weekly discussions, patient interviews, and examination of hospitalized patients reinforce essential clinical skills.

The third-year curriculum consists of seven required clerkships. They are designed to optimize the balance between out-of-hospital and in-patient learning opportunities, eliminate unintentional curriculum redundancy, and optimize opportunities for student-designed curricula in the junior and senior years.

Every student engages in a mentored scholarly project conducted longitudinally throughout the four-year curriculum. Completion and presentation of the scholarly project is due in the spring of the senior year and is a requirement for graduation. Students pursue their projects through several program options, which may include areas of concentration. Students can focus on more traditional laboratory-based or clinical research projects or can conduct research in less common areas such as health policy, epidemiology, and comparative effectiveness research. An innovative system of Web-based learning portfolios facilitates learner-mentor communication and enriches the possibilities for collaboration within and beyond the University. The Scholarly Project immerses students in scientific investigation to foster data-collection, hypothesis-development, and research skills that are critical to the practice of clinical medicine.[2]

The medical school maintains the curriculum online via the Navigator system, a family of Web-based applications with domain-specific courseware to support student achievement of course objectives. Students have access to a host of online resources such as digitized images, syllabi, practice quizzes, podcasts, and other material associated with specific instructional units.[26]


General Requirements

The medical school participates in the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The school considers currently enrolled students and graduates of accredited colleges for admission. Non United States citizens must hold a permanent resident visa (not conditional) or refugee/asylee status and have completed at least one full year of undergraduate education, including our prerequisites, in the United States.

In examining candidacy, the admissions committee will consider; 1) Undergraduate, post baccalaureate, and graduate records, 2) MCAT scores, 3) Independent and advanced study, 4) Research, 5) Work experience, 6) Extracurricular activities, including depth and breadth of your interests and activities outside the classroom, volunteer activities, community service, student government, hobbies, clubs, athletics, 7) Academic and personal recommendations, 8) Personal character: integrity, communication skills, leadership, motivation, creativity, 9) Supplemental essays and 10) Personal interviews

Academic Requirements

In addition to thorough preparation in the basic sciences, applicants should have a strong liberal arts education with demonstrated accomplishment in the humanities and social sciences. A strong background in mathematics is highly recommended. Acceptance of courses taken at foreign universities is determined on an individual basis at the discretion of the Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid. Applicants should have completed most premedical requirements to receive serious consideration. All requirements must be met before matriculation.

Specific minimum course requirements (One year each of) include Biology, exclusive of botany (with lab), General or inorganic chemistry (with lab), Organic chemistry (with lab), Physics (with lab), and English (including W courses taken outside of the English department).

The school will accept AP credit if credit was awarded by your college/university and the course credit granted appears on your transcript.[27]

Graduate Programs

The School of Medicine offers a variety of programs leading to the Doctor of Philosophy, the Master of Science, or a certificate. As of the Fall 2014 term, the graduate programs have 397 students.[2] The school works with other schools of the University through collaborative graduate programs. The School of Medicine offers a joint MD/PhD program.[28]

Doctoral Programs

The medical school offers PhDs through the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Graduate Program, the Center for Neuroscience Graduate Training Program, the Biomedical Informatics Training Program, the Joint Program in Computation Biology, the Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Graduate Program, the Program in Integrative Molecular Biology, and the program in Clinical and Translational Science.

The Interdisciplinary Biomedical Science Graduate Program includes students in and in the School of Arts and Sciences Its programs include:

Center for Neuroscience Graduate Training Program

Neuroscience is the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. Understanding the nervous system provides key insights into human nature as well as treatments for a host of devastating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The CNUP graduate program introduces students to the fundamental issues and experimental approaches in neuroscience and trains them in the theory and practice of laboratory research.[29]

Biomedical Informatics Training Program

The Biomedical Informatics Training Program, in the Department of Biomedical Informatics, prepares individuals for research and development careers emphasizing the application of modern information technology to health care, biological and clinical research, and education of health professionals. The program offers master’s and doctoral degrees in biomedical informatics. Specific concentrations of study can be obtained in the areas of bioinformatics, dental informatics, health services research, and infectious disease and public health informatics (biosurveillance). A Certificate Program is also available to serve students with a wide variety of goals and backgrounds. At the discretion of the director of the program, short-term traineeships can be arranged. Such training can be done on a part-time basis. The program also offers non-degree postdoctoral fellowships (such applicants must have a doctoral degree in the health sciences), designed to provide two years of full-time fellowship training.

Joint Program in Computational Biology

This program is offered collaboratively by the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. It is designed to develop expertise in the use of computational methods to identify and solve biological problems.

Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Graduate Program

An interdisciplinary program that trains students in the use of a broad range of technologies to study the physical function of biological macromolecules and covers a diversity of research topics in molecular biophysics and structural biology.

Program in Integrative Molecular Biology

A cross-campus program that provides training with a focus on the structure and function of molecules that compose complex cellular pathways and systems. Focus areas include genomics, proteomics, gene function, and cellular and developmental dynamics.

Clinical and Translational Science

This program is offered through Pitt's Institute for Clinical Research Education and is a rigorous, multidisciplinary program designed to train an elite group of scientists in conducting high quality clinical and translation research. A certificate is also available to students enrolled in other health science doctoral programs.

MD/PhD Program

The MD/PhD Program, established in 1983 and funded partly by the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program, is a collaborative training program involving the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. The program serves as a bridge between the medical curriculum and the large number of graduate programs at the two universities. Students enrolled in the program complete the entire medical school curriculum as well as the curriculum of a field of study for the PhD degree. Graduates receive a dual degree. The program takes advantage of the highly developed curricula of the medical and graduate programs as well as the large depth and breadth of research available at the two universities. MD/PhD students typically complete the first two years of medical school before entering a program leading to the PhD degree. The students then enter a track in a selected field of study. Students choose from the basic sciences at the School of Medicine, School of Engineering, Graduate School of Public Health, and Faculty of Arts and Sciences and similar programs at Carnegie Mellon University. The estimated time to completion of the entire dual degree program is 7.6 years, ranging from six to ten years.


As of the fall of 2014, the School of Medicine had 2,121 regular faculty and 2,839 volunteer faculty members. In addition to eight emeritus members, 79 faculty from throughout the school are active members of the Academy of Master Educators, which was developed to recognize and reward excellence in medical education.[2][30][31]

Students and Student Life

As of fall 2014, the School of Medicine has 599 MD students: 316 men and 283 women. The school fosters an academic environment that encourages and supports a richness of diversity among students in various racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. Underrepresented minority students make up approximately 16 percent of the medical student body.[3][5]

The structure of the curriculum promotes student interaction and collegiality. In addition, medical students get to know each other through involvement in organizations and extracurricular activities. Some of the many student groups on campus are the American Medical Student Association, the American Medical Association, specialty interest groups in most areas of medicine, Pitt Women in Medicine, and the C.F. Reynolds Medical History Society. Medical students have access to all facilities of the University of Pittsburgh, including athletic facilities. Pittsburgh is an accessible and exciting city, and, although on-campus housing is available, most medical students choose to live off campus.[32]


The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is an important center for medical research. Of the medical schools and research institutions that receive funding from the National Institutes of Health, the School of Medicine ranks fifth in total funding received for the fiscal year 2013.[2] A major aim of the School of Medicine's research in coming years, among others, is to monitor gene expression and its consequences on a cell, in vivo, on a molecular scale using nuclear magnetic resonance. A focus on translational research - moving recent biomedical research from the laboratory into mainstream clinical practice - is also emphasized.[33]


The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) supports the educational, research, clinical, and service activities of the health sciences community of the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) through development and provision of innovative information resources and services. The Health Library System serves as a regional medical library for the Middle Atlantic region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, which makes it one of only eight institutions in the nation serving as a regional medical library for the United States National Library of Medicine.[34]

HSLS includes the following libraries:

Falk Library of Health Sciences serves as the flagship of the HSLS, with a wide-ranging collection of biomedical and health-related journals and monographs, as well as a specialized collection of rare and historical materials. The Computer and Media Center (CMC) offers computing and Internet access to qualified library users, as well as videotapes, audiotapes, slide sets and software packages. The CMC has more than 75 available computers, as well a classroom equipped for group computer instruction. The University’s wireless network is available throughout the library. The Falk Library is open 110 hours per week.

The James Frazer Hillman Health Sciences Library and the Hopwood Library: A Health Resource Center for Patients and Families at UPMC Shadyside provide books, journals, audiovisuals, and computers to support clinical practice and patient/family education. This combined library facility is open 50 hours per week.

The Blaxter Medical Library, the Family Resource Center, and the Moulis Children’s Library at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh contain specialized collections in clinical pediatrics, child health and wellness, recreational reading and videotapes for hospitalized children, as well as computers available to employees of Children’s Hospital and patient families. This combined library facility is open 53 hours per week.

The HSLS staff includes 26.6 FTE librarians, 37.7 FTE paraprofessional and technical staff, and 5.6 FTE student assistants. The HSLS serves more than 55,000 primary clients, including health sciences faculty, staff, students, residents, and employees of UPMC hospitals.[35]

Pitt Med Magazine

Pitt Med magazine is the school's quarterly magazine, produced by the Office of Public Affairs. It has been in publication since 2000.[36] Pitt Med highlights the current research at the School of Medicine, and showcases the achievements of its doctors and alumni. Each magazine contains several feature stories, brief informative clips of information, and an alumni section. Pitt Med is free and available to all University of Pittsburgh students and alumni, as well as anyone who requests a copy or a subscription.

Scaife Hall

Scaife Hall

Originally residing in cramped Pennsylvania Hall and Allen Hall, ground was broken on a new School of Medicine building on June 28, 1954[37] and it opened in 1956. Construction of the building, designed by the architectural firm Schmidt, Garden and Erickson, was interrupted by a fire in June, 1955 that destroyed girders and concrete work.[38] The School of Medicine began relocating to the facility from Pennsylvania and Allen halls in the fall of 1955.[39] The ten-story structure's original construction costs were $15 million ($132.5 million today). By 1958, the building received its current moniker in honor of one of the school's primary benefactors. The building is attached to UPMC Presbyterian Hospital and contains classrooms, lecture halls, laboratories, and the Falk Library of the Health Sciences.[40]

Preceded by
Old Engineering Hall
University of Pittsburgh Buildings
Scaife Hall

Constructed: 1954-1956
Succeeded by
Clapp Hall

See also


  1. "PA Higher/Adult Ed.: State-Related Universities". Pennsylvania Department of Education. April 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2014/15 Fact Book (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. 2014. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "America's Best Graduate Schools 2015". U.S. News & World Report. 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy - 2014". AWRU. 2014. Retrieved 2015-03-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2014/15 Fact Book (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. 2014. p. 1. Retrieved 2014-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2010/11 Fact Book (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. 2010. p. 15. Retrieved 2010-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Admissions & Financial AId: Our Students". University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 "AAMC Medical School Admission Requirements (MSAR® )". Retrieved 2012-04-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2014/15 Fact Book (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. 2014. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Levine, Arthur S; Detre, Thomas P.; McDonald, Margaret; Roth, Loren H.; Huber, Jeffrey A.; Brignano, Mary Germann; Danoff, Sandra N.; Farner, David M.; et al. (September 2008). "The relationship between the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center--a profile in synergy". Academic Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 83 (9): 815–826. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318181d1a8. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 18728434. Retrieved 2010-06-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Leonard, Kimberly (July 16, 2013). "Best Hospitals 2013-14: Overview and Honor Roll". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 16, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "UPMC Clinches Top-Ten Spot on U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll of America's Best Hospitals" (Press release). UPMC Media Relations. July 16, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Gamble, Molly (2013-06-24). "100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America | Lists". Retrieved 2014-11-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. pp. 11–12. LCCN 85-52240. Retrieved 2011-05-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. pp. 9–10. LCCN 85-52240. Retrieved 2011-05-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Diller, Theodore (May 1927). "Hospitals, Schools and Journals". Pioneer Medicine in Western Pennsylvania. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. p. 217. Retrieved 2010-10-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Starrett, Agnes Lynch (1937). Through one hundred and fifty years: the University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 355.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Alberts, Robert C. (1986). Pitt :the story of the University of Pittsburgh, 1787-1987. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 41.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Medical Education in the U.S. and Canada
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  22. History. School’s Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Health Sciences Portal. Message from the SVC/Dean. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
  24. Departments. School’s Web site. Retrieved on April 22, 2008.
  25. Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs, Liaison Council on Medical Education. Retrieved on February 19, 2008
  26. MD Program. School’s Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007.
  27. MD Program. School’s Admissions Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007
  28. GRADUATE Graduate and Professional Bulletin. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
  29. University of Pittsburgh Center for Neuroscience Web site. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
  30. 2009-10 Fact Book University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
  31. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: Academy of Master Educators: Academy Members, accessdate=2009-01-14
  32. The Princeton Review. Medical School Profile. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
  33. Levine, A.: "State of the School Address". 9 May 2007.
  34. "HSLS to serve as regional medical library". University Times. 43 (20). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh. 2011-06-09. p. 11. Retrieved 2011-06-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. 2008 Health Sciences Library System Overview
  36. Pitt Med, University of Pittsburgh
  37. Fitzgerald, R. H. (Summer 1954). "Schools of the Health Professions". Pitt. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh (52): 6. Retrieved November 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Pitt Building Fire Damage Being Studied". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. 1955-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. p. 205. ASIN B0006EI9Q2. Retrieved 2011-05-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Construction of Scaife Hall, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection, accessdate=2008-08-17

Further reading

  • Paull, Barbara I. (c. 1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: the History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Brignano, Mary (2009). Beyond the Bounds: A History of UPMC. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing Co. ISBN 978-1-4349-0283-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links