Unterleutnant

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the OF-1с rank Unterleutnant in german speaking countries, comparable to Mladshy leytenant OF1-c in Slavophone countries. However, it should not confused to the more junior Midshipman, or to the more senior OF1-b-ranks Ensing, Second lieutenant, or Pilot officer.
File:1870 Leib Garde Husar Potsdam.jpg
Prussian "Unterleutnant" (1870)

Unterleutnant (NPA-original abbreviation Ultn.; en: translation "Under-lieutenant" or "sub-lieutenant") was an officer of the German Democratic Republic's army (e.g. the National People's Army from 1956–1990) of the lowest commissioned officer (CO) rank comparable to NATO rank codes OF1c. It belonged to the rank group of lieutenants or subaltern officers.[1] The equivalent OF1c-rank of the Volksmarine was Unterleutnant zur See (en: "sub-lieutenant at sea").

The rank was first introduced in 1662-74 by France and was also adopted by some other countries' armed forces.

Germany

Empire, Weimar Republic, Third Reich, Federal Republic

In a number of German armed forces of the 19th century before German unification in 1871 there was the following graduation: Oberleutnant (Premierlieutenant - OF1a) and Leutnant (Secondelieutenant OF1b); without the rank Unterleutnant.

However, until 1898 there was the rank Unterleutnant zur See in the Imperial German Navy. This rank was equivalent to the Secondelieutenant of the Imperial German Army (de: deutsches Heer).

In the Reichswehr, Wehrmacht, and Bundeswehr there was never a rank Unterleutnant.

German Democratic Republic

National People´s Army

Flag of East Germany.svg
Unterleutnant
GDR Army OF1с Unterleutnant.gif    GDR Navy OF1c Unterleutnant zur See.gifGDR Navy OF1c sleeve.jpg
Engineer corps   /       Volksmarine
Rank insignia NPA officer rank
Introduction 1956
Rank group Commissioned officers
Army / Air Force Unterleutnant
Navy Unterleutnant zur See
NATO
equivalent
OF-1c
Army No Equivalent
Air Force No Equivalent
Navy No Equivalent

Depending on the former Soviet military doctrine as well as to the other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact the so-called GDR armed organizations, the Unterleutnant was the lowest officer rank.

In the NPA and in the GDR border troops the lieutenant officer sub-rank group consisted of Unterleutnant (OF1c), Leutnant (OF1b), and Oberleutnant (OF1a).

This officer rank could be assigned to military appointments as follows: officer of the operations service, political officer, officer of the technical service, supply, procurement, and military justice service.

The graduation to that particular OF1c officer rank was normally possible depending on the education and training, accomplished. The promotion to the following Leutnant OF1b-rank was achievable after two years of service, to Hauptmann after three more years.[2]

After successful passing of the officer course (normally three years) on a NPA officers school, officer students (de: Offiziersschüler) normally graduated to the rank Unterleutnant. The best school-leavers of the appropriate course could be promoted to the next higher rank, Leutnant. By establishing of the Officers High schools and diploma course of study the final examination all graduates promoted to the rank Leutnant.

The equivalent OF1c-rank of the Volksmarine was initially Unterleutnant zur See. Later the designation was changed to Unterleutnant. However, in individual linguistic usage the traditionally wording Unterleutnant zur See was used continuously.

Education

Since then the status of NPA persons in uniform with the rank Unterleutnant changed from professional soldier to longer-service volunteer (de: „Offizier auf Zeit“ – OaZ). The minimum service time was three years, and the so-called Abitur (en: final examination, qualifying for university entrance) was mandatory. In 1982 the minimum service time was raised to four years. Normally the one year lasting military education and study had to be accomplished on an officer’s high school. By passing the final examination, the aspirant could be promoted to the Unterleutnat OF1c-rank. This was followed by the first line officer assignment in one of the NPA services or branches of service. An Unterleutnant could usually be appointed to platoon leader. Pertaining to special abilities, knowledge, or qualification – special assignment could be possible as well.

Under certain circumstances, e.g. successful completion of an reserve officer´s training course during high school study, suitable graduates could be appointed to Unterleutnant of the Reserve (de: Unterleutnant der Reserve).

In some cases particular able Stabsfeldwebel (OR8) or Fähnrich (NPA) could be appointed to Unterleutnant.

Junior Rank
Stabsoberfähnrich
Coat of arms of NVA (East Germany).svg
National People's Army rank
Unterleutnant
(Unterleutnant zur See)
Senior Rank
Leutnant

Volkspolizei

In the GDR Volkspolizei Unterleutnant (official "Unterleutnant der VP") was the lowest commissioned officer rank (comparable top OF1c) as well. Normally officer students, graduated from officer´s training course, could be promoted to that rank. However, the best graduate of the particular year could be promoted to the next higher rank, OF1b Leutnant of the VP.

Members of the GDR Ministry of Interior, graduated from the Ministry of Interior Officers high school "Artur Becker", another high school facility or university, were normally promoted to Leutnant of the VP. Depending on the course of study, duration, and academic or university degree, achieved, promotion to higher ranks could be possible.

Other countries

Austria

Flag of Austria.svg
Fähnrich

(Austrian Bundesheer)

Fhr Anzug 75 03 AT.jpg Fhr Rockkragen AT.jpg Fhr OF1c-Tellerkappe AT.jpg
suit 75/03, jacket gorget, flat cap
Rank insignia Bundesheer CO rank
Introduction 1956
Rank group Commissioned officers
Army / Air Force Fähnrich
NATO
equivalent
OF-1c

In the Austrian Bundesheer there exists an OF1c-rank Fähnrich even today, comparable to Unterleutnant. It is the lowest rank of the lieutenant rank group. The sequence of ranks is Fähnrich (OF1c), Leutnant (OF1b), and Oberleutnant (OF1a). The Fähnrich rank is typical for officer students during studies on the Theresian Military Academy. The promotion to Leutnant depends on successful graduation.

Former countries of the Warsaw Pact

Unterleutnant (OF-1c) was the lowest rank of the officer´s rank group in other former Warsaw Pact armed forces as well. Below are some examples.

Rank insignias Unterleutnant (OF-1c)
Country Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Soviet UnionSoviet Union / Russia Russia Romania
Romania
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Hungary
Hungary
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
Yugoslavia
Rank
insignia
Rank insignia of младши лейтенант of the Bulgarian Army.png Rank insignia of младши лейтенант of the Bulgarian Air forces.png 50x100px 50x100px RA-SA A-artil F1-3Lt 1955.png RAF AF F1-3SubLt 2010.png 8-lt.png 9mllt.png RAF N F1c-MlLt 2010–.png RAF N F1c-MlLt sleeve.png Russian police junior lieutenant.png en: Request for creation and upload of a picture! 60x120px en: Request for creation and upload of a picture! en: Request for creation and upload of a picture!
Branch Army Air Force Navy 1935-43 1943-55 Air Force Army Field Navy Police Army Army Army Army
Original Младши лейтенант
(until 2010)
Младший лейтенант Sublocotenent
(ca. 1960-1992)
Podporučík
(1960-1992)
Alhadnagy
(1951-1990)
Podporučník
(ca. 1960-1992)
Trans-
cription
Mladshi leytenant Mladshy leytenant Podporuchik Podporuchnik

References

  1. MEYERS UNIVERSALLEXIKON, 3rd[clarification needed] edition 1980, order number: 576 970 2, licence number: 433 130/198/80, volume III, page 218-219 «National People´s Army and Border troops of the GDR – rank, figure 14 Unterleutnant.
  2. Dictionary to the German military history, 1st edition (Liz.5, P189/84, LSV:0547, B-Nr. 746 635 0), military publishing house of the GDR (VEB) – Berlin, 1985, Volume 1, page 476, definition: Unterleutnant.

ru:Младший лейтенант