Valerie Plame

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"Valerie Flame" redirects here. For the "Childrens Hospital" character, see Childrens Hospital § Cast and characters.
Valerie Plame
Valerie plame wilson 2014.jpg
Plame at the 2014 Texas Book Festival
Born Valerie Elise Plame
(1963-08-13) August 13, 1963 (age 55)
Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.
Occupation Writer, Spy Novelist, CIA officer (1985–2006)
Nationality United States
Alma mater Pennsylvania State University (B.A., Advertising, 1985)
College of Europe (M.A.)
London School of Economics (M.A.)
Genre Autobiography, memoir, political criticism
Notable works Fair Game: My Life as a Spy, My Betrayal by the White House
Spouse Todd Sesler (1987–1989)
Joseph C. Wilson (1998– )
Children 2 (with Wilson)

Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (née Plame; born August 13, 1963), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is an American writer, spy novelist and former operations officer working at the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). As the subject of the 2003 Plame affair, also known as the CIA leak scandal, Plame had her identity as covert officer of the CIA leaked to the press by members of the George W. Bush administration and subsequently made public. In collaboration with a ghostwriter, Plame wrote a memoir detailing her career and the events leading up to her resignation from the CIA, and subsequently wrote and published two spy novels. After a number of years out of the limelight, she later made the news for leading a campaign to raise enough money to buy a controlling interest of Twitter stock, in order to remove Donald Trump from the platform,[1][2][3][4] as well as controversy surrounding antisemitic activity on social media, for which she subsequently apologized.[5][6][7][8][9]

Early life and education

Valerie Elise Plame was born on August 13, 1963, on Elmendorf Air Force Base, in Anchorage, Alaska, to Diane (née McClintock) and Samuel Plame III.[10][11][12] Plame's paternal grandfather was Jewish, the son of a rabbi who emigrated from Ukraine; the original family surname was "Plamevotski".[13] The rest of Plame's family was Protestant (the religion in which Plame was raised); she was unaware of her grandfather having been Jewish until she was an adult.[13]

She graduated in 1981 from Lower Moreland High School, in Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania,[14][15] and attended Pennsylvania State University, graduating with a B.A. in advertising in 1985.[16] While a student at Penn State, she joined Pi Beta Phi sorority[17] and worked for the business division of the Daily Collegian student newspaper.[16]

Marriages and family

After graduating with a B.A. in advertising from Penn State in 1985, Plame was married to Todd Sesler, her college boyfriend.[16] In 1997, while she was working for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Plame met former Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, IV, "at a reception in Washington "..." at the residence of the Turkish Ambassador."[18] According to Wilson, because Plame was unable to reveal her CIA role to him on their first date, she told him that she was an energy trader in Brussels, and he thought at that time that she was "an up-and-coming international executive."[15] After they began dating and became "close," Plame revealed her employment with the CIA to Wilson.[15][19] They were married on April 3, 1998, Plame's second marriage and Wilson's third.[20]

Professionally and socially, she has used variants of her name. Professionally, while a covert CIA officer, she used her given first name and her maiden surname, "Valerie Plame." Since leaving the CIA, as a speaker, she has used the name "Valerie Plame Wilson",[10] and she is referred to by that name in the civil suit that the Wilsons brought against former and current government officials, Wilson v. Libby.[21] Socially, and in public records of her political contributions, since her marriage in 1998, she has used the name "Valerie E. Wilson."

At the time that they met, Wilson relates in his memoir, he was separated from his second wife Jacqueline; they divorced after 12 years of marriage so that he could marry Plame. His divorce had been "delayed because I was never in one place long enough to complete the process," though he and she had already been living separate lives since the mid-1990s.[18] Plame and Wilson are the parents of twins, Trevor Rolph, and Samantha Finnell Diana, born in January 2000. From his first marriage (1973–86), to Susan Dale Otchis, Wilson is also the father of another set of twins (also a boy and a girl), Sabrina Cecile and Joseph Charles, who were born in 1979.

Prior to the disclosure of her classified CIA identity, Valerie and Joe Wilson and their twins lived in The Palisades, a neighborhood of Washington, D.C., on the fringe of Georgetown.[16] After she resigned from the CIA following the disclosure of her covert status, in January 2006, they moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico[22][23] where she serves as a consultant to the Santa Fe Institute. In a 2011 interview, Plame said she and Wilson had received threats while living in the D.C. metro area, and while she acknowledged an element of threat remains in their new home, the New Mexico location "tamps down the whole swirl."[24]


Presenting a lecture on her book Fair Game, at Brown University, in Providence, Rhode Island, on December 4, 2007.

After graduating from college, moving to Washington, D.C., and marrying Sesler, Plame worked at a clothing store while awaiting results of her application to the CIA.[16] She was accepted into the 1985–86 CIA officer training class and began her training for what became a twenty-year career with the Agency.[23] Although the CIA will not publicly release the specific dates of Plame's employment from 1985 to 2002 due to security concerns,[23][25] Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald affirmed that Plame "was a CIA officer from January 1, 2002, forward" and that "her association with the CIA was classified at that time through July 2003.[26] Details about Plame's professional career are still classified, but it is documented that she worked for the CIA in a Non-official cover capacity relating to counter-proliferation.[23][27][28][29]

Plame served the CIA at times as a non-official cover (or NOC), operating undercover in (at least) two positions in Athens and Brussels.[30] While using her own name, "Valerie Plame", her assignments required posing in various professional roles in order to gather intelligence more effectively.[31][32][33] Two of her covers include serving as a junior consular officer in the early 1990s in Athens and then later an energy analyst for the private company (founded in 1994) "Brewster Jennings & Associates," which the CIA later acknowledged was a front company for certain investigations.[34] However, others have stated that she did not have covert status, and worked at the CIA as an analyst.[35]

A former senior diplomat in Athens remembered Plame in her dual role and also recalled that she served as one of the "control officers" coordinating the visit of President George H. W. Bush to Greece and Turkey in July 1991.[36] After the Persian Gulf War in 1991, the CIA sent her first to the London School of Economics and then the College of Europe, in Bruges, for Master's degrees. After earning the second degree, she stayed on in Brussels, where she began her next assignment under cover as an "energy consultant" for Brewster-Jennings.[16] Beginning in 1997, Plame's primary assignment was shifted to the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.[37]

She married Wilson in 1998 and gave birth to their twins in 2000,[38] and resumed travel overseas in 2001, 2002, and 2003 as part of her cover job. She met with workers in the nuclear industry, cultivated sources, and managed spies.[39][citation needed] One project in which she was involved was ensuring that Iran did not acquire nuclear weapons.[40]

During this time, part of her work concerned the determination of the use of aluminum tubes purchased by Iraq.[41] CIA analysts prior to the Iraq invasion were quoted by the White House as believing that Iraq was trying to acquire nuclear weapons and that these aluminum tubes could be used in a centrifuge for nuclear enrichment.[42][43] David Corn and Michael Isikoff argued that the undercover work being done by Plame and her CIA colleagues in the Directorate of Central Intelligence Nonproliferation Center strongly contradicted such a claim.[41] However, the CIA was concerned enough to send Plame's husband, Joseph C. Wilson, to Niger in 2002 to investigate the potential sale of nuclear materials from Niger to Iraq.[citation needed]


On July 14, 2003, Robert Novak, journalist for The Washington Post, using information obtained from Richard Armitage at the United States Department of State, effectively ended Valerie Plame's career with the CIA (from which she later resigned in December 2005) by revealing in his column her identity as a CIA operative.[44][45] Legal documents published in the course of the CIA leak grand jury investigation, United States v. Libby, and Congressional investigations, established her classified employment as a covert officer for the CIA at the time when Novak's column was published in July 2003.[44][46][47]

In his press conference of October 28, 2005, Special Prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald explained in considerable detail the necessity of secrecy about his grand jury investigation that began in the fall of 2003 — "when it was clear that Valerie Wilson's cover had been blown" — and the background and consequences of the indictment of then high-ranking Bush Administration official Scooter Libby as it pertains to Valerie E. Wilson.[26]

Fitzgerald's subsequent replies to reporters' questions shed further light on the parameters of the leak investigation and what, as its lead prosecutor, bound by the rules of grand jury secrecy, he could and could not reveal legally at the time.[26] Official court documents released later, on April 5, 2006, reveal that Libby testified that "he was specifically authorized in advance" of his meeting with Judith Miller, reporter for The New York Times, to disclose the "key judgments" of the October 2002 classified National Intelligence Estimate (NIE). According to Libby's testimony, "the Vice President later advised him that the President had authorized defendant to disclose the relevant portions of the NIE [to Judith Miller]."[48] According to his testimony, the information that Libby was authorized to disclose to Miller "was intended to rebut the allegations of an administration critic, former ambassador Joseph Wilson." A couple of days after Libby's meeting with Miller, then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice told reporters, "We don't want to try to get into kind of selective declassification" of the NIE, adding, "We're looking at what can be made available."[49] A "sanitized version" of the NIE in question was officially declassified on July 18, 2003, ten days after Libby's contact with Miller, and was presented at a White House background briefing on weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq.[50] The NIE contains no references to Valerie Plame or her CIA status, but the Special Counsel has suggested that White House actions were part of "a plan to discredit, punish or seek revenge against Mr. Wilson."[51] President Bush had previously indicated that he would fire whomever had outed Plame.[49]

A court filing by Libby's defense team argued that Plame was not foremost in the minds of administration officials as they sought to rebut charges – made by her husband – that the White House manipulated intelligence to make a case for invasion. The filing indicated that Libby's lawyers did not intend to say that he was told to reveal Plame's identity.[52] The court filing also stated that "Mr. Libby plans to demonstrate that the indictment is wrong when it suggests that he and other government officials viewed Ms. Wilson's role in sending her husband to Africa as important," indicating that Libby's lawyers planned to call Karl Rove to the stand. Fitzgerald ultimately decided against pressing charges against Rove.[53]

The five-count indictment of Libby included perjury (two counts), obstruction of justice (one count), and making false statements to federal investigators (two counts). There was, however, no count for disclosing classified information, i.e., Plame's status as a CIA operative. Indeed, it was already widely known (even by prosecutor Fitzgerald) that the actual "leaker" was Richard Armitage, via columnist Robert Novak. No evidence has ever come to light that Mr. Libby disclosed Plame's CIA status to Mr. Novak.

Libby trial

On March 6, 2007, Libby was convicted of obstruction of justice, making false statements, and two counts of perjury. He was acquitted on one count of making false statements. He was not charged for revealing Plame's CIA status. His sentence included a $250,000 fine, 30 months in prison and two years of probation. On July 2, 2007, President George W. Bush commuted Libby's sentence, removing the jail term but leaving in place the fine and probation, calling the sentence "excessive."[54][55] In a subsequent press conference, on July 12, 2007, Bush noted, "...the Scooter Libby decision was, I thought, a fair and balanced decision."[56] The Wilsons responded to the commutation in statements posted by their legal counsel, Melanie Sloan, executive director of Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), and on their own legal support website.

Wilson v. Cheney

Main article: Wilson v. Libby

On July 13, 2006, Joseph and Valerie Wilson filed a civil lawsuit against Rove, Libby, Vice President Dick Cheney, and other unnamed senior White House officials (to whom they later added Richard Armitage)[57] for their alleged role in the public disclosure of Valerie Wilson's classified CIA status.[58] Judge John D. Bates dismissed the Wilsons' lawsuit on jurisdictional grounds on July 19, 2007;[59][60][61][62] the Wilsons appealed. On August 12, 2008, in a 2-1 decision, the three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit upheld the dismissal.[63][64] Melanie Sloan, of Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, which represents the Wilsons, "said the group will request the full D.C. Circuit to review the case and appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court."[63][65] Agreeing with the Bush administration, the Obama Justice Department argued the Wilsons have no legitimate grounds to sue. On the current justice department position, Sloan stated: "We are deeply disappointed that the Obama administration has failed to recognize the grievous harm top Bush White House officials inflicted on Joe and Valerie Wilson. The government's position cannot be reconciled with President Obama's oft-stated commitment to once again make government officials accountable for their actions."[66]

On June 21, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the appeal.[67]

House Oversight Committee hearing

On March 8, 2007, two days after the verdict in the Libby trial, Congressman Henry Waxman, chair of the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, announced that his committee would ask Plame to testify on March 16, in an effort by his committee to look into "whether White House officials followed appropriate procedures for safeguarding Plame's identity."[68][69]

On March 16, 2007, at these hearings about the disclosure, Waxman read a statement about Plame's CIA career that had been cleared by CIA director Gen. Michael V. Hayden and the CIA, stating that she was undercover and that her employment status with the CIA was classified information prohibited from disclosure under Executive Order 12958.

Subsequent reports in various news accounts focused on the following parts of her testimony:

  • "My name and identity were carelessly and recklessly abused by senior government officials in the White House and state department"; this abuse occurred for "purely political reasons."[70]
  • After her identity was exposed by officials in the Bush administration, she had to leave the CIA: "I could no longer perform the work for which I had been highly trained."[71]
  • She did not select her husband for a CIA fact-finding trip to Niger, but an officer senior to her selected him and told her to ask her husband if he would consider it: "I did not recommend him. I did not suggest him. There was no nepotism involved. I did not have the authority [...]."[71]

Fair Game

Plame's husband Joseph Wilson announced on March 6, 2007, that the couple had "signed a deal with Warner Bros of Hollywood to offer their consulting services — or maybe more — in the making of the forthcoming movie about the Libby trial," their lives and the CIA leak scandal.[72] The feature film, a co-production between Weed Road's Akiva Goldsman and Jerry and Janet Zucker of Zucker Productions with a screenplay by Jez and John-Henry Butterworth to be based in part on Valerie Wilson's memoir Fair Game (contingent on CIA clearances) originally scheduled for release in August 2007, but ultimately published on October 22, 2007.[73]

In May 2006, the New York Times reported that Valerie Wilson agreed to a $2.5-million book deal with Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House. Steve Ross, senior vice president and publisher of Crown, told the Times that the book would be her "first airing of her actual role in the American intelligence community, as well as the prominence of her role in the lead-up to the war."[74] Subsequently, the New York Times reported that the book deal fell through and that Plame was in exclusive negotiations with Simon & Schuster.[75] Ultimately, Simon and Schuster publicly confirmed the book deal, though not the financial terms and, at first, no set publication date.[41][76]

On May 31, 2007, various news media reported that Simon and Schuster and Valerie Wilson were suing J. Michael McConnell, Director of National Intelligence, and Michael V. Hayden, Director of the CIA, arguing that the CIA "is unconstitutionally interfering with the publication of her memoir, Fair Game, ... set to be published in October [2007], by not allowing Plame to mention the dates that she served in the CIA."[77][78] Judge Barbara S. Jones, of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, in Manhattan, interpreted the issue in favor of the CIA. Therefore, the ruling stated that Plame would not be able to describe in her memoir the precise dates she had worked for the CIA. In 2009, the federal court of appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed Judge Jones's ruling.

On October 31, 2007, in her interview with Charlie Rose broadcast on The Charlie Rose Show , Valerie Wilson discussed many aspects relating to her memoir: the CIA leak grand jury investigation; United States v. Libby, the civil suit which she and her husband were at the time still pursuing against Libby, Cheney, Rove, and Armitage; and other matters presented in her memoir relating to her covert work with the CIA.[79]

The film, Fair Game, was released November 5, 2010, starring Naomi Watts and Sean Penn. It is based on two books, one written by Plame, and the other by her husband.[80][81] The Washington Post described the movie as being "full of distortions - not to mention outright inventions".[82]

In May 2011, it was announced that Plame would write a series of spy novels with mystery writer Sarah Lovett. The first book in the series, titled Blowback, was released on October 1, 2013, by Blue Rider Press, an imprint of the Penguin Group.[83]

Twitter takeover attempt to remove Donald Trump

In August 2017, Wilson set up a GoFundMe fundraising page in an attempt to buy a majority interest in Twitter and kick U.S. President Donald Trump off of the network.[4][84][85] She launched her campaign because she believes that Donald Trump 'emboldens white supremacists' and encourages 'violence against journalists'.[86]

Titled "Let's #BuyTwitter and #BanTrump", she set the campaign's goal to $1 billion. The money from the campaign will be used to buy a controlling share of Twitter, or exploring options for buying a significant stake in the company. If the campaign fails or if there is any surplus, she said that a 100% of the balance of proceeds will be donated to Global Zero, a nonprofit organization leading the resistance to nuclear war.[87] She later stated that such a move would not be in violation of the First Amendment.[88][89][90] Her campaign succeeded in garnering wide-spread international media coverage and in raising $88,000.[91]

Antisemitism Controversy

In September 2017, Plame promoted an article on Twitter, the title of which is, "America's Jews Are Driving America's Wars", repeating the statement 'America's Jews Are Driving America's Wars' in her own tweet.[92][93] The article, which argues that "American Jews who lack any shred of integrity" should be given special label when appearing on television. Amid criticism, Plame first repeatedly defended her posts, insisting on Twitter that "Many neocon hawks ARE Jewish."[94][95][96] She eventually apologized, blaming her posting of the article in part on her dog.[97] Some have argued that the incident followed a pattern of posting such content and making jokes about "rich Jews".[98][99] She had promoted at least 8 articles from the same website before,[100] in which she previously promoted conspiracy theories of 'dancing Israelis' being behind the 9/11 attacks.[101] David Duke, who had previously defended her, said it was “sad” that she was “forced to apologize.”[102]

Cultural references


  1. Former CIA officer explains stunt to boot Trump from Twitter By Eli Watkins, CNN, August 25, 2017
  2. Valerie Plame Wilson, former CIA operative, wants to buy Twitter and ban President Trump Jessica Estepa, USA TODAY, Aug. 22, 2017
  3. Buy Twitter, ban Trump: former CIA agent tries to crowdfund $1bn purchase Associated Press in Washington Thursday 24 August 2017 15.50 BST
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Former CIA agent wants to buy Twitter to kick Trump off". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. August 23, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017. 
  7. Valerie Plame bashed for tweet linking 'America's Jews' to wars, then apologizes Fox News, POLITICS, 22/09/2017
  8. Why people care about Valerie Plame and her anti-Semitic tweet By Callum Borchers, September 22, Washington Post
  9. Valerie Plame tweets story blaming 'America's Jews' for foreign wars The Hill, BY MALLORY SHELBOURNE - 09/21/17
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Valerie Plame Wilson: 'Outed' Former CIA Agent: Exclusive Representation by Greater Talent Network". Accessed June 12, 2013. (Official biography listed in Speaker's Bureau of Greater Talent Network Inc.).
  11. Associated Press, "The Real Valerie Plame", reposted in Editor and Publisher, May 30, 2005, accessed August 12, 2007.
  12. Wilson Fair Game pg. 314
  13. 13.0 13.1 Wilson Fair Game pg. 173
  14. Rachel Spivak, "CIA Agent Linked to Collegian", The Daily Collegian Online, October 9, 2003, accessed December 11, 2007.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Christopher Goffard, "Valerie Plame: Smart, Private, 'Waltons' Fan", St. Petersburg Times,, August 8, 2005, accessed June 8, 2008.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Ward, Vicky (January 2004). "Double Exposure". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 2004-01-01. 
  17. "Fair Game: My Life as a Spy, My Betrayal by the White House".
  18. 18.0 18.1 Joseph C. Wilson, The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed my Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir (2004; New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005) 240–42. (Additional page references appear within parentheses in the text.)
  19. Wilson, Politics of Truth 242
  20. Wilson, Politics of Truth 273
  21. Wilson v. Libby, 498 F.Supp.2d 74 (D.D.C. 2007), affirmed, 535 F.3d 697 (D.C. Cir. 2008), cert. denied, 557 U.S. ___, 129 S.Ct. 2825 (2009)
  22. Andrew Buncombe and Joe Wilson,"The Valerie Plame Case: My Wife, the CIA Agent, by Joe Wilson", The Independent, March 18, 2007, accessed August 7, 2007. (Interview.)
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Adam Liptak, "Judge Backs C.I.A. in Suit On Memoir", The New York Times August 3, 2007, accessed March 23, 2008.
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  25. Adam Liptak, "Valerie Wilson Sues CIA Over Memoir", The New York Times, May 31, 2007, accessed June 10, 2007.
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  28. ""Unclassified Summary of Valerie Wilson's CIA Employment and Cover History"" (PDF).  (2.63 MiB), "Exhibit A" in sentencing memorandum exhibits, United States v. Libby, online posting of public document, The Next Hurrah (blog), May 26, 2007: 2-3.
  29. Cf. "Valerie Plame, Covert After All" ("Though some on the right have denied it, Plame was a covert CIA operative when she was exposed by Robert Novak. Read the document that proves It."), Salon, May 30, 2007, accessed August 12, 2007. Includes screen shots of the PDF (three pages).
  30. Elisabeth Bumiller, "Debating a Leak: The Director: C.I.A. Chief Is Caught in Middle by Leak Inquiry", New York Times, October 5, 2003.
  31. Larry C. Johnson, "The Big Lie about Valerie Plame", (Special Guest blog), June 13, 2005, accessed July 15, 2006. (Johnson is "a former CIA analyst who was in Plame's officer training class in 1985-86" and Deputy Director for Special Operations, Transportation Security, and Anti-Terrorism Assistance in the U.S. State Department's Office of Counter Terrorism until October 1993.)
  32. Michael Duffy and Timothy J. Burger, "NOC, NOC. Who's There? A Special Kind of Agent", Time, October 19, 2003, accessed September 25, 2006.
  33. Richard Leiby and Dana Priest, "The Spy Next Door: Valerie Wilson, Ideal Mom, Was Also the Ideal Cover", Washington Post, October 8, 2003: A01, accessed October 31, 2006.
  34. Carolyn Kuhn, "Libby Trial: Plame, Brewster, Ellmann, Edwards, Dennehy, Jennings: Not Secret?", (Washington, D.C. "newswire"), January 31, 2007, accessed May 5, 2007.
  35. Novak: 'No great crime' with leak Wednesday, October 1, 2003, CNN
  36. John Crewdson, "Plame's identity, if truly a secret, was thinly veiled," Chicago Tribune March 11, 2006, accessed September 25, 2006.
  37. Ishmael Jones, The Human Factor: Inside the CIA's Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture New York: Encounter Books (2008)
  38. Mark Memmott, "CIA 'outing' Might Fall Short of Crime", USA Today, July 14, 2005, accessed September 25, 2006.
  39. Larry C. Johnson, "Is Max Boot Using Oxycontin?" No Quarter (blog)-(DEAD LINK 4 May 2011), November 2, 2005, accessed July 15, 2006. See also Nicholas D. Kristof, "Secrets of the Scandal", New York Times October 11, 2003.
  40. Muriel Kane and Dave Edwards, "CBS confirms 2006 Raw Story scoop: Plame's job was to keep nukes from Iran," Raw Story (October 20, 2007).
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 David Corn, "What Valerie Plame Really Did at the CIA", The Nation (web only), September 6, 2006. citing information in the book Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, co-written by Corn and Michael Isikoff.
  42. Attachment A: Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, July 1 Through 31 December 200[2], Office of the Directorate of Central Intelligence (ODCI), CIA, Dec. 2002, accessed October 27, 2006.
  43. Unclassified Report to Congress: on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, January 1 Through June 30, 2002, Office of the Directorate of Central Intelligence (ODCI), CIA, June 2002, accessed October 27, 2006.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Joel Seidman (Producer, NBC News), "Plame Was 'covert' Agent at Time of Name Leak: Newly Released Unclassified Document Details CIA Employment", MSNBC, May 29, 2007, accessed August 10, 2007.
  45. Christopher Moran, Company Confessions: Secrets, Memoirs, and the CIA (Thomas Dunne Books, 2015), pp. 266-67: "The fallout was huge. Novak's column effectively ended Plame's CIA career. With her cover blown, she eventually resigned in December 2005."
  46. ""Statement of Rep. Henry A. Waxman, Chairman"" (PDF).  (156 KiB), "Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Hearing on Disclosure of CIA Agent Valerie Plame Wilson's ldentity and White House Procedures for Safeguarding Classified Information", online posting, United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,, March 16, 2007: 2, accessed March 19, 2007
  47. "Investigations: Disclosure of CIA Agent Identity" and "Disclosure of CIA Agent Identity: Hearing Examines Exposure of Covert CIA Agent Valerie Plame Wilson's Identity", United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (Oversight Committee), March 16, 2007, accessed July 10, 2007. (Hyperlinks in menu, including streaming video of hearing; box with "Documents and Links", featuring documents chart ""Disclosures of Valerie Plame Wilson's Classified CIA Employment"" (PDF).  (35.9 KiB).)
  48. ""U.S. vs. I. Lewis Libby"" (PDF).  (200 KiB), as posted online in The Smoking Gun (blog), April 5, 2006, accessed July 15, 2006.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Michael Isikoff, "The Leaker in Chief?" Newsweek, April 4, 2006, accessed July 15, 2006.
  50. "Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction," (blog), accessed July 15, 2006.
  51. David E. Sanger, "Special Prosecutor Links White House to CIA Leak", San Francisco Gate (blog), April 11, 2006, accessed July 15, 2006.
  52. "'Scooter' Won't Play Plame Blame Game", New York Post, April 14, 2006, accessed July 15, 2006.
  53. Don Gonyea, Rove Won't Be Charged in CIA Leak Case, NPR, Morning Edition (June 13, 2006).
  54. Grant of Executive Clemency
  55. Statement by the President on Executive Clemency for Lewis Libby
  56. Press Conference by the President, July 12, 2007, accessed August 11, 2007.
  57. "Armitage Added to Plame Law Suit", CBS News, September 13, 2006, accessed September 25, 2006; includes PDF. Cf. Amended complaint at
  58. Proskauer Rose LLP, "Valerie Plame Wilson and Ambassador Joseph Wilson Initiate a Civil Action Against Vice President Cheney, Karl Rove, and Scooter Libby for Violations of their Constitutional and Other Legal Rights", Yahoo! Business Wire (Press Release), July 13, 2006, accessed July 15, 2006; cf. ""Lame Plame Game Flames Out"" (PDF).  (41.8 KiB), rpt. in How Appealing (blog), July 13, 2006, accessed July 15. 2006.
  59. Associated Press, "Valerie Plame's Lawsuit Dismissed", USA Today, July 19, 2007, accessed July 19, 2007.
  60. "Judge Tosses Out Ex-Spy's Lawsuit Against Cheney in CIA Leak Case",, July 19, 2007, accessed July 19, 2007.
  61. Carol D. Leonnig, "Plame's Lawsuit Against Top Officials Dismissed", The Washington Post, July 20, 2007, accessed July 20, 2007.
  62. "Memorandum Opinion", in "Valerie Wilson, et al., Plaintiffs, v. I. Lewis Libby, Jr., et al., Defendants", "Civil Action No. 06-1258 (JDB)", United States District Court for the District of Columbia, July 19, 2007, accessed July 20, 2007.
  63. 63.0 63.1 Susan Decker and Cary O'Reilly, "Cheney, Rove, Libby Win Plame Suit Dismissal Appeal (Update2)",, August 12, 2008, accessed August 13, 2008.
  64. "DC Circuit Court Opinion" at FindLaw, August 12, 2008, accessed August 13, 2008.
  65. "Wilson's (sic) Response to D.C. Circuit Court Upholding Bates Decision", The Joseph and Valerie Wilson Legal Support Trust, August 12, 2008, accessed August 14, 2008.
  66. "Obama Administration Opposes Joe and Valerie Wilson's Request for Supreme Court Appeal in Suit Against Cheney, Rove, Libby and Armitage",Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), May 20, 2009, accessed May 22, 2009.
  67. "Supreme Court will not revive Valerie Plame lawsuit", The Washington Examiner, June 21, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  68. Reuters, "Plame to Testify to Congress on Leak", The Washington Post, March 9, 2007, accessed March 19, 2007.
  69. "Disclosure of CIA Identity", online posting, United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,, March 16, 2007, accessed March 19, 2007.
  70. "Outed CIA Agent Criticises White House Officials", The Guardian March 16, 2007, accessed March 19, 2007.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Richard Allen Greene, "Ex-spy Makes Tough Bush Critic", BBC News, March 16, 2007, accessed March 19, 2007.
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