Vascular disease

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Vascular disease
Vein art rotating.gif
Veins and arteries
Classification and external resources
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ICD-10 G45-G46, I60-I95
ICD-9-CM 325, 430-459
Patient UK Vascular disease
MeSH D014652
[[[d:Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 863: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).|edit on Wikidata]]]
Veins and arteries

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal.[1]

Associated medical conditions

Types

There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease) among them are:[2]

Mechanism

Endothelium lines the inner wall of the vessel

Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction.[8] Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become active.[9] The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque that consists of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.[10][11] The plaque results in a restricted blood flow which will decrease the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach certain organs,[12] the plaque might rupture causing the formation of clots.

Diagnosis

It can be difficult to make a Vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also family history and a physical examination are important. The physical exam may be different depending on the type of vascular disease. In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs.[13][14]

Treatment

Peripheral vascular disease-ulcer

Treatment varies with the type of vascular disease; in the case of renal artery disease, information from a meta-analysis indicated that balloon angioplasty results in improvement of diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements.[15] In the case of peripheral artery disease, preventing complications is important; without treatment, sores or gangrene (tissue death) may occur. Among the treatments are:[16]

  • Quitting smoking
  • Lowering cholesterol
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower blood glucose
  • Physical activity

References

  1. "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic): A Collaborative Report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery,⁎ Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease)". content.onlinejacc.org. Retrieved 2016-02-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Thromboangiitis obliterans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Raynaud's Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  9. Bikfalvi, Andreas (2013-12-19). Encyclopedic Reference of Vascular Biology & Pathology. Springer. ISBN 9783642570636.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Rubin, Emanuel; Damjanov, Ivan (2013-11-11). Pathology Reviews · 1989. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461245025.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Dijkstra, Albert J. (2007-03-13). The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420009675.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Rolfes, Sharon Rady; Pinna, Kathryn; Whitney, Ellie (2011-06-20). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Cengage Learning. ISBN 084006845X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Andras, Alina; Ferket, Bart (2014). Screening for peripheral arterial disease. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  16. "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading