Vehicular ad hoc network
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are created by applying the principles of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) - the spontaneous creation of a wireless network for data exchange - to the domain of vehicles. They are a key component of intelligent transportation systems (ITS).
While, in the early 2000s, VANETs were seen as a mere one-to-one application of MANET principles, they have since then developed into a field of research in their own right. By 2015,(p3) the term VANET became mostly synonymous with the more generic term inter-vehicle communication (IVC), although the focus remains on the aspect of spontaneous networking, much less on the use of infrastructure like Road Side Units (RSUs) or cellular networks.
VANETs support a wide range of applications - from simple one hop information dissemination of, e.g., cooperative awareness messages (CAMs) to multi-hop dissemination of messages over vast distances. Most of the concerns of interest to mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are of interest in VANETs, but the details differ. Rather than moving at random, vehicles tend to move in an organized fashion. The interactions with roadside equipment can likewise be characterized fairly accurately. And finally, most vehicles are restricted in their range of motion, for example by being constrained to follow a paved highway.
Example applications of VANETs are:(p56)
- Electronic brake lights, which allow a driver (or an autonomous car or truck) to react to vehicles braking even though they might be obscured (e.g., by other vehicles).
- Platooning, which allows vehicles to closely (down to a few inches) follow a leading vehicle by wirelessly receiving acceleration and steering information, thus forming electronically coupled "road trains".
- Traffic information systems, which use VANET communication to provide up-to-the minute obstacle reports to a vehicle's satellite navigation system
VANETs can use any wireless networking technology as their basis. The most prominent are short range radio technologies(p118) like WLAN (either standard Wi-Fi or the vehicle-specific IEEE 802.11p), Bluetooth, Visible Light Communication (VLC), Infrared, and ZigBee. In addition, cellular technologies like UMTS, LTE, or WiMAX IEEE 802.16 can support VANETs, forming heterogeneous vehicular networks.
Major standardization of VANET protocol stacks is taking place in the U.S., in Europe, and in Japan, corresponding to their dominance in the automotive industry.(p5)
In the U.S., the IEEE 1609 WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) protocol stack builds on IEEE 802.11p WLAN operating on seven reserved channels in the 5.9 GHz frequency band. The WAVE protocol stack is designed to provide multi-channel operation (even for vehicles equipped with only a single radio), security, and lightweight application layer protocols. Within the IEEE Communications Society, there is a Technical Subcommittee on Vehicular Networks & Telematics Applications (VNTA). The charter of this committee is to actively promote technical activities in the field of vehicular networks, V2V, V2R and V2I communications, standards, communications-enabled road and vehicle safety, real-time traffic monitoring, intersection management technologies, future telematics applications, and ITS-based services.
In Europe, ETSI ITS G5 builds on a variant of the same radio technology with some adaptations operating on up to five reserved channels in the 5.9 GHz frequency band. The ETSI ITS G5 protocol stack is designed to provide multi-radio multi-channel operation, security, and a complex hierarchy of higher layer protocols integrating a broad range of basic services.
In Japan, ARIB STD-T109 builds on a variant of the same radio technology operating on a single frequency in the 700 MHz band. The protocol stack provides TDMA operation to split use between road side services and pure vehicle to vehicle communication.
- Intelligent Vehicular AdHoc Network
- Network Simulator
- Mobile ad hoc network
- Wireless ad hoc network
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