Vincent de Paul
|St. Vincent de Paul, C.M.|
A portrait of St. Vincent de Paul
by Simon François de Tours (17th century)
|Priest and founder|
24 April 1581|
Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Guyenne and Gascony,
Kingdom of France
|Died||27 September 1660
Paris, Kingdom of France
|Venerated in||Catholic Church, Anglican Communion|
|Beatified||13 August 1729, Rome, Papal States by Pope Benedict XIII|
|Canonized||16 June 1737, Rome, Papal States by Pope Clement XII|
|Major shrine||St. Vincent de Paul Chapel,
95, Rue de Sèvres,
19 July (Roman Calendar, 1737-1969)
|Patronage||charities; horses; hospitals; leprosy; lost articles; Madagascar; prisoners; Richmond, Virginia; spiritual help; Saint Vincent de Paul Societies; Sacred Heart Cathedral Preparatory; Vincentian Service Corps; volunteers|
St. Vincent de Paul (24 April 1581 – 27 September 1660) was a French Roman Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He was canonized in 1737. He was renowned for his compassion, humility, and generosity and is known as the "Great Apostle of Charity".
Vincent was born in 1581 in the village of Pouy in Gascony, in the Province of Guyenne and Gascony, the Kingdom of France, to peasant farmers, father Jean and mother Bertrande de Moras de Paul. There was in the vicinity, a stream named the "Paul" and it is believed that this might have been the derivation of the family name. He wrote the name as one word – Depaul, possibly to avoid the inference that he was of noble birth, but none of his correspondents did so. He had three brothers – Jean, Bernard and Gayon, and two sisters – Marie and Marie-Claudine. He was the third child. At an early age, he showed a talent for reading and writing but during his childhood, his work was as a herder of his family's livestock. At 15, his father sent him to seminary, managing to pay for it by selling the family’s oxen.
Vincent's interest in the priesthood at that time, was largely with the intent to establish a successful career and obtain a benefice, with which he could retire early and support the family.
For two years, Vincent received his education at a college in Dax, France adjoining a monastery of the Friars Minor where he and others resided. In 1597, he began his studies in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Toulouse. The atmosphere at the university was anything but pious or conducive to spiritual contemplation. Fights broke out between various factions of students which escalated into armed battles. During the course of the unrest, an official was murdered by two students. Nevertheless, he continued his studies and was able to help pay for his education by tutoring others. He was ordained on 23 September 1600 at the age of nineteen in Château-l'Évêque, near Périgueux. This was against the regulations established by the Council of Trent which required a minimum of 24 years of age for ordination, so when he was appointed parish priest in Tilh, the appointment was appealed against in the Court of Rome. Rather than respond to a lawsuit in which he would probably not have prevailed, he resigned from the position and continued his studies. On 12 October 1604 he received his Bachelor of Theology from the University of Toulouse. Later he received a Licentiate in Canon Law from the University of Paris.
Abduction and enslavement
In 1605, Vincent sailed from Marseilles on his way back from Castres where he had gone to sell some property he had received in an inheritance from a wealthy patron in Toulouse, and was taken captive by Barbary pirates, who brought him to Tunis. De Paul was auctioned off as a slave to the highest bidder, and spent two years in bondage.
His first master was a fisherman, but Vincent was unsuitable for this line of work due to sea-sickness and was soon sold. His next master was a spagyrical physician, alchemist and inventor. He became fascinated by his arts and was taught how to prepare and administer his master's spagyric remedies. At that time, medicine was far more advanced in Muslim countries than in Europe, where it was little more than speculative medical quackery, the exception being those herbalists and traditional healers whose knowledge of the medicinal properties of plants, fungi and minerals had been passed down through generations. These traditional healers, who lacked any formal education for the most part, were almost completely obscured by the pseudo-science of the "learnéd".
The fame of Vincent's master became so great that it attracted the attention of men who summoned him to Istanbul. During the passage, the old man died and he was sold once again. His new master was a former priest and Franciscan from Nice, named Guillaume Gautier. He had converted to Islam in order to gain his freedom from slavery and was living in the mountains with three wives. The second wife, a Muslim by birth, was drawn to and visited Vincent in the fields to question him about his faith. She became convinced that his faith was true and admonished her husband for renouncing his Christianity. He became remorseful and decided to escape back to France with his slave. They had to wait ten months, but finally they secretly boarded a small boat and crossed the Mediterranean, landing in Aigues-Mortes on 28 June 1607.
Return to Europe
After returning to France, Vincent went to Rome. There he continued his studies until 1609, when he was sent back to France on a mission to King Henry IV. Once in Paris, he made the acquaintance of Pierre de Bérulle, whom he took as his spiritual advisor. André Duval, of the Sorbonne introduced him to Canfield's "Rule of Perfection".
In 1612 he was sent as parish priest to the Church of Saint-Medard in Clichy. In less than a year Bérulle recalled him to Paris to serve as a chaplain and tutor to the Gondi family. Preaching a mission to the peasants on the Gondi estates persuaded him that he should direct his efforts to the poor. It was the Countess de Gondi who persuaded her husband to endow and support a group of able and zealous missionaries who would work among poor tenant farmers and country people in general.
Foundation of Religious Congregations
In 1617, Vincent founded the "Ladies of Charity" (French: Dames de la Charité) from a group of women within his parish. He organized these wealthy women of Paris to collect funds for missionary projects, found hospitals, and gather relief funds for the victims of war and to ransom 1,200 galley slaves from North Africa. From these, with the help of St. Louise de Marillac, came the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul (French: Filles de la Charité).
In 1622 Vincent was appointed chaplain to the galleys. After working for some time in Paris among imprisoned galley-slaves, he returned to be the leader of what is now known as the Congregation of the Mission, or the "Vincentians". These priests, with vows of poverty, chastity, obedience and stability, were to devote themselves entirely to the people in smaller towns and villages.
Vincent was zealous in conducting retreats for clergy at a time when there was great laxity, abuse, and ignorance among them. He was a pioneer in clerical training and was instrumental in establishing seminaries. He spent twenty-eight years serving as the spiritual director of the Convent of St. Mary of Angels.
Vincent died in Paris on 27 September 1660.
In 1705, the Superior-General of the Lazarists requested that the holy process of Vincent's canonization be instituted. On 13 August 1729, he was declared blessed by Pope Benedict XIII. He was canonized nearly eight years later by Pope Clement XII on 16 June 1737.
Vincent's body was exhumed in 1712, 53 years after his death. The written account of an eyewitness states that "the eyes and nose alone showed some decay". However, when it was exhumed again during the canonization in 1737, it was found to have decomposed due to an underground flood. His bones have been encased in a waxen figure which is displayed in a glass reliquary in the chapel of the headquarters of the Vincentian fathers in Paris. His heart is still incorrupt, and is displayed in a reliquary in the chapel of the motherhouse of the Daughters of Charity in Paris.
In 1737, Vincent's feast day was included in the Roman Calendar for celebration on 19 July, because his day of death was already used for the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian. It was given the rank of "Double", which was changed to the equivalent rank of "Third-Class Feast" in 1960. The 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar transferred his memorial to 27 September, moving Cosmas and Damian to 26 September to make way for him, as he is now better known in the West than they.
One of the feasts celebrated by the French Deist Church of the Theophilanthropy was dedicated to Vincent.
Vincent is the patron of all works of charity. The Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, a charitable organisation dedicated to the service of the poor, was established by French university students in 1833, led by the Blessed Frederic Ozanam. The Society is today present in 132 countries.
Niagara University in Lewiston, NY, St. John's University in New York, New York, and DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois were founded in 1856, 1870 and 1898, respectively, by the Congregation of the Mission in the United States.
Parishes are dedicated to Vincent in Washington, DC; Syracuse, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Omaha, Nebraska; Mays Landing, New Jersey; Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Houston, Texas; Delray Beach, Florida; Wheeling, West Virginia, Coventry, Rhode Island, Churchville, New York, Peryville, Missouri, Lenox Dale, Massachusetts, Girardville, Pennsylvania, Arlington, Texas, and elsewhere. A high school in Wayne, New Jersey, is named for Vincent.
A long-term care 1,200 bed facility for elderly people is dedicated to St. Vincent de Paul in Malta. In the Philippines, a church is dedicated to him located in Ermita, Manila, and Adamson University adopted him as their Patron Saint after the Vincentian Priests took over the University.
In popular culture
- List of Catholic saints
- List of slaves
- Union chrétienne de Saint-Chaumond (Poitiers) - Cofounded by St. Vincent de Paul
- Attwater, Donald (1982) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints p 337, Aylesbury
- Coste, Pierre (1932) Monsieur Vincent: Le Grand Saint du grand siècle, Desclée de Brouwer, Paris, France
- Butler's Lives of the Saints, (Michael Walsh, ed.), (1991) p 304, HarperCollins Publishers, New York
- "St. Vincent de Paul, Seton Health Care
- O'Donnell C. M., Hugh. "Vincent de Paul: His Life and Way", Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac: Rules, Conferences, and Writings, (Frances Ryan and John E. Rybolt, eds.), Paulist Press, 1995, ISBN 9780809135646
- Dégert, Antoine (1912) "St. Vincent de Paul", The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15, Robert Appleton Company, New York, accessed 9 Jan. 2013
- Pormann, Peter E.; Savage-Smith, Emilie (2007). Medieval Islamic Medicine. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-2066-4.
- Foley OFM, Leonard, "St. Vincent de Paul", Saint of the Day, Lives, Lessons, and Feast, (revised by Pat McCloskey OFM), Franciscan Media, ISBN 978-0-86716-887-7
- "Temples in Paris: Catholic churches and other places devoted to Protestant worship after the Concordat in 1801". Musée virtuel du Protestantisme.
- Joan Carroll Cruz (1977) The Incorruptibles pp. 248–9, Tan Books and Publishers, Inc.
- General Roman Calendar of 1960
- Calendarium Romanum p. 140 (1969) Libreria Editrice Vaticana
- Herbert Hewitt Stroup (1985) Social Welfare Pioneers p. 185, Rowman and Littlefield ISBN 0-88229-212-9
- Niagara University History
- St. John's University Quick Facts
- History, DePaul University
- St. Vincent de Paul, Navy Yard/Southwest Waterfront, Washington, D.C.
- St. Vincent de Paul Parish, Lincoln Park, Chicago
- St. Vincent de Paul Catholic Church, Omaha, Nebraska
- Parish of St. Vincent de Paul, Mays Landing, New Jersey
- St. Vincent de Paul Parish, Mt. Vernon, Ohio
- St. Vincent de Paul, Houston, Texas
- St. Vincent de Paul, Wheeling, West Virginia
- St. Vincent's, Churchville, New York,
- St. Vincent De Paul Parish, Perryville, Missouri
- St. Vincent's, Lenox Dale, Massachusetts
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