Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate

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Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate

The voiced dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d͡ð⟩, ⟨d͜ð⟩, ⟨d̪͡ð⟩ and ⟨d̟͡ð⟩.


Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal. Note that most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


The voiced dental non-sibilant affricate is rare. It can occur as a variant of the more common voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate in the "dth" of the English word "width". The voicing of the sound in this case can be context-dependent.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Dublin[1] they [d̟͡ðeɪ̯] 'they' Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; may be [] instead[1]
New York[2] Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects, may also be pronounced [d] and [ð]
Cajun Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects, intermediate between [ð] in General American and [d] in fully accented Cajun English

See also