Voiced palatal stop

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Voiced palatal stop
ɟ
IPA number 108
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ
Unicode (hex) U+025F
X-SAMPA J\
Kirshenbaum J
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɟ⟩, a barred dotless ⟨j⟩ which was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter ⟨f⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.

If distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed ⟨ɟ̟⟩ or ⟨d̠ʲ⟩; these are essentially equivalent, because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȡ⟩, used especially in Sinological circles.

The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ], as in English jump (although it is a stop, not an affricate; the most similar stop phoneme to this sound in English is [ɡ], as in argue), and because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge,[1] [ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [dʒ]. It is also common for the symbol /ɟ/ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.

There is also a voiced post-palatal stop (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.

Features

Features of the voiced palatal stop:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian[2] gjuha [ˈɟuha] 'tongue' Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian for all speakers and in Tosk for some speakers[3]
Arabic[4] Sudanese جمل [ˈɟa.mal] 'camel' Some dialects; corresponds to /d͡ʒ/, /ʒ/ or /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Yemeni
Basque anddere [äɲɟe̞ɾe̞] 'doll'
Catalan Eastern[5] guix [g̟iɕ] 'chalk' Post-palatal.[5] Allophone of /g/ before front vowels.[5] See Catalan phonology
Majorcan[6] [ˈɟiɕ] Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien 攑手/gia̍h-tshiú [ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩] '(to) raise hand '
Taizhou dialect [ɟyoŋ] 'together'
Corsican fighjulà [viɟɟuˈla] 'to watch'
Czech dělám [ɟɛlaːm] 'I do' See Czech phonology
Dinka jir [ɟir] 'blunt'
Ega[7] [ɟé] 'become numerous'
English Australian[8] geese [g̟ɪi̯s] 'geese' Post-palatal, less commonly palatal.[8] Allophone of /ɡ/ before /iː ɪ e eː æ æɪ æɔ ɪə j/.[8] See Australian English phonology
French[9] gui [ɟi] 'mistletoe' Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology
Friulian gjat [ɟat] 'cat'
Ganda jjajja [ɟːaɟːa] 'grandfather'
German Studium [ˈʃtuːɟʊm] '(academic) studies' Allophone of more frequent [dj] or [di]. See German phonology
Greek[10] μετάγγιση/metággisi [me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i] 'transfusion' Post-palatal.[10] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[11] gyám [ɟaːm] 'guardian' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Standard[12] ghianda [ˈg̟jän̪ːd̪ä] 'acorn' Post-palatal.[12] Allophone of /g/ before /i e ɛ j/.[12] See Italian phonology
Irish Gaeilge [ˈɡeːlʲɟə] 'Gaelic' See Irish phonology
Latvian ģimene About this sound [ˈɟime̞ne̞]  'family'
Macedonian раѓање [ˈraɟaɲɛ] 'birth' See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Central[13] fadder [fɑɟːeɾ] 'godparent' See Norwegian phonology
Northern[13]
Occitan Auvergnat diguèt [ɟiˈɡɛ] 'said' (3rd pers. sing.) See Occitan phonology
Limousin dissèt [ɟiˈʃɛ]
Portuguese Some fluminense speakers amiguinho [əmiˈɟĩȷ̃u] 'little buddy' (m.) Allophone of stressed /g/ after [i ~ ɪ] and before close front vowels (/i e ĩ ẽ/).
Some Brazilian speakers pedinte [piˈɟ̟ĩc̟i̥] 'beggar' Corresponds to affricate allophone of /d/ before /i/ that is common in Brazil.[14] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[15] ghimpe [ˈɟimpe̞] 'thorn' Allophone of /ɡ/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology
Slovak ďaleký [ˈɟalʲekiː] 'far' Alveolo-palatal.[16]
Turkish güneş [ɟyˈne̞ʃ] 'sun' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese North-central dialect da [ɟa˧] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology
Yanyuwa[17] [ɡ̄ug̟uɭu] 'sacred' Post-palatal.[17] Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions

See also

References

  1. Ladefoged (2005), p. 162.
  2. Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  3. Kolgjini (2004).
  4. Watson (2002), p. 16.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  6. Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  7. Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  9. Recasens (2013), p. 11–13.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  11. Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  14. Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited
  15. "Definiția cu ID-ul 9532", DEX Online (in Romanian) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.

Bibliography

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  • Kolgjini, Julie M. (2004), Palatalization in Albanian: An acoustic investigation of stops and affricates (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Arlington<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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