Voiced uvular stop

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Voiced uvular stop
ɢ
IPA number 112
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɢ
Unicode (hex) U+0262
X-SAMPA G\
Kirshenbaum G
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Sound

The voiced uvular stop or voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɢ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is G\.

[ɢ] is a rare sound, even compared to other uvulars. Vaux (1999)[1] proposes a phonological explanation: uvular consonants normally involve a neutral or a retracted tongue root, whereas voiced stops often involve advanced tongue root: two articulations that cannot physically co-occur. This leads many languages of the world to have a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] instead as the voiced counterpart of the voiceless uvular stop. Examples are Inuit; several Turkic languages such as Uyghur and Yakut; several Northwest Caucasian languages such as Abkhaz; and several Northeast Caucasian languages such as Ingush.

For a voiced pre-uvular stop (also called post-velar), see voiced velar stop.

Features

Features of the voiced uvular stop:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Sudanese بقرة [bɑɢɑrɑ] 'cow' Corresponds to /q/ in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Yemeni[2] قات About this sound [ɢɑːt]  'Khat' Some dialects.[2] Corresponds to /q/ in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Ket[3] báŋquk [baŋ˩˧ɢuk˧˩] 'cave in the ground'

Allophone of /q/ after /ŋ/.[3]

Kwak'wala ǥilakas'la [ɢilakasʔla] 'thank you'
Mongolian Монгол [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ] 'Mongolian'
Nivkh ньыӈ ӷан [ɲɤŋ ɢæn] 'our dog' Allophone of /q/.
Persian غذا About this sound [ɢæˈzɒː]  'food' Allophone of /ɣ/. See Persian phonology
Shor қарға [qɑrˈɢɑ] 'crow' Allophone of /g/.
Somali Muqdisho [muɢdiʃɔ] 'Mogadishu' Allophone of /q/. See Somali phonology
Tabasaran дугу [d̪uɢu] 'he (ergative)'
Tsakhur ? [ɢajɛ] 'stone'
!Xóõ ? [nǀɢɑɑ̃] 'to be spread out'
Xumi Lower[4] [Rɢʶo] 'to stew' Somewhat affricated; occurs only in a few words.[5] Corresponds to the cluster /Nɡ/ in Upper Xumi.[6]

See also

References

  1. Vaux, Bert (1999). "A Note on Pharyngeal Features". Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Watson (2002), p. 13.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Georg (2007), pp. 49, 67 and 77.
  4. Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
  5. Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365–366.
  6. Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 383, 387.

Bibliography

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  • Georg, Stefan (2007), A Descriptive Grammar of Ket (Yenisei-Ostyak), Global Oriental<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>