Voiceless uvular trill

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Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1] goed [ʀ̥ut] 'good' Possible word-initial allophone of /χ/. Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[2] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/.
Dutch Belgian[3] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[4] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /ʀ/ after voiceless consonants;[4] can be [χ] instead.[5] See French phonology
German Standard[6] treten [ˈtʀ̥eːtn̩] 'to step' Possible allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that realize /r/ as a uvular trill [ʀ].[6] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[7] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q].[7] Doesn't occur in the coda.[7] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[8] geer [ɣeːʀ̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [] instead.[9]
Spanish Ponce dialect[10] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[10] See Spanish phonology

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0_r

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[11] خضراء [x͡ʀ̥adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[11] Also reported to be simply a fricative (velar, post-velar, uvular, depending on the dialect).[12] See Arabic phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[13] acht [ɑʀ̝̊˖t] 'eight' Post-velar;[13] also described as a fricative, either post-velar [] or uvular [χ].[14] See Dutch phonology
Belgian[15][16] broot [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[17] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[18] clock [kl̥ɒʀ̝̊] 'clock' Possible word-final realization of /k/.[18]
Hebrew[19] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[19] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[20] r [jɔːʀ̝̊¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/; can be simply a fricative [χ] instead.[20] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[21] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Allophone of /ʀ/ in the syllable coda. Only partially devoiced, either uvular [ʀ̝̊] or pre-uvular [ʀ̝̊˖].[21][22]
Weert dialect[22] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊]
Spanish Madrid[23] jazmín [x͡ʀ̥äðˈmĩn] 'jasmine' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[23] Corresponds to [x ~ χ] in standard European Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[24] [example needed] Usually transcribed /x/ or /χ/.

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68 and 70-71.
  5. Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67, and 71.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Krech et al. (2009), p. 86.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  8. Peters (2006).
  9. While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol ⟨⟩ for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 Thelwall & Sa'Addedin (1999), pp. 51 and 53.
  12. Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Collins & Mees (2003:191). The source says that it is a fricative with a "very energetic articulation with considerable scrapiness", i.e. a trill fricative.
  14. Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  15. Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  16. Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22 and 83)
  17. Tops (2009), p. 83.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

Bibliography

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  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1999), "Dutch", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 74–77, ISBN 0-521-65236-7<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Addedin, M. Akram (1999), "Arabic", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–54, ISBN 0-521-63751-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Tops, Evie (2009), Variatie en verandering van de /r/ in Vlaanderen, Brussels: VUBPress, ISBN 9789054874713<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Verhoeven, Jo (1994), "Fonetische Eigenschappen van de Limburgse huig-r", Taal en Tongval, 46: 9–21<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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