The WWE Headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.
|Titan Sports, Inc.
World Wrestling Federation, Inc.
World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc.
|Traded as||NYSE: WWE|
Media and Technology
|Predecessor||Capitol Wrestling Corporation|
|Founded||February 21, 1980
South Yarmouth, Massachusetts, US
|Headquarters||1241 East Main Street
Stamford, Connecticut 06902, United States
(Chairman and CEO)
(Chief Brand Officer)
Paul "Triple H" Levesque
(Executive Vice President of Talent, Live Events, and Creative)
|Revenue||US$ 542.6 million (2014)|
|US$-42.2 million (2014)|
|Profit||US$-30.1 million (2014)|
|Total assets||US$ 382.6 million (2014)|
|Total equity||US$ 205.8 million (2014)|
Number of employees
|Slogan||Then. Now. Forever.|
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. (d/b/a WWE) is an American publicly traded, privately controlled entertainment company that deals primarily in professional wrestling, with major revenue sources also coming from film, music, product licensing and direct product sales. WWE also refers to the professional wrestling promotion itself, founded by Jess McMahon and Toots Mondt in 1952 as Capitol Wrestling Corporation. As of 2014, it is the largest wrestling promotion in the world, holding over 300 events a year, and broadcasting to about 36 million viewers in more than 150 countries. The company's headquarters are located in Stamford, Connecticut, with offices in major cities across the world.
As in other professional wrestling promotions, WWE shows are not legitimate contests, but purely entertainment-based, featuring storyline-driven, scripted, and choreographed matches, though they often include moves that can put performers at risk of injury if not performed correctly. This was first publicly acknowledged by WWE's owner Vince McMahon in 1989 to avoid taxes from athletic commissions. Since the 1980s, WWE publicly branded their product as sports entertainment, which is considered to acknowledge the product's roots in competitive sport and dramatic theater.
The company's majority owner is its chairman and CEO, Vince McMahon. Along with his wife Linda, children Shane and Stephanie, and son-in-law Paul Levesque (known professionally as Triple H), the McMahon family holds approximately 70% of WWE's equity and 96% of the voting power. As of August 2014, due to ongoing problems with the company, Eminence Capital, a New York-based hedge fund, acquired 9.6% stake of WWE while the McMahon family retains 90.4% interest.
The current entity, incorporated on February 21, 1980, was previously known as Titan Sports founded in 1979 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. It acquired Capitol Wrestling Corporation (the holding company for the World Wrestling Federation, WWF) in 1982. Titan was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. in 1998, then World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. in 1999, and finally World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. in 2002. Since 2011, the company has officially branded itself solely as "WWE" though the company's legal name was not changed.
- 1 Company history
- 1.1 Prior to Titan Sports
- 1.2 Titan Sports, Inc.
- 1.3 World Wrestling Federation, Inc./World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc.
- 1.4 World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc./WWE
- 2 Terminology
- 3 WWE stock and corporate governance
- 4 Contracts
- 5 Wellness program
- 6 Legal disputes
- 7 Expansion beyond wrestling
- 8 Championships and accomplishments
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Prior to Titan Sports
WWE's origins can trace back as far as 1952 when Roderick James "Jess" McMahon and Toots Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. (CWC), which joined the National Wrestling Alliance in 1953. McMahon, who was a successful boxing promoter, began working with Tex Rickard in 1926. With the help of Rickard, he began promoting boxing at the third Madison Square Garden. Though, it was not the first time Jess McMahon promoted wrestling cards and shows as he had already promoted wrestling shows and cards during the 1910s.
In November 1954, Jess McMahon died and Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt's associates, brought in McMahon's son Vincent James. The younger McMahon and Mondt were very successful and soon controlled approximately 70% of the NWA's booking, largely due to their dominance in the heavily populated Northeast region. In 1963, McMahon and Mondt left the NWA and Capitol created the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF), following a dispute with the NWA over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers being booked to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Both men left the company in protest following the incident and formed the WWWF in the process, awarding Rogers the new WWWF World Championship in April of that year. He lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month later on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack a week before the match.
Capitol operated the WWWF in a conservative manner compared to other pro wrestling territories; it ran its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly, usually featuring a babyface champion wrestling various heels in programs that consisted of one to three matches. After gaining a television program deal and turning preliminary wrestler Lou Albano as a manager for Sammartino's heel opponents, the WWWF was doing sell out business by 1970.
Mondt left Capitol in the late sixties and although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon, Sr. quietly re-joined in 1971. At the annual meeting of the NWA in 1983, the McMahons and Capitol employee Jim Barnett all withdrew from the organization. Capitol then renamed the World Wide Wrestling Federation to the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) in 1979.
Titan Sports, Inc.
Vincent J. McMahon's son, Vincent K. McMahon, and his wife Linda, established Titan Sports, Inc., in 1979 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. The company was incorporated on February 21, 1980 in the Cape Cod Coliseum offices. The younger McMahon bought Capitol from his father in 1982, effectively seizing control of the company. Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the country, and eventually, the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the wrestling business. At the same time, it was initially headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut.
In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted:
|“||In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge. Each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U.S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them, fragmented and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords.||”|
Upon taking over Capitol, McMahon immediately worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States. This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions, eventually ending the Territory system, which was in use since the founding of the National Wrestling Alliance in the 1940s. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, and tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters.
McMahon gained significant traction when he hired AWA talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling, notably for his appearance in the film Rocky III. McMahon signed Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, and then shortly afterward Jesse Ventura as an announcer. Other wrestlers joined the roster, such as Jimmy Snuka, Don Muraco, The Iron Sheik, Nikolai Volkoff, Junkyard Dog, Paul Orndorff, Greg Valentine and Ricky Steamboat. Many of the wrestlers who would join later were former AWA and/or NWA talent.
The WWF would tour nationally in a venture that would require a huge capital investment, one that placed the WWF on the verge of financial collapse. The future of McMahon's experiment came down to the success or failure of McMahon's groundbreaking concept, WrestleMania. WrestleMania was a major success, and was (and still is) marketed as the Super Bowl of professional wrestling. The concept of a wrestling supercard was nothing new in North America; the NWA had been running Starrcade a few years prior. In McMahon's eyes, however, what separated WrestleMania from other supercards was that it was intended to be accessible to those who did not watch wrestling. He invited celebrities such as Mr. T, Muhammad Ali and Cyndi Lauper to participate in the event, as well as securing a deal with MTV to provide coverage. The event and hype surrounding it led to the term Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection, due to the cross-promotion of pop-culture and professional wrestling.
The WWF business expanded significantly on the shoulders of McMahon and his babyface hero Hulk Hogan for the next several years. The introduction of Saturday Night's Main Event on NBC in 1985 marked the first time that professional wrestling had been broadcast on network television since the 1950s, when the now-defunct DuMont Television Network broadcast matches of Vince McMahon Sr.'s Capitol Wrestling Corporation. The 1980s "Wrestling Boom" peaked with the WrestleMania III pay-per-view at the Pontiac Silverdome in 1987, which set an attendance record of 93,173, a record that still stands today. A rematch of the Wrestlemania III main event between WWF champion Hulk Hogan and André the Giant took place on The Main Event in 1988 and was seen by 33 million people, the most-watched wrestling match in North American television history.
In 1985, Titan moved its offices to its present location in Stamford, Connecticut, before the present building was built nearby in 1991. Subsequently, a new Titan Sports, Inc. (originally WWF, Inc.) was established in Delaware in 1987 and was consolidated with the Massachusetts entity in February 1988.
New Generation (1993–1997)
The WWF was hit with allegations of steroid abuse and distribution in 1992 and was followed by allegations of sexual harassment by WWF employees the following year. McMahon was eventually exonerated, but it brought bad public relations for the WWF, and overall bad reputation. The steroid trial cost the company an estimated $5 million at a time of record low revenues. This helped drive many WWF wrestlers over to rival promotion World Championship Wrestling (WCW), including 1980s babyface hero Hulk Hogan. During this period, the WWF promoted wrestlers of a more younger age comprising "The New Generation", featuring Shawn Michaels, Diesel, Razor Ramon, Bret Hart and The Undertaker, in an effort to promote new talent into the spotlight.
In January 1993, the WWF debuted its flagship cable program Monday Night Raw. WCW countered in September 1995 with its own Monday night program, WCW Monday Nitro, which aired in the same time slot as Raw. The two programs would trade wins in the ensuing ratings competition (known as the "Monday Night Wars") until mid-1996. At that point, Nitro began a nearly two-year ratings domination that was largely fueled by the introduction of The New World Order (nWo), a stable led by former WWF performers Hulk Hogan, Scott Hall (the former Razor Ramon), and Kevin Nash (the former Diesel).
The Attitude Era (1997–2001)
As the Monday Night Wars continued between Monday Night Raw and WCW's Monday Nitro, the WWF would transform itself from a family-friendly product into a more adult oriented product, known as The Attitude Era. The era was spearheaded by WWF VP Shane McMahon (son of owner Vince McMahon) and head writer Vince Russo.
1997 ended with McMahon facing real-life controversy following Bret Hart's controversial departure from the company, dubbed as the Montreal Screwjob. This proved to be one of several founding factors in the launch of the Attitude Era as well as the creation of McMahon's on-screen character, "Mr. McMahon".
Prior to the Montreal Screwjob, which took place at the 1997 Survivor Series, former WCW talent were being hired by the WWF, including Stone Cold Steve Austin, Mankind and Vader. Steve Austin was slowly brought in as the new face of the company despite being promoted as an anti-hero, starting with his Austin 3:16 speech shortly after defeating Jake Roberts in the tournament finals at the King of the Ring pay-per-view in 1996.
World Wrestling Federation, Inc./World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc.
On May 6, 1998, Titan Sports, Inc. was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. It was renamed World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. a year later.
On April 29, 1999, the WWF made its return to terrestrial television by launching a special program known as SmackDown on the fledgling UPN network. The Thursday night show became a weekly series on August 26, 1999—competing directly with WCW's Thursday-night program Thunder on TBS. In 2000, the WWF, in collaboration with television network NBC, announced the creation of the XFL, a new professional football league that debuted in 2001. The league had high ratings for the first few weeks, but initial interest waned and its ratings plunged to dismally low levels (one of its games was the lowest-rated prime-time show in the history of American television). NBC walked out on the venture after only one season, but McMahon intended to continue alone. However, after being unable to reach a deal with UPN, McMahon shut down the XFL.
On October 19, 1999, World Wrestling Federation, Inc. launched an initial public offering as a publicly traded company, trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) with the issuance of stock then valued at $172.5 million. The company has traded on the NYSE since its launch under ticker symbol WWE.
Acquisition of WCW and ECW
By the fall of 1999, The Attitude Era had turned the tide of the Monday Night Wars into WWF's favor. After Time Warner merged with AOL, Ted Turner's control over WCW was considerably reduced, and the newly merged company announced a complete lack of interest in professional wrestling as a whole, and decided to sell WCW in its entirety. Although Eric Bischoff, whom Time Warner fired as WCW president in October 1999, was nearing a deal to purchase the company, in March 2001 McMahon acquired the rights to WCW's trademarks, tape library, contracts and other properties from AOL Time Warner for a number reported to be around $7 million. Shortly after WrestleMania X-Seven, the WWF launched the Invasion storyline integrating the incoming talent roster from WCW and Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW). With this purchase, WWF now became by far the largest wrestling promotion in the world. The assets of ECW, which had folded after filing for bankruptcy protection in April 2001, were purchased by WWE in mid-2003.
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc./WWE
On May 5, 2002, World Wrestling Federation Entertainment announced it was changing both its company name and the name of its wrestling promotion to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). Although mainly caused by an unfavorable ruling in its dispute with the World Wide Fund for Nature regarding the "WWF" initialism, the company noted it provided an opportunity to emphasize its focus on entertainment.
Harry "Slash" Grivas and Roderick Kohn had filed a lawsuit against the WWE in June 2003 due to the music being used for its programming and DVDs without consent or payment. It also stated that the rights to original music used by Extreme Championship Wrestling that WWE had been using also during the Invasion storyline of 2001. The case was resolved on both sides with a settlement that saw WWE purchase the catalogue outright in January 2005.
On April 7, 2011, WWE corporate announced that the company was ceasing use of the full name "World Wrestling Entertainment" and would henceforth refer to itself solely as "WWE", making the latter an orphan initialism. This was said to reflect WWE's global entertainment expansion away from the ring with the ultimate goal of acquiring entertainment companies and putting a focus on television, live events, and film production. WWE noted that their new company model was put into effect with the relaunch of Tough Enough, being a non–scripted program (contrary to the scripted nature of professional wrestling) and with the launch of the WWE Network (at the time scheduled to launch in 2012; later pushed back to 2014). However, the legal name of the company remains as "World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc."
In March 2002, WWE decided to create two separate rosters, Raw and SmackDown due to the overabundance of talent left over from the Invasion storyline. This was dubbed as the WWE Brand Extension. Despite much of the originally drafted talent departing by 2004, WWE continued to separate the shows, taking on younger talent, and holding a Draft Lottery every year. On May 26, 2006, WWE announced the relaunch of Extreme Championship Wrestling as a WWE brand. The new ECW program aired until February 16, 2010.
Beginning with the August 29, 2011, episode of Raw, it was announced that Raw would feature talent from both Raw and SmackDown, and would be known as Raw Supershow (the "Supershow" suffix would be dropped on July 23, 2012). Championships previously exclusive to one show or the other were available for wrestlers from any show to compete for; the "Supershow" format would mark the end of the brand extension, as all programming and live events since the initial announcement was made have featured the full WWE roster.
In 2013, the company built a sports medicine and training center in east Orange County, Florida in partnership with Full Sail University in Winter Park, Florida. The training facility is targeted at career development for wrestlers and athletic development.
On February 24, 2014, WWE launched a 24/7 streaming network. The network includes past and present WWE shows, pay-per-views, and shows from the WWE Library. The network reached 1,000,000 subscribers on January 27, 2015 under one year of its launch, with WWE claiming that it was thus "the fastest-growing digital subscription service ever".
WWE uses a variety of special terms in defining their product, such as describing the wrestling industry as 'sports entertainment'. The fan base is referred to as 'the WWE Universe'. A male wrestler is known as a 'WWE Superstar'; a female wrestler a 'WWE Diva', while retired wrestlers are known as 'WWE Legends'.
WWE classifies its professional wrestlers as independent contractors and not as employees. A study by the University of Louisville Law Review found that after applying the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 20-factor test, 16 factors "clearly indicate that wrestlers are employees". However, as a result of WWE terming them as independent contractors, "the wrestlers are denied countless benefits to which they would otherwise be entitled".
WWE stock and corporate governance
On October 19, 1999, WWF, which had been owned previously by parent company Titan Sports, launched an initial public offering as a publicly traded company, trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) with the issuance of stock then valued at $172.5 million. The company has traded on the NYSE since its launch under ticker symbol WWE.
The company has actively marketed itself as a publicly traded company through presentations at investor conferences and other investor relations initiatives. In June 2003, the company began paying a dividend on its shares of $0.04 per share. In June 2011, the company cut its dividend from $0.36 to $0.12.
In 2014, WWE's stock value underwent a significant correction, losing 63.1 percent, or $1.4 billion, of its market capitalization after Emmanuel Lemelson of Lemelson Capital Management, an investment management firm, released a report on March 17, 2014 saying the stock was substantially overvalued and should be shorted. In its short thesis and again on April 8, 2014, the firm criticized what it said were deficiencies in the company's executive management team and announced that it was short WWE stock. The report placed fair value of WWE shares (which closed that day at $30.37) between $8.25 and $11.88. Following release of the Lemelson Capital report, WWE's stock price plummeted 63.1 percent over eight weeks, closing at $11.27 on May 16, 2014, representing a $1.4 billion loss in the company's market capitalization.
Lemelson Capital Management criticized WWE's executive management for what it said was "a period of ongoing losses, execution failures and material misstatements." Several hours after the firm's announcement, former Louisiana Attorney General Charles Foti announced that his law firm would begin an investigation into whether WWE had violated state or federal securities law. The firm simultaneously announced that it had covered its short position and taken a stake in the company at the substantially lower price. The Lemelson Capital report also was followed by broad criticism of WWE's management by financial media.
As of 2014, the company's Board of Directors has eight members: Vince McMahon, the company's Chairman of the Board and CEO; Stuart U. Goldfarb, President of Fullbridge, Inc.; Patricia A. Gottesman, former President and CEO of Crimson Hexagon; David Kenen, the former Executive Vice President of the Hallmark Channel; Joseph H. Perkins, former President of Communications Consultants; Frank A. Riddick, III, CEO of Shale-Inland Group, Inc.; Jeffrey R. Speed, former Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Six Flags; Laureen Ong, former President of Travel Channel; Stephanie McMahon, Chief Brand Officer of WWE; Paul "Triple H" Levesque, Executive Vice-president, Talent, live events, and creative.
WWE signs most of their talent to what is called an "exclusive contract". This means that talent signed under such a contract can appear or perform only on WWE programming and events. They are not permitted to appear or perform for another promotion, unless special arrangements are made beforehand. WWE keeps all talent's salary, employment length, benefits, and all other contract details strictly private.
The World Wrestling Federation had a drug-testing policy in place as early as 1987, initially ran by an in-house administrator. In 1991, wrestlers were subjected to independent testings for anabolic steroids for the first time. The independent testing was ceased in 1996.
The Talent Wellness Program is a comprehensive drug, alcohol, and cardiac screening program initiated in February 2006, shortly after the sudden death of one of their highest profile talents, 38-year-old Eddie Guerrero. The policy tests for recreational drug use and abuse of prescription medication, including anabolic steroids. Under the guidelines of the policy, talent is also tested annually for pre-existing or developing cardiac issues. The drug testing is handled by Aegis Sciences Corporation. The cardiac evaluations are handled by New York Cardiology Associates P.C.
After the double murder and suicide committed by one of its performers, Chris Benoit, with a possible link to steroids abuse encouraged by WWE, the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform requested that WWE turn over any material regarding its talent wellness policy.
In August 2007, the program was defended by WWE and its employees in the wake of several illegal pharmacy busts that linked WWE performers to steroid purchases even after the policy was put into place. Ten professional wrestlers were suspended for violating the Wellness Policy after reports emerged they were all customers of Signature Pharmacy in Orlando, Florida. According to a statement attributed to WWE attorney Jerry McDevitt, an eleventh wrestler was later added to the suspension list.
Because of the Wellness Policy, physicians were able to diagnose one of its performers with a heart ailment that would otherwise likely have gone unnoticed until it was too late. In August 2007, then-reigning United States Champion Montel Vontavious Porter (real name Hassan Assad) was diagnosed with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, which can be potentially fatal if gone undiagnosed. The ailment was discovered while Assad was going through a routine Wellness Policy checkup.
In 1994, Titan Sports had entered into an agreement with the World Wide Fund for Nature (also trademarked WWF), an environmental organization, regarding Titan's use of the "WWF" acronym, which both organizations had been using since at least March 1979. Under the agreement, Titan had agreed to cease using the written acronym "WWF" in connection with its wrestling promotion, and to minimize (though not eliminate) spoken uses of "WWF" on its broadcasts, particularly in scripted comments. In exchange, the environmental group (and its national affiliates) agreed to drop any pending litigation against Titan, and furthermore agreed not to challenge Titan's use of the full "World Wrestling Federation" name or the promotion's then-current logo.
In 2000, the World Wide Fund for Nature sued World Wrestling Federation Entertainment Inc. in the United Kingdom, alleging various violations of the 1994 agreement. The Court of Appeal agreed that the promotion company had violated the 1994 agreement, particularly in regards to merchandising. The last televised event to market the WWF logo was the UK-based pay-per-view Insurrextion 2002. On May 5, 2002, the company launched its "Get The F Out" marketing campaign and changed all references on its website from "WWF" to "WWE", while switching the URL from WWF.com to WWE.com. The next day, a press release announced the official name change from World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. to World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., or WWE, and the change was publicized later that day during a telecast of Monday Night Raw, which was broadcast from the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut.
Following the name change, the use of the WWF "scratch" logo became prohibited on all WWE properties. Additionally, past references to the WWF trademark and initials in 'specified circumstances' became censored. Despite the litigation, WWE was still permitted use of the original WWF logo, which was used from 1979 through 1994 and had been explicitly exempted under the 1994 agreement, as well as the similar "New WWF Generation" logo, which was used from 1994 through 1998. Furthermore, the company could still make use of the full "World Wrestling Federation" and "World Wrestling Federation Entertainment" names without consequence. In 2003, WWE won a limited decision to continue marketing certain classic video games from THQ and Jakks Pacific that contained the WWF "scratch" logo. However, the packaging on those games had all WWF references replaced with WWE.
Starting with the 1,000th episode of Raw in July 2012, the WWF "scratch" logo is no longer censored in archival footage due to WWE reaching a new settlement with the World Wide Fund for Nature. In addition, the WWF initials are no longer censored when spoken or when written in plain text in archival footage. Since then, full-length matches and other segments featuring the WWF initials and "scratch" logo have been added to the WWE website and the WWE Classics on Demand service. This also includes WWE Home Video releases since October 2012 starting with the re-release of Brock Lesnar: Here Comes The Pain. In exchange, WWE is no longer permitted to use the WWF initials or logo in any new, original footage, packaging, or advertising, with any old-school logos for retro-themed programming now using the original WWF logo, but modified without the F.
Expansion beyond wrestling
In addition to licensing wrestling and performers' likenesses to companies such as Acclaim, THQ/2K Sports, and Mattel to produce video games and action figures, WWE has branched out into other areas of interest in order to market their product.
- WWE Libraries: a collection of professional wrestling videos and copyrights for other promotions.
- WCW Inc.: created in 2001 - owns the rights to the video library and intellectual property for World Championship Wrestling.
- WWE Studios: created in 2002 to create and develop feature film properties. Formerly known as WWE Films.
- WWE Music Group: specializes in compilation albums of WWE wrestlers' entrance themes. The group also releases titles that have been performed by WWE wrestlers.
- WWE Home Video: specializes in distributing compilation VHS, DVD, and Blu-ray Disc copies of WWE pay-per-view events, compilations of WWE wrestlers' performances, and biographies of WWE performers.
- WWE Books: publishes autobiographies of and on WWE personalities, behind-the-scenes guides to WWE, illustrated books, calendars, young adult books, and other general nonfiction books.
- WWE Performance Center: serves as the training and performance center for future employees.
- WWE Network: a subscription-based video streaming service launched in 2014 using the infrastructure of Major League Baseball Advanced Media.
- WWEShop.com: a website established as the place to buy officially licensed WWE related apparel, gear, and other merchandise.
- WWE Jet Services, Inc.: formed in 2013 to manage the financing and operations of the company's fleet of private jets.
- World Bodybuilding Federation: a subsidiary of Titan Sports that was launched in 1990 which promoted professional bodybuilding through a television show, magazine, and annual pay-per-view events. It was closed in 1992.
- XFL: folded in 2001, was a partially owned subsidiary of WWF launched in 2000 which comprised eight league-owned professional football teams. The league included television broadcasts on NBC (the other co-owners of the league), UPN and TNN.
- The World Entertainment: a subsidiary of the World Wrestling Federation Entertainment that operated a restaurant, night club, and memorabilia shop in New York City as The World, formerly known as WWF New York launched in 1999. Closed in 2003. Hard Rock Cafe took the building itself since 2005.
- WWE Kids: a website and comic set aimed at the children's end of the wrestling market, comics were produced bi-monthly. It was launched on April 15, 2008 and discontinued in 2014, the same year WWE Magazine discontinued.
- WWE Niagara Falls: a retail and entertainment establishment that was located in Niagara Falls, Ontario and owned by WWE. It was open from August 2002 through March 2011.
- WWE has had a partnership with the Make-A-Wish Foundation which spans three decades. Multi-time WWE champion John Cena has granted more wishes than any celebrity in history, having completed his 500th wish in August 2015.
- Since 2012, WWE partners with Susan G. Komen for the Cure to raise awareness for breast cancer during the month of October. Their partnership includes offering special charity-related wrestler merchandise, as well as adding a pink color scheme to the sets and ring ropes; 20% of all October purchases of WWE merchandise go to the organization.
- In June 2014, Connor's Cure - a non-profit charitable organization - was established by Triple H and Stephanie McMahon, which they have personally funded through Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh Foundation named in honor of Pittsburgh native Connor Mason Michalek (October 17, 2005 - April 25, 2014) who died two months earlier from medulloblastoma, a rare tumor that affects the brain and spinal cord. Beginning in 2015, WWE began recognizing September as pediatric cancer awareness month, adding a gold color scheme to the sets and ring ropes, and offering special Connor's Cure merchandise, with the proceeds going to charity.
- WWE has sponsored the Special Olympics since 2014.
In March 2015, WWE announced a partnership with Authentic Brands Group to relaunch Tapout, formerly a major MMA-related clothing line, as a more general "lifestyle fitness" brand. The apparel, for men and women, is expected to be released in spring of 2016. Through 2015, WWE will market the brand through various products, including beverages, supplements and gyms. WWE will hold a 50% stake in the brand, and so will advertise it regularly across all its platforms, hoping to give it one billion impressions a month, and take some of the fitness market from Under Armour. All employees and students of the WWE Performance Center will wear the clothes.
Championships and accomplishments
|Championship||Current champion(s)||Reign||Date won||Days
|WWE World Heavyweight Championship||Roman Reigns||2||December 14, 2015||923||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Defeated Sheamus in a title vs. career match on Raw.|
|WWE Intercontinental Championship||Dean Ambrose||1||December 13, 2015||924||Boston, Massachusetts||Defeated Kevin Owens at TLC: Tables, Ladders, and Chairs.|
|WWE United States Championship||Alberto Del Rio||2||January 12, 2016||894||Lafayette, Louisiana||Defeated Kalisto on SmackDown. Aired on tape delay on January 14th.|
|WWE Tag Team Championship||The New Day
(Big E, Kofi Kingston and Xavier Woods)
(2, 4, 2)
|August 23, 2015||1036||Brooklyn, New York||Big E and Kingston defeated Los Matadores, The Lucha Dragons and previous champions The Prime Time Players in a Fatal 4-Way tag team match at SummerSlam.
Woods also recognized as champion via the Freebird Rule.
|WWE Divas Championship||Charlotte||1||September 20, 2015||1008||Houston, Texas||Defeated Nikki Bella at Night of Champions.|
|Championship||Current champion(s)||Reign||Date won||Days
|NXT Championship||Finn Bálor||1||July 4, 2015||1086||Sumida, Tokyo, Japan||Defeated Kevin Owens at The Beast in the East.|
|NXT Tag Team Championship||Dash and Dawson
(Dash Wilder and Scott Dawson)
|October 22, 2015||976||Winter Park, Florida||Defeated The Vaudevillains (Aiden English and Simon Gotch) on NXT. Aired on tape delay on November 11, 2015|
|NXT Women's Championship||Bayley||1||August 22, 2015||1037||Brooklyn, New York||Defeated Sasha Banks at NXT TakeOver: Brooklyn.|
|Accomplishment||Latest winner(s)||Date won||Location||Notes|
|Royal Rumble||Roman Reigns||January 25, 2015||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Last eliminated Rusev to win.|
|Money in the Bank||Sheamus||June 14, 2015||Columbus, Ohio|
|André the Giant Memorial Trophy||Big Show||March 29, 2015||Santa Clara, California||Last eliminated Damien Mizdow to win.|
|King of the Ring||Bad News Barrett||April 28, 2015||Moline, Illinois||Defeated Neville in the finals to win.|
- Capitol Wrestling Corporation
- List of WWE alumni
- List of WWE pay-per-view events
- List of WWE personnel
- "WWE business profile, from Yahoo.com". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "General WWE Contacts". WWE Corporate.
- "WWE® Reports 2014 Results With Q4 Earnings Growth that Exceeds Expectations". Business Wire. Yahoo! Finance. February 12, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- "WWE Proxy Statement 2014". NASDAQ. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Company Overview". WWE Corporate.
- "WWE, Inc. Form 10-K". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 1 March 2012.
- "WWE Corporate". WWE. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- "Company Overview". June 15, 2011.
- "WWE opens Mumabi office". June 15, 2011.
- "Eminence Capital Shows New 9.6% Stake in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE)". Streetinsider.com. August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. (March 1, 2013). "Annual Report (Form 10-K)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "The New WWE". WWE. April 7, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
- Kaelberer, Angie Peterson (2010). Fabulous, Freaky, Unusual History of Pro Wrestling. Capstone Press. p. 32. ISBN 1-4296-4789-2.
- "NWA World Heavyweight Championship". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. July 20, 2011.
- "WrestlingTerritories.png". Freakin' Awesome Network Forums :: Freakin' Awesome Wrestling Forum :: (w)Rest of Wrestling. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- "Featuring a babyface or heel". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. June 3, 1991.
- Hornbaker, Tim (2007). National Wrestling Alliance: The Untold Story of the Monopoly That Strangled Pro Wrestling. ECW Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-55022-741-3.
- "Titan Sports, Inc. V. Comics World Corp.". Leagle.Com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- Hornbaker, Tim (2007). National Wrestling Alliance: The Untold Story of the Monopoly That Strangled Pro Wrestling. ECW Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-55022-741-3.
- Johnson, William (25 March 1991). "Wrestling With Success". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- WWE at the Internet Movie Database
- Powell, John. "Steamboat - Savage rule WrestleMania 3". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
- Powell, John. "Steamboat — Savage rule WrestleMania 3". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
- Spotlight, Developmental. "History: Vince McMahon and the Steroid trial". PW Chronicle Blogspot. The Pro-Wrestling Chronicle. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Shields, Brian; Sullivan, Kevin (2009). WWE: History of WrestleMania. p. 53.
- Scaia, Rick. "RAW vs. Nitro: Year One". Online Onslaught Wrestling. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Mick Foley (2000). Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. HarperCollins. p. 648. ISBN 0-06-103101-1.
- Foley, Mick (2000). Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. HarperCollins. p. 229. ISBN 0-06-103101-1.
- "WWE Entertainment, Inc. announces the formation of the XFL – a new professional football league". 3 February 2000. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
- "XFL folds after disappointing first season". CNN. 2001-05-10. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
- "WWF pins IPO," CNN Money, August 3, 1999, Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., NYSE.com, accessed June 5, 2014.
- "WWE Entertainment, Inc. Acquires WCW from Turner Broadcasting". 23 March 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
- Shields, Brian; Sullivan, Kevin (2009). WWE: History of WrestleMania. p. 58.
- "World Wrestling Federation Entertainment Drops The "F" To Emphasize the "E" for Entertainment". WWE. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "WWE Wrestling News, Rumors, Results & Spoilers | Rajah.com World Wrestling Entertainment Purchases Another ECW Asset". Rajah.com. 2005-02-01. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "WWE brings ECW to Sci Fi Channel". WWE.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- Tom HerreraPage 11 of 11January 11, 2014 (2014-01-11). "The 10 most important moments in Raw history". WWE.com. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- [Orange County] Business Briefs July 2013 Florida Trend
- "WWE Corporate - Initiatives". Corporate.wwe.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "WWE Network hits 1 Million subscribers -- Thank you WWE Universe!". WWE.
- Spotswood, Beth. "WrestleMania expected to attract 120,00 fans to Bay Area". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Cowley, David. "Employees vs. independent contractors and professional wrestling" (PDF). University of Louisville Law Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "WWE: Investor Relations: Events," World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. official website, Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. Declares Quarterly Dividend," June 12, 2003, Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "World Wrestling Entertainment: Dividend Dynamo or the Next Blowup," by Ilan Moscovitz, Daily Finance, March 7, 2012, Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "The Short Case for World Wrestling Entertainment," Lemelson Capital Management, March 17, 2014., Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Update: The Short Case for World Wrestling Entertainment," Seeking Alpha, April 8, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "WWE profitable or on the ropes," by Sarah Barry James, SNL Kagan, April 15, 2014., Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "David Sims in Washington, Amvona Gets in Right on WWE, Steven Reiman on SA's Power," by Colin Lokey, Seeking Alpha, April 12, 2014., Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Should the McMahons Still Be Running WWE?" by Daniel Kline, The Motley Fool, June 7, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Lemelson Capital Management announces stake in World Wrestling Entertainment and calls on board to pursue new management or ownership," Seeking Alpha, May 16, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "WWE investigation initiated by former Louisiana Attorney General: Kahn, Swick & Foti, LLC investigates World Wrestling Entertainment following disclosure of disappointing distribution agreement," Business Wire, May 16, 2014, Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "WWE's stock smackdown is a blow to Vince McMahon's credibility," "Breaking News," Seeking Alpha, May 17, 2014, Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "Should the McMahon's Still Be Running WWE," by Daniel Kline, The Motley Fool, June 7, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "WWE News: Vince McMahon loses $350 million in one day, could be forced out as CEO," Inquisitr, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Will the WWE Network ever make money," by Daniel Kline, The Motley Fool, May 20, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "WWE/NBC rights deal: The red wedding," by Sarah Barry James, SNL Financial, May 19, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Biggest takeaways from WWE's May 19 business outlook investor call," by Chris Mueller, Bleacher Report, May 19, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Is Vince McMahon still the right man to lead WWE?" by Sam Moore, Yahoo, May 19, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Vince McMahon to be removed from the WWE," by Michael Panter, GiveMeSport, May 19, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "WWE stands to lose $45-$52 million in 2014: Investors to question Vince McMahon health on Monday?" by Jack Jorgensen, Fansided, Sports Illustrated, May 19, 2014, Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Board, Committees & Charters". WWE Corporate.
- "Breaking down how WWE contracts work". Forbes.com. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "McMahon says he'll clean up steroids in WWF". The Baltimore Sun. 1991-07-14. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
- "WWE's Vince McMahon is still a tough target on drug-testing". ESPN. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
- "WWE Talent Wellness Program" (PDF). Corporate WWE Web Site. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- "Congress wants WWE's info on steroids, doping". Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Fourteen wrestlers tied to pipeline". Sports Illustrated. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- Farhi, Paul (2007-09-01). "Pro Wrestling Suspends 10 Linked to Steroid Ring". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- "WWE Suspends Yet Another Wrestler". Headline Planet. 2007-09-01. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007.
- "MVP's Most Valuable Program". WWE. 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
- "WWE News: WWE officially updates Wellness Policy to ban the "non-medical use" of muscle relaxant Soma". Pro Wrestling Torch. 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- World Wrestling Federation Entertainment Inc. (1999-10-13). "Amendment No. 3 to Form S-1". Exhibit 10.16: Agreement between WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature and Titan Sports, Inc. dated January 20, 1994. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
- John K. Carlisle (2003). "World Wide Fund For Nature vs. World Wrestling Entertainment" (PDF). Foundation Watch. Capital Research Center. Retrieved 2010-12-15
- "World Wrestling Federation Entertainment Drops The "F" To Emphasize the "E" for Entertainment". WWE. 6 May 2002. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- "WWE Corporate - English Court Repudiates World Wide Fund for Nature; Ends Legal Block To Sale of THQ/Jakks WWE Videogames". Corporate.wwe.com. 17 April 2003. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "WWE Reaches Settlement With World Wildlife Fund". Wrestlingnewssource.com. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Exclusive: Will the WWF "Scratch Logo" Appear on Future WWE DVDs? | Wrestling DVD News". Wwedvdnews.com. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Update On The Wwe Scratch Logo Situation". PWInsider.com. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "WWE releases full schedule of WrestleMania 29 week events in New York and New Jersey". Cleveland.com. April 1, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "WWE, Susan G. Komen Tag Team for Third Year to Fight Breast Cancer". Variety. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Ways to Give - Personal Page - CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PITTSBURGH FOUNDATION". givetochildrens.org.
- "WWE's Triple H and Stephanie McMahon Launch 'Connor's Cure' Charity". pittsburghmagazine.com.
- "Stephanie McMahon, Triple H announce 'Connor's Cure' charity fund in honor of Connor Michalek". WWE Community.
- "WWE Relaunching Prominent MMA Brand Tapout as 'Lifestyle Fitness Brand'". Sherdog.
- "WWE to Relaunch Tapout Clothing Brand in New Joint Venture", from Variety