Walled villages of Hong Kong

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File:Model of Kun Lung Wai, Fanling (Exhibit of HKHM).jpg
Model of San Wai (新圍) aka. Kun Lung Wai (覲龍圍), displayed in Hong Kong Heritage Museum.

Once common throughout China, walled villages can still be found in southern China and Hong Kong. Most of the walled villages of Hong Kong are located in the New Territories.

History

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the shore of Guangdong suffered from pirates, and the area of Hong Kong was particularly vulnerable to pirates' attacks. Winding shores, hilly lands and islands and far from administrative centres made Hong Kong an excellent hideout for pirates. Villages, both Punti and Hakka, built walls against them. Some villages even protected themselves with cannons.

Over time, the walls of most walled villages have been partly or totally demolished.

Names

In Punti Cantonese, Wai (圍, Walled) and Tsuen (村, Village) were once synonyms, hence most place names which include the word 'wai', were at some point in time a walled village.

Features

Walled villages in Hong Kong are characterised by row houses arranged in a square or rectangular block, where the parallel rows of houses are separated by narrow lanes.[1]

Notable walled villages

Kat Hing Wai

File:Kat hing wai kamtin.png
Historic plan of Kat Hing Wai walled village in Kam Tin.

Kat Hing Wai (吉慶圍) is a noted Punti walled village in Yuen Long District of Hong Kong.[citation needed] It often mistakenly believed to be Hakka, whose people have similar traditions.[citation needed] However the Punti people were from Southern China and the first to settle in Hong Kong. Kat Hing Wai's residents speak Cantonese, rather than Hakka.[citation needed] Popularly known as Kam Tin, from the name of the area, it is home to about 400 descendants of the Tang Clan, who built the village back in the 17th century.

Kat Hing Wai is a rectangular (100 m x 90 m) walled village. As a family stronghold, Kat Hing Wai has served the Tangs well through the centuries, protecting the residents against bandits, rival clans, and wild tigers. In the Qing Dynasty, a five-metre high blue brick wall and four cannon towers were added to defend against bandits. Today, the village is still completely surrounded by 18-inch-thick walls,[citation needed] outside which are the remains of a moat. However, most houses within the walls have been rebuilt in recent years. There is only one narrow entrance, with a pair of iron gates.

Tsang Tai Uk

External view of Tsang Tai Uk.

Tsang Tai Uk (曾大屋), also known as Shan Ha Wai, is another well-known Hakka walled village in Hong Kong, and one of the best preserved. It is located in Sha Tin, close to the south of the Pok Hong Estate, not far from the Lion Rock Tunnel Road. Built as a stronghold for the Tsang Clan, its construction started in 1847 and took around 20 years to complete. The village is built with granite, grey bricks and solid timber.

Sheung Shui Wai

Sheung Shui Wai (上水圍), also known as Sheung Shui Heung (上水鄉), is one of the very few rural settlements having retained its original moat which was built in 1646. Characterized by its magnificent moat and landscape setting, the walled village is the core of the Liu clan, of which ancestors came originally from Fujian during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). The village is located in Sheung Shui.

Fanling Wai

File:Fanling Wai 2005.jpg
Houses reflecting in a pond at Fanling Wai.

Fanling Wai (粉嶺圍) is a walled village in Fanling built by the Pang (彭) Clan. It is recognisable with the distinctive pond and layout including features such as cannons and watchtowers. All these elements were crafted to form an integral part of the village setting. Fanling Wai is the centre of the Pang Clan who arrived in Hong Kong late in the Song Dynasty.[2]

Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen

Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen (衙前圍村) is a walled village in Wong Tai Sin, New Kowloon. It is the only walled village left in the urban built-up areas of Hong Kong. Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen is also the only remaining walled village in Kowloon. It is located near San Po Kong. On 18 July 2007, the government announced its plans to redevelop Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen.[3]

List of walled villages

Remaining walled villages in Hong Kong include:

North District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Fanling Wai Fanling (see "Notable walled villages" above) Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Lo Wai
(老圍)
Fanling One of the "Five Wais" of Lung Yeuk Tau. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Ma Wat Wai
(麻笏圍)[4][5]
鬱蔥圍 Fanling One of the "Five Wais" of Lung Yeuk Tau. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Wing Ning Wai
(永寧圍)[6]
六屋 Fanling One of the "Five Wais" of Lung Yeuk Tau. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Tung Kok Wai
(東閣圍)
Ling Kok Wai[7] Fanling One of the "Five Wais" of Lung Yeuk Tau. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
San Wai
(新圍)
Kun Lung Wai
(覲龍圍)[8][9][10]
Fanling One of the "Five Wais" of Lung Yeuk Tau. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Hung Leng
(孔嶺)
Fanling The Hung Shing Temple of Hung Leng was probably built in 1763. It is the centre of the Four Yeuk (four villages alliance), namely Loi Tung, Lung Yeuk Tau, Lin Ma Hang and Tan Chuk Hang.[11] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Tan Chuk Hang Lo Wai
(丹竹坑老圍)
Fanling Tan Chuk Hang Lo Wai was probably established before 1688. Together with Tan Chuk Hang San Wai (aka. Sheung Tan Chuk Hang), it forms Tan Chuk Hang (丹竹坑) village.[12] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

12.2f-14 - 12.2f-39

San Uk Tsai
(新屋仔)
Tam Chuk Hang San Uk Tsai
(丹竹坑新屋仔)[12]
Fanling San Uk Tsai was probably established before 1688.[12] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

12.2f-22 - 12.2f-41

Wai Loi Tsuen
(圍內村)
Sheung Shui Wai
(上水圍)
Sheung Shui Wai Loi Tsuen is the original settlement of Sheung Shui Wai,[13] with its construction completed around 1584.[14] It is one of the very few rural settlements having retained its original moat.[15] The wall and the moat around Wai Loi Tsuen were constructed between 1646 and 1647.[16] The village contains renovated Tin Hau and a Hung Shing temples.[17] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Tai Tau Leng
(大頭嶺)
Sheung Shui Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Tsung Pak Long Tsuen
(松柏塱村)
Sheung Shui Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Hakka Wai
(客家圍)
Sheung Shui Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Ho Sheung Heung Lo Wai
(河上鄉老圍)
Pak Pin Wai
(北邊圍)
Sheung Shui There are four villages in Ho Sheung Heung, namely Nam Pin Wai, Pak Pin Wai, Chung Sum Tsuen and Chung Wai Tsuen (San Tsuen).[18] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Ho Sheung Heung Nam Pin Wai
(河上鄉南邊圍)
Sheung Shui
Ping Kong
(丙崗)
Sheung Shui The village has a Tin Hau Temple.[19] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[2]

Tsiu Keng Lo Wai
(蕉徑老圍)
Sheung Shui Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Muk Wu
(木湖)
Ta Kwu Ling File:Muk Wu door 047.jpg Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Ma Tseuk Leng
(麻雀嶺)
Sha Tau Kok Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Man Uk Pin
(萬屋邊)
Sha Tau Kok Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Wo Hang
(禾坑)
Sheung Wo Hang
(上禾坑)
Sha Tau Kok Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Lai Chi Wo
(荔枝窩)
Sha Tau Kok Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Kuk Po Lo Wai
(谷埔老圍)
Sha Tau Kok Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Sha Tin District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Tsang Tai Uk
(曾大屋)
Shan Ha Wai Sha Tin (see "Notable walled villages" above) Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Chik Chuen Wai
(積存圍)
Tai Wai
(大圍)
Tai Wai Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Tin Sam Wai
(田心圍)
Tai Wai[20] Tin Sam Wai was founded in the late Ming dynasty as a Punti walled village.[20] A moat was built for its protection, and was later filled up and used as a fish pond. Historic buildings in the village include the Choi Ancestral Hall, built around the 1920s, the Leung Ancestral Hall, largely rebuilt,[21][22] the Liu Ancestral Hall, and the Entrance Gate, built during the Qing dynasty.[23] Two rectangular holes are above the front doorways of the Gate for feng shui benefit and for security watching.[24] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Tai Po District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Pan Chung
(泮涌)
Tai Po A multi-clan village. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[3] [4] #1403

Tai Po Tau Shui Wai
(大埔頭水圍)
大埔頭老圍 Tai Wo Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Chung Sum Wai
(中心圍)
青磚圍 Tai Hang Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Fui Sha Wai
(灰沙圍)
Tai Hang The walls of Fui Sha Wai were built by the local villagers in the mid-Ming dynasty. Four watchtowers were built in each corner for fortification. Nowadays, Fui Sha Wai still remains as a village exclusively for the Man clan. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Ng Tung Chai
(梧桐寨)
Lam Tsuen Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Kei Ling Ha Lo Wai
(企嶺下老圍)
Shap Sze Heung Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Kei Ling Ha San Wai
(企嶺下新圍)
Shap Sze Heung Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Tsuen Wan District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Sam Tung Uk
(三棟屋)
Tsuen Wan The former Hakka walled village has been converted into the Sam Tung Uk Museum, and is now a declared monument. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Tuen Mun District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Chung Uk Tsuen
(鍾屋村)
Kwong Tin Wai
(廣田圍)
Lam Tei The Chungs of Chung Uk Tsuen moved from Dongguan during the Ming dynasty.[25] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[5] [6]

Lam Tei Tsuen
(藍地村)
Wing On Tsuen
(永安村)
Lam Tei Established by the To (陶) Clan[26] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[7]

Nai Wai
(泥圍)
Wong Kong Wai
(黃崗圍)
Lam Tei Established by the To (陶) Clan[26] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[8] #1229 #1252

Sun Fung Wai
(順風圍)
順豐圍 Lam Tei A multi-lineage village established around 300 years ago.[27] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[9] #875 #1262

Tsing Chuen Wai
(青磚圍)
Mak Yuen Wai
(麥園圍)
Lam Tei Established by the To (陶) Clan about 300 years ago. There is a Tin Hau Temple in the village. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

#1294 [10]

Tuen Mun San Tsuen
(屯門新村)
大園圍 Lam Tei Established by the To (陶) Clan[26] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[11]

Tuen Tsz Wai
(屯子圍)
Tin Tsz Wai
(田子圍)
Lam Tei Established by the To (陶) Clan[26] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

#71 #1354 [12]

Wong Tai Sin District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen
(衙前圍村)
Wong Tai Sin (see "Notable walled villages" above) Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

Yuen Long District

Name Alternate name Area Notes Photo Coordinates
References
Kiu Tau Wai
(橋頭圍)
Ping Shan One of the "Three Wais" of Ping Shan.[28]
Fui Sha Wai
(灰沙圍)
Ping Shan One of the "Three Wais" of Ping Shan.[28]
Sheung Cheung Wai
(上璋圍)
上章圍 Ping Shan One of the "Three Wais" of Ping Shan.[28]

Built about 200 years ago by a line of the Tang Clan that branched out from nearby Hang Tau Tsuen, it is the only walled village along the Ping Shan Heritage Trail. The moat that once surrounded the village has been filled.[29]

Shek Po Tsuen
(石埔村)
Shek Po Wai
(石步圍)
Ping Shan
Lam Hau Tsuen
(欖口村)
Ping Shan Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Shan Ha Tsuen
(山下村)
山廈村 Ping Shan[30]
水邊圍 鴨乸圍 Wang Chau
Chung Sam Wai
(中心圍)
Wang Chau
Tai Tseng Wai
(大井圍)
Wang Chau Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[13]

Ng Uk Tsuen
(吳屋村)
Wang Chau Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

[14]

Sha Kong Wai
(沙江圍)
蚺蛇 Ha Tsuen[31]
Mong Tseng Wai
(輞井圍)
Ha Tsuen Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
田心 田心圍 Ha Tsuen
Sik Kong Wai
(錫降圍)
Ha Tsuen
祥降圍 Lo Wai
(老圍)
Ha Tsuen
Nam Pin Wai
(南邊圍)
Yuen Long Kau Hui
Sai Pin Wai
(西邊圍)
Yuen Long Kau Hui
Tai Wai Tsuen
(大圍村)
Yuen Long Kau Hui
Ying Lung Wai
(英龍圍)
Yuen Long Kau Hui
Ma Tin Tsuen
(馬田村)
Shap Pat Heung
Tin Liu Tsuen
(田寮村)
Shap Pat Heung The main shrine of the village is dedicated to Tai Wong, who is considered to be the protective deity of the village. Rebuilt in 1935, it lies on the central axis of the village together with the Entrance Gate (pictured).[32] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Muk Kiu Tau Tsuen
(木橋頭村)
Shap Pat Heung
Shui Tsiu San Tsuen
(水蕉新村)
Shap Pat Heung
楊家村 Shap Pat Heung
Pak Sha Tsuen
(白沙村)
Shap Pat Heung Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Kat Hing Wai
(吉慶圍)
灰沙圍 Kam Tin (see "Notable walled villages" above) Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

pp.56-58

Tai Hong Wai
(泰康圍)
Kam Tin Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.

pp.56-58

Wing Lung Wai
(永隆圍)
Kam Tin The village was founded in the Chenghua reign (1465-1487). The enclosing wall was built in the Kangxi reign (1661-1722). The moat was reclaimed in the 1960s. The village was earlier called Sha Lan Mei (沙欄尾) or Wing Lung Wai (永龍圍; "Everlasting Dragon"). The name was changed into the present name in 1905.[33] Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Kam Hing Wai
(錦慶圍)[34]
Kam Tin Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Sha Po Tsuen
(沙埔村)
Kam Tin Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Wang Toi Shan Wing Ning Lei
(橫台山永寧里)
Pat Heung
Tung Chan Wai
(東鎮圍)
San Tin
Yan Shau Wai
(仁壽圍)
San Tin
Wing Ping Tsuen
(永平村)
San Tin
Shek Wu Wai
(石湖圍)
San Tin
Pok Wai
(壆圍)
San Tin
Mai Po Lo Wai
(米埔老圍)
San Tin

See also

References

  1. Jeffrey W. Cody and James R. Richardson (1997). "Urbanizing forest and Village Trees in Hong Kong's Sha Tin Valley, 1976–1997" (PDF). Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review. IX (1): 24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Planning Department – Historical Background
  3. HK Yahoo News
  4. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Ma Wat Wai: Declared monument on AMO website
  5. Ma Wat Wai
  6. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Wing Ning Wai
  7. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Tung Kok Wai
  8. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Kun Lung Gate Tower: Declared monument
  9. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Kun Lung Walls
  10. Antiquities and Monuments Office: San Wai
  11. Introduction to 1444 Historic Buildings. Item #1044
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Agreement No. CE 45/2008 (CE) Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point and Associated Works -Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Appendix 12.2f: Detailed Records of Identified Built Heritage Features within CHIA Study Area of the Lau Shui Heung Tunnel Section (South Tunnel)
  13. Christopher DeWolf, "At the end of the line: Sheung Shui Village", CNN GO, 5 May, 2010
  14. Antiquities and Monuments Offices: Ha Pak Tsuen - History
  15. Planning Department: Fanling & Sheung Shui - Historical Background
  16. Liu Man Shek Tong Ancestral Hall: The establishment of Sheung Shui Heung
  17. East Rail Extension Project: Test Pits Results and Cross-Section Drawings. Items #219, 220, 221 on map: [1]
  18. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Ho Sheung Heung: History
  19. Lonely Planet: Ping Kong
  20. 20.0 20.1 Tin Sam Wai on MTR website (archive)
  21. SCL - NEX/2206 EIA Study for Tai Wai to Hung Hom Section. Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Appendix 4.3. Built Heritage Survey. October 2011
  22. East Rail Extensions - Tai Wai to Ma On Shan. Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Archaeological and Cultural Resources, 1999
  23. SCL - NEX/2206 EIA Study for Tai Wai to Hung Hom Section, Final Environmental Impact Assessment Report, Figure 4.2.1. Locations of Known Built Heritages (Sheet 1 of 8), October 2011. Shows the location of the historic buildings of Tin Sam Village.
  24. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Brief Information on No Grade Items. Items #1176, 1256.
  25. Brief Information_ on proposed Grade III Items. Item #689
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 Antiquities and Monuments Office: Tsing Chuen Wai: History
  27. Brief Information on proposed Grade III Items. Item #875
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Antiquities and Monuments Office:Tang Ancestral Hall
  29. Antiquities and Monuments Office: Sheung Cheung Wai
  30. Brief history of Shan Ha Tsuen
  31. zh:沙江圍
  32. Introduction to 1444 Historic Buildings, p.913
  33. Brief Information on Proposed Grade III Items. Item #906
  34. Introduction to 1444 Historic Buildings. Item #505

External links