Warsaw Pact

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Not to be confused with Warsaw Convention or Treaty of Warsaw.
Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance
Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи
Warsaw Pact Logo.svg
Accurate Location Warsaw Pakt.svg
Members of the Warsaw Pact
Motto Союз мира и социализма  (Russian)
"Union of peace and socialism"
Formation 14 May 1955
Type Military alliance
Headquarters Moscow, Soviet Union

Bulgaria Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
East Germany East Germany
Hungary Hungary
Poland Poland
Romania Romania
Soviet Union Soviet Union

Albania Albania (withdrew in 1968)
Petr Lushev (last)
Vladimir Lobov (last)

The Warsaw Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO)[1] was a collective defense treaty among Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO[2][3][4][5] in 1955 per the Paris Pacts of 1954,[6][7][8][9][10] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[11]

While the Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power[12] or counterweight[13] to NATO, there was no direct confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[13] The Warsaw Pact's largest military engagement was Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia (with the participation of all Pact nations except Romania and Albania).[12] The Pact failed to function when the Revolutions of 1989 spread through Eastern Europe, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[14] and its success in June 1989.

On 25 February 1991, the Pact was declared at an end at a meeting of defense and foreign ministers from the remaining member states meeting in Hungary. On 1 July 1991, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel formally declared an end to the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance which had been established in 1955. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991.


Soviet philatelic commemoration: At its 20th anniversary in 1975, the Warsaw Pact remains On Guard for Peace and Socialism.

In the Western Bloc, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac, and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw Treaty is known as:

  • Albanian: Pakti i miqësisë, bashkëpunimit dhe i ndihmës së përbashkët
  • Bulgarian: Договор за дружба, сътрудничество и взаимопомощ
  • Czech: Smlouva o přátelství, spolupráci a vzájemné pomoci
  • Slovak: Zmluva o priateľstve, spolupráci a vzájomnej pomoci
  • German: Vertrag über Freundschaft, Zusammenarbeit und gegenseitigen Beistand
  • Hungarian: Barátsági, együttműködési és kölcsönös segítségnyújtási szerződés
  • Polish: Układ o przyjaźni, współpracy i pomocy wzajemnej
  • Romanian: Tratatul de prietenie, cooperare și asistență mutuală
  • Russian: Договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи


The Warsaw Treaty's organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. Furthermore, the Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization which commands and controls all the military forces of the member countries was also a First Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR, and the Chief of Combined Staff of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization was also a First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces.[15]


The strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. This policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union arrogated the right to define socialism and communism and act as the leader of the global socialist movement. A corollary to this idea was the necessity of intervention if a country appeared to be violating core socialist ideas and Communist Party functions, which was explicitly stated in the Brezhnev Doctrine.[16] Geostrategic principles also drove the Soviet Union to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers.



The Cold War (1945–90): NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact, the status of forces in 1973

Before creation of Warsaw Pact, fearing Germany rearmed, Czechoslovak leadership sought to create security pact with East Germany and Poland.[9] These states protested strongly against re-militarization of West Germany.[17] The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO. Soviet leaders, as many European countries in both western and eastern side, feared Germany being once again a military power as a direct threat and German militarism remained a fresh memory among Soviets and Eastern Europeans.[3][4][18][19][20] As Soviet Union had already bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluos',[21] and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, NATO officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'.[22] Previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German Militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO.[23][24][25]

The Soviet request to join NATO arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. Soviet foreign minister Molotov made proposals to have Germany reunified[26] and elections for a pan-German government,[27] under conditions of withdrawal of the four powers armies and German neutrality,[28] but all were refused by the other foreign ministers, Dulles (USA), Eden (UK) and Bidault (France).[29] Proposals for the reunification of Germany were nothing new: earlier on 20 March 1952, talks about a German reunification, initiated by the socalled 'Stalin Note', ended after the United Kingdom, France, and the United States insisted that a unified Germany should not be neutral and should be free to join the European Defence Community and rearm. James Dunn (USA), who met in Paris with Eden, Adenauer and Robert Schuman (France), affirmed that "the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians and to press on the European Defense Community".[30] According to John Gaddis "there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer" from USSR.[31] While historian Rolf Steininger asserts that Adenauer's conviction that “neutralization means sovietization” was the main factor in the rejection of the soviet proposals,[32] Adenauer also feared that unification might have resulted in the end of the CDU's dominance in the Bundestag.[33]

Consequently, Molotov, fearing that EDC would be directed in the future against the USSR therefore "seeking to prevent the formation of groups of European States directed against other European States",[34] made a proposal for a General European Treaty on Collective Security in Europe "open to all European States without regard as to their social systems"[34] which would have included the unified Germany (thus making the EDC – perceived by the USSR as a threat – unusable). But Eden, Dulles and Bidault opposed the proposal.[35]

One month later, the proposed European Treaty was rejected not only by supporters of the EDC but also by western opponents of the European Defense Community (like French Gaullist leader Palewski) who perceived it as "unacceptable in its present form because it excludes the USA from participation in the collective security system in Europe".[36] The Soviets then decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK and France stating to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement.[36] And considering that another argument deployed against the Soviet proposal was that it was perceived by western powers as "directed against the North Atlantic Pact and its liquidation",[36][37] the Soviets decided to declare their "readiness to examine jointly with other interested parties the question of the participation of the USSR in the North Atlantic bloc", specifying that "the admittance of the USA into the General European Agreement should not be conditional on the three western powers agreeing to the USSR joining the North Atlantic Pact".[36]

Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by UK, US, and French governments shortly after.[25][38] Emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, supporter of NATO expansion, who said that NATO "must grow until the whole free world gets under one umbrella."[39] He opposed the request to join NATO made by the USSR in 1954[40] saying that "the Soviet request to join NATO is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force".[41]

In April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon, Eisenhower and Dulles. Ratification of EDC was delaying but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that EDC would have to become a part of NATO.[42]

Memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany was feared by France too.[4][43] On 30 August 1954 French Parliament rejected the EDC, thus ensuring its failure[44] and blocking a major objective of US policy towards Europe: to associate Germany militarily with the West.[45] The US Department of State started to elaborate alternatives: Germany would be invited to join NATO or, in the case of French obstructionism, strategies to circumvent a French veto would be implemented in order to obtain a German rearmament outside NATO.[46]

On 23 October 1954 – only nine years after Allies (UK, USA and USSR) defeated Nazi Germany ending World War II in Europe – the admission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the North Atlantic Pact was finally decided. The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time.[47] In November 1954, the USSR requested a new European Security Treaty,[48] in order to make a final attempt to not have a remilitarized West Germany potentially opposed to the Soviet Union, with no success.

Warsaw Pact "Big Seven" threats

On 14 May 1955, the USSR and other seven European countries "reaffirming their desire for the establishment of a system of European collective security based on the participation of all European states irrespective of their social and political systems"[49] established the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into NATO,[3][5] declaring that: "a remilitarized Western Germany and the integration of the latter in the North-Atlantic bloc [...] increase the danger of another war and constitutes a threat to the national security of the peaceable states; [...] in these circumstances the peaceable European states must take the necessary measures to safeguard their security".[49]

One of the founding members, East Germany was allowed to re-arm by the Soviet Union and the National People's Army was established as the armed forces of the country to counter the rearmament of West Germany.


The eight member countries of the Warsaw Pact pledged the mutual defense of any member who would be attacked. Relations among the treaty signatories were based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence. However, almost all governments of those member states were indirectly controlled by the Soviet Union.

The founding signatories to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance consisted of the following communist governments:

In July 1963 the Mongolian People's Republic asked to join the Warsaw Pact under Article 9 of the treaty. For this purpose a special protocol should have been taken since the text of the treaty applied only to Europe. Due to the emerging Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia remained on observer status. Soviet stationing troops were agreed to stay in Mongolia from 1966.

During Cold War

Main article: Cold War

For 36 years, NATO and the Warsaw Pact never directly waged war against each other in Europe; the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies implemented strategic policies aimed at the containment of each other in Europe, while working and fighting for influence within the wider Cold War on the international stage.

In 1956, following the declaration of the Imre Nagy government of withdrawal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the government. Soviet forces crushed the nationwide revolt, leading to the death of an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens.

The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the Socialist Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania participated in the invasion.

End of the Cold War

Beginning at the Cold War's conclusion, in late 1989, popular civil and political public discontent forced the Communist governments of the Warsaw Treaty countries from power, while independent national politics made feasible with the perestroika and glasnost induced institutional collapse of Communist government in the USSR.[50]

Between 1989 and 1991, Communist governments were deposed by popular uprisings in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania and Bulgaria.

On 25 February 1991, the Warsaw Pact was declared disbanded at a meeting of defense and foreign ministers from remaining Pact countries meeting in Hungary.[51] On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel formally ended the 1955 Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR.[52] In fact, the treaty was de facto disbanded in December 1989 during the violent revolution in Romania, which toppled the communist government, without military intervention form other member states. The USSR disestablished itself in December 1991.

Central and Eastern Europe after the Warsaw Treaty

On 12 March 1999, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland joined NATO; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia joined in March 2004; Albania joined on 1 April 2009.

Russia and some other post-USSR states joined in the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO).

In November 2005, the Polish government opened its Warsaw Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance, who published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. Yet the Polish government reserved publication of 100 documents, pending their military declassification. Eventually, 30 of the reserved 100 documents were published; 70 remained secret, and unpublished. Among the documents published is the Warsaw Treaty's nuclear war plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine – a short, swift counter-attack capturing Austria, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands east of River Rhine, using nuclear weapons, in self-defense, after a NATO first strike. The plan originated as a 1979 field training exercise war game, and metamorphosed into official Warsaw Treaty battle doctrine, until the late 1980s – which is why the People's Republic of Poland was a nuclear weapons base, first, to 178, then, to 250 tactical-range rockets. Doctrinally, as a Soviet-style (offensive) battle plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine gave commanders few defensive-war strategies for fighting NATO in Warsaw Treaty territory.[citation needed]


See also


  1. "Text of Warsaw Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  2. Yost, David S. (1998). NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press. p. 31. ISBN 1-878379-81-X. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Formation of Nato and Warsaw Pact". History (TV channel). Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "The Warsaw Pact is formed". History (TV channel). Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "In reaction to West Germany’s NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Retrieved 24 December 2015. 
  6. Broadhurst, Arlene Idol (1982). The Future of European Alliance Systems. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86531-413-6. 
  7. Christopher Cook, Dictionary of Historical Terms (1983)
  8. The Columbia Enclopedia, fifth edition (1993) p. 2926
  9. 9.0 9.1 The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955-1969 Laurien Crump Routledge,page 21-22, 11.02.2015
  10. The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"
  11. "Warsaw Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control". Wilson Center. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Amos Yoder (1993). Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6. 
  14. [1] Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001
  15. Fes'kov, V. I.; Kalashnikov, K. A.; Golikov, V. I. (2004). Sovetskai͡a Armii͡a v gody "kholodnoĭ voĭny," 1945–1991 [The Soviet Army in the Cold War Years (1945–1991)]. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publisher. p. 6. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7. 
  16. ' 'The Review of Politics Volume' ', 34, No. 2 (April 1972), pp. 190-209
  17. Europa Antoni Czubiński Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1998, page 298
  18. World Politics: The Menu for Choice page 87 Bruce Russett, Harvey Starr, David Kinsella - 2009 The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 as a response to West Germany's entry into NATO; German militarism was still a recent memory among the Soviets and East Europeans.
  19. "When the Federal Republic of Germany entered NATO in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of a strengthened NATO and a rearmed West Germany". Citation from:United States Department of State, Office of the Historian. "The Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955". Office of the Historian. history.state.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2015. 
  20. "1955: After objecting to Germany's admission into NATO, the Soviet Union joins Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania in forming the Warsaw Pact.". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  21. The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955-1969 Laurien Crump Routledge,pag. 17, 11.02.2015
  22. The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955-1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, pag. 1, 11.02.2015
  23. "Soviet Union request to join NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  24. "1954: Soviet Union suggests it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe. U.S. and U.K. reject this". See chronology in:"Fast facts about NATO". CBC News. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Proposal of Soviet adherence to NATO as reported in the Foreign Relations of the United States Collection". UWDC FRUS Library. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  26. Molotov 1954a, p. 197,201.
  27. Molotov 1954a, p. 202.
  28. Molotov 1954a, p. 197–198, 203, 212.
  29. Molotov 1954a, p. 211–212, 216.
  30. Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 56. 
  31. Gaddis, John (1997). We Know Now: Rethinking Cold War History. Clarendon Press. p. 126. 
  32. Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 80. 
  33. Steininger, Rolf (1991). The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification. Columbia Univ Press. p. 103. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Draft general European Treaty on collective security in Europe — Molotov proposal (Berlin, 10 February 1954)" (PDF). CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  35. Molotov 1954a, p. 214.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 "MOLOTOV'S PROPOSAL THAT THE USSR JOIN NATO, MARCH 1954". Wilson Center. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  37. Molotov 1954a, p. 216,.
  38. "Final text of tripartite reply to Soviet note" (PDF). Nato website. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  39. Jordan, p. 65
  40. Ian Traynor. "Soviets tried to join Nato in 1954". the Guardian. 
  41. "Memo by Lord Ismay, Secretary General of NATO" (PDF). Nato.int. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  42. Adenauer 1966a, p. 662.
  43. "The refusal to ratify the EDC Treaty". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  44. "Debates in the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954". CVCE. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  45. "US positions on alternatives to EDC". United States Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  46. "US positions on german rearmament outside NATO". United States Department of State / FRUS collection. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  47. "West Germany accepted into Nato". BBC News. 9 May 1955. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  48. "Indivisible Germany: Illusion or Reality?" James H. Wolfe Springer Science & Business Media, 06.12.2012 page 73
  49. 49.0 49.1 "Text of the Warsaw Security Pact (see preamble)". Avalon Project. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  50. The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, third edition, 1999, pp. 637–8
  51. "Warsaw Pact and Comecon To Dissolve This Week". Csmonitor.com. 26 February 1991. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  52. Havel, Václav (2007). To the Castle and Back. Trans. Paul Wilson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26641-5. 

Further reading

Other languages


Memoirs (Other languages)

  • Adenauer, Konrad (1966a). Memorie 1945-1953 (in Italian). Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. 
  • Molotov, Vyacheslav (1954a). La conferenza di Berlino (in Italian). Ed. di cultura sociale. 

External links