Washington Dulles International Airport

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Washington Dulles International Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg
WMO: 72403
Airport type Public
Owner/Operator Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Serves Washington metropolitan area
Location Dulles and Chantilly, Virginia, U.S.
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 313 ft / 95 m
Coordinates Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Website [2]
File:IAD FAA diagram.pdf
FAA airport Diagram
IAD is located in Virginia
Location in Virginia
Direction Length Surface
ft m
1L/19R 9,400 2,865 Concrete
1C/19C 11,500 3,505 Concrete
1R/19L 11,500 3,505 Concrete
12/30 10,501 3,201 Concrete
12R/30L 10,500 3,200 Planned
Statistics (2014)
Passenger traffic Decrease 21,572,233
Source: Federal Aviation Administration,[1] Passenger traffic[2]

Washington Dulles International Airport[lower-alpha 1] (IATA: IADICAO: KIADFAA LID: IAD) is an international airport in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia, United States, 26 miles (42 km) west of downtown Washington, D.C.[3] The airport serves the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area, centered on the District of Columbia. The airport is named after John Foster Dulles, the 52nd Secretary of State who served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Dulles main terminal is a well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen. Operated by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles Airport occupies 11,830 acres (47.9 km2)[4] straddling the Loudoun-Fairfax line.[1] Most of the airport is in the unincorporated community of Dulles, in Loudoun County, with a small portion in the unincorporated community of Chantilly in Fairfax County.

Dulles is the busiest airport in the Washington metropolitan area, and second busiest airport in the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area (after BWI Airport) with over 21 million passengers a year.[5][6] With nearly all of the international passenger traffic in the Baltimore-Washington region, Dulles is the busiest international airport in the Mid-Atlantic outside the New York metropolitan area.[7] On a typical day, more than 60,000 passengers pass through Washington Dulles to and from more than 125 destinations around the world.[5][8] Dulles is a hub for United Airlines.



Prior to World War II, Hoover Field was the main commercial airport serving Washington. It was replaced by Washington National Airport in 1941. After the war, in 1948, the Civil Aeronautics Administration began to consider sites for a second major airport to serve the nation's capital.[9] Congress passed the Washington Airport Act in 1950 to provide funding for a new airport in the region.[10] The initial CAA proposal in 1951 called for the airport to be built in Fairfax County near what is now Burke Lake Park, but protests from residents, as well as the rapid expansion of Washington's suburbs during the time, led to reconsideration of this plan.[11] One competing plan called for the airport to be built in the Pender area of Fairfax County, while another called for the conversion of Andrews Air Force Base in Prince George's County, Maryland.[9]

The current site was selected by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958;[11] the Dulles name was chosen by Eisenhower's aviation advisor Pete Quesada, who later served as the first head of the Federal Aviation Administration. As a result of the selection, the unincorporated, largely African-American community of Willard, which once stood in the airport's current footprint, was demolished, and 87 property owners had their holdings condemned.[9]

Design and original construction

Dulles Airport in 1970

The civil engineering firm Ammann and Whitney was named lead contractor. The airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy on November 17, 1962. As originally opened, the airport had three runways (current day runways 1C/19C, 1R/19L, and 12/30). Its original name, Dulles International Airport, was changed in 1984 to Washington Dulles International Airport.[12] The main terminal was designed in 1958 by famed Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and it is highly regarded for its graceful beauty, suggestive of flight. In the 1990s, the main terminal at Dulles was reconfigured to allow more space between the front of the building and the ticket counters. Additions at both ends of the main terminal more than doubled the structure's length. The original terminal at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan, Taiwan was modeled after the Saarinen terminal at Dulles.

The design included a landscaped man-made lake to collect rainwater, a low-rise hotel, and a row of office buildings along the north side of the main parking lot. The design also included a two-level road in front of the terminal to separate arrival and departure traffic and a federally owned limited access highway connecting the terminal to the Capital Beltway (I-495) about 17 miles (27 km) to the east. (Eventually, the highway system grew to include a parallel toll road to handle commuter traffic and an extension to connect to I-66). The access road had a wide median strip to allow the construction of a passenger rail line, which will be in the form of an extension of the Washington Metro's Silver Line and is expected to be completed in 2020.

Notable operations and milestones

Planned development

Main Terminal Station of Aerotrain

By the 1980s, the original design, which had mobile lounges meet each plane, was no longer well-suited to Dulles' role as a hub airport. Instead, midfield concourses were added to allow passengers to walk between connecting flights without visiting the main terminal. Mobile lounges were still used for international flights and to transport passengers between the midfield concourses and the main terminal. An underground tunnel (consisting of a passenger walkway and moving sidewalks) which links the main terminal and Concourse B was opened in 2004.[23] The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) began a renovation program for the airport including a new security mezzanine with more room for lines.[24]

A new train system, dubbed AeroTrain and developed by Mitsubishi, began in 2010 to transport passengers between the concourses and the main terminal.[25] The system, which uses rubber tires and travels along a fixed underground guideway,[25] is similar to the people mover systems at Singapore Changi Airport,[25] Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and Denver International Airport. The train is intended to replace the mobile lounges, which many passengers found crowded and inconvenient. The initial phase includes the main terminal station, a permanent Concourse A station, a permanent Concourse B station, a permanent midfield concourse station (with access to the current temporary C concourse via a tunnel with moving walkways), and a maintenance facility.[25] Mobile lounges continue to service the D Concourse from both the main terminal and Concourse A. Even after AeroTrain is built out and the replacement Concourses C and D are built, the mobile lounges and plane mates will still continue to be used, to transport international arriving passengers to the International Arrivals Building, as well as transport passengers to aircraft parked on hardstands without direct access to jet bridges. Dulles has stated that the wait time for a train does not exceed four minutes, compared to the average 15-minute wait and travel time for mobile lounges.

Under the development plan, future phases would see the addition of several new midfield concourses and a new south terminal.[26] A fourth runway (parallel to the existing runways 1 and 19 L&R) opened in 2008,[27] and development plans include a fifth runway to parallel the existing runway 12–30.[28] If this runway is built, the current runway will be redesignated as 12L-30R while the new runway will be designated 12R-30L. An expansion of the B concourse, used by many low cost airlines as well as international arrivals, has been completed, and the building housing Concourses C and D will eventually be knocked down to make room for a more ergonomic building. Because Concourses C and D are temporary concourses, the only way to get to those concourses is via moving walkway from the Concourse C station which is built in the location of the future gates and Concourse D by mobile lounge from the main terminal.[29]


An assortment of United Airlines Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 777-200ERs lined up at Concourse C in 2011.
An Austrian Airlines Boeing 767-300ER landing on Runway 19C /1C
A South African Airways Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A Lufthansa Boeing 747-400 taxiing in heavy rain
A Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A United Airlines Boeing 777-200 lands on Runway 1R/19L

Along with Newark Liberty International Airport, Dulles is one of United's two transatlantic gateways with many nonstop flights to Europe, Asia, South America and the Middle East. As of June 2015, United handled 61.1% of scheduled air carrier passengers at the airport in.[30] American Airlines and US Airways combined have a 4.8% market share.[30] Delta Air Lines handles 4.1% of scheduled air carrier passengers.[30] In addition, 25 foreign carriers have service in and out of Washington Dulles.[31]

On a typical day, Dulles averages 1,000 to 1,200 flight operations.[32] Dulles International served 21.6 million passengers in 2014, a 1.7% decrease over 2013. However, international passenger traffic has increased by 1.6% to nearly 7.1 million during the same time.[33] Additional international service is commencing service at Washington Dulles. With 45 weekly flights, Dulles is now the second largest United States gateway to the Middle East. Even before the United States economic recession started, international passengers have continued to grow, which prompted the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority to expand the International Arrivals Building to handle 2,400 passengers per hour.

Busiest international routes from IAD (2013)[34]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 London (Heathrow), United Kingdom 902,878 British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic
2 Frankfurt, Germany 595,546 Lufthansa, United
3 Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France 446,332 Air France, United
4 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 347,247 Emirates, United
5 Tokyo (Narita), Japan 279,915 All Nippon Airways, United
6 Amsterdam, Netherlands 267,681 KLM, United
7 San Salvador, El Salvador 267,061 Avianca, United
8 Munich, Germany 241,541 Lufthansa, United
9 Brussels, Belgium 195,476 Brussels Airlines, United
10 Doha, Qatar 187,874 Qatar Airways
Busiest domestic routes from IAD (Oct. 2014 – Sept. 2015)[35]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 San Francisco, California 548,000 United, Virgin America
2 Los Angeles, California 545,000 American, United, Virgin America
3 Denver, Colorado 440,000 Southwest, United
4 Atlanta, Georgia 372,000 Delta, United
5 Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois 279,000 United
6 Orlando, Florida 267,000 United
7 Boston, Massachusetts 245,000 JetBlue, United
8 Charlotte, North Carolina 239,000 United, US Airways
9 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 234,000 American, United
10 Houston (Intercontinental), Texas 199,000 United
Largest carriers at IAD (Oct. 2014)[36]
Rank Airline Passengers
1 United Airlines 183,482
2 American Airlines 1 87,578
3 Frontier Airlines 84,205
4 Delta Air Lines 78,662
5 Southwest Airlines 41,298
6 British Airways 36,916
7 Lufthansa 36,458
8 Virgin America 30,418
9 Air France 30,095
10 JetBlue 26,363

1 Included US Airways

Traffic by calendar year[5][37]
Year Passengers Change from
previous year
Aircraft operations Cargo
1999 19,797,329 465,195 395,981
2000 20,104,693 Increase1.55% 456,436 423,197
2001 18,002,319 Decrease10.46% 396,886 364,833
2002 17,235,163 Decrease4.26% 372,636 358,171
2003 16,950,381 Decrease1.65% 335,397 314,601
2004 22,868,852 Increase34.92% 469,634 342,521
2005 27,052,118 Increase18.29% 509,652 334,071
2006 23,020,362 Decrease14.90% 379,571 386,785
2007 24,737,528 Increase7.46% 382,943 395,377
2008 23,876,780 Decrease3.48% 360,292 368,064
2009 23,213,341 Decrease2.78% 340,367 358,535
2010 23,741,603 Increase2.28% 336,531 366,333
2011 23,211,856 Decrease2.22% 327,493 333,683
2012 22,561,521 Decrease2.80% 312,070 302,766
2013 21,947,065 Decrease2.70% 307,801 253,361
2014 21,572,233 Decrease1.70% 289,306 267,753


A plane mate


The airport's terminal complex consists of a main terminal and two midfield terminal buildings: Concourses A/B and C/D. The entire terminal complex has 123 gates and 16 hardstand locations[39] from which passengers can board or disembark using the airport's plane mate vehicles.[4]

Inter-terminal transportation

Conceived in early planning sessions in 1959, Dulles is one of the few remaining airports to use the mobile lounge (also known as "plane mates" or "people movers") for boarding and disembarkation from aircraft, and to transfer passengers between the midfield concourses and to and from the main terminal building. They have all been given names based on the postal abbreviations of 50 states, e.g.: VA, MD, AK.[40]

The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority has begun to gradually phase out the mobile lounge system for inter-terminal passenger movements in favor of the AeroTrain, an underground people mover which currently operates to Concourses A, B and C, as well as underground pedestrian walkway tunnels (now in service to concourse A/B). The mobile lounges are still used to transport passengers directly from the main terminal to Concourse D. Plane mates also remain in use to disembark international passengers and carry them to the International Arrivals Building, as well as to convey passengers to and from aircraft on hard stand (i.e., those parked remotely on the apron without access to jet bridges).[41][42]

Main terminal

The terminal ceiling is suspended in a catenary curve above the luggage check-in area.

Dulles's iconic main terminal houses ticketing, baggage claim, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, an international arrivals building for passenger processing, the Z gates, information facilities and other support facilities. The terminal was recognized by the American Institute of Architects in 1966 for its design concept; its roof is a suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by any columns.

The main terminal was extended in 1996 to 1,240 feet (380 m)—Saarinen's original design length—which was slightly more than double its originally constructed length of 600 feet (180 m).[39] In addition, an extension for international arrivals was added to the west of the main terminal in 1991. On September 22, 2009, an expansion of the international arrivals building opened which includes a 41,400 square feet (3,850 m2) arrival hall for customs and immigration processing. The new facility has the capacity to process 2,400 arriving passengers per hour.[43]

Also in September 2009, a 121,700 square feet (11,310 m2) central security checkpoint was added on a new security mezzanine level of the main terminal. This checkpoint replaced previous checkpoints which were located behind the ticketing areas.[44] A separate security checkpoint is available on the baggage claim level. Both security checkpoints connect to the AeroTrain, which links the main terminal with the A, B, and C concourses.

There are two sets of gates in the main terminal: the first is the "H" Gates, which are waiting areas for airlines which lack permanent physical jetbridges and therefore use plane mates to reach planes parked at 16 hard-stand locations. The other is a set of four gates with jetbridges that are designated as Concourse Z, which provides service for Frontier Airlines and Silver Airways.

Midfield terminals

Main Terminal AeroTrain station

All airlines aside from Frontier Airlines and Silver Airways operate out of two linear satellite terminals. One contains Concourses A and B, and the second contains Concourses C and D.

Concourses A and B

All non-United flights & United Express operate out of these two concourses. Concourse A (which has 47 gates) composes the eastern part of the closer midfield terminal building. It consists of a permanent ground level set of gates designed for small planes and regional jets used by United Express, and several former Concourse B gates.[45] The concourse is primarily used for international flights. Air France operates an airline lounge opposite gate A22, Etihad Airways operates a First and Business Class lounge across from gate A15, and Virgin Atlantic has a Clubhouse lounge across from gate A32. Concourse A's AeroTrain station is located halfway along the horizontal length of the building, between gates A6 and A14.

Concourse B (which has 28 gates) composes the western half of the building. It is the first of the permanent elevated midfield concourses. Originally constructed in 1998 and designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, the B concourse contained 20 gates. In 2003, 4 additional gates were added to concourse B, followed by a 15-gate expansion in 2008.[46] In addition to the AeroTrain station located between gates B51 and B62, Concourse B also has an underground walkway to connect it to the main terminal. Concourse B is used by some international carriers, and is also utilized by all non-United domestic and Canada flights. The facility also includes a British Airways Galleries lounge and a Lufthansa Senator lounge.

Concourses C and D

The interior of Concourse C, where United's hub operation is based
A United Airlines Boeing 767-300ER being serviced at Gate D7

Concourses C/D are solely used for United Airlines flights. All mainline United flights and most United Express regional jet operations operate out of these concourses (some United Express flights use Concourse A).

These concourses were constructed in 1983 and designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum. The two concourses have 22 gates each, numbered C1-C28 and D1-D32, with odd-numbered gates on the north side of the building and even numbered gates on the south side. Concourse C composes the eastern half of the terminal and Concourse D composes the gates on the west half of the terminal.[47][48] The C/D concourses were given a face lift in 2006 which included light fixture upgrades, new paint finishes, new ceiling grids and tiles, heating and air conditioning replacement, and complete restroom renovations.[48]

Concourse C also has a dedicated Federal Inspection Station located at ground level. International United flights not originating at an airport with US customs preclearance can therefore directly deplane passengers via jetbridge at Concourse C (as opposed to using plane mates to offload passengers). Once deplaned, arriving passengers are separated. Passengers terminating at Dulles take a mobile lounge that transports them to the International Arrivals Building, while connecting passengers continuing on another United flight go through U.S. Customs and Immigration at the FIS station on the ground level. Since this immigration facility is only for connecting passengers on United and other Star Alliance carriers, it has shorter lines and passengers don't have to reclear security at the massive security checkpoints in the main terminal.

There are three United Clubs in the facility: one next to Gate C7, one next to gate C17, and one next to gate D8. There is also a United International First Lounge near gate C2. Concourse C is directly linked to the main terminal via the AeroTrain, while mobile lounges can be used to travel from Concourse D to the main terminal.

A new and permanent C/D concourse (also called "Tier 2") is planned as part of the D2 Dulles Development Project. The new building is to include a three-level structure with 44 airline gates and similar amenities to Concourse B.[48] The concourse plan includes a dedicated mezzanine corridor with moving sidewalks to serve international passengers. The design and construction of the new C/D concourse has not been scheduled.[48] When built, it is planned that both terminals will be connected to the main terminal and other concourses via the AeroTrain. To that extent, the AeroTrain station at Concourse C was built at the location where the future Concourse C/D structure is proposed to be built, and is connected to the existing Concourse C via an underground walkway.

Airlines and destinations


Airlines Destinations Concourse
Aer Lingus Seasonal: Dublin A
Aer Lingus
operated by ASL Airlines Ireland
Seasonal: Dublin A
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo A
Aeroméxico Mexico City A
Air Canada Express Toronto–Pearson (begins May 2, 2016)[49] TBA
Air China Beijing–Capital A
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle A
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Narita B
Alaska Airlines Seattle/Tacoma B
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami B
American Eagle Charlotte B
Austrian Airlines Vienna B
Avianca1 Bogotá, La Paz B
Avianca El Salvador San Salvador B
British Airways London–Heathrow B
Brussels Airlines Seasonal: Brussels B
Copa Airlines Panama City A
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Minneapolis/St. Paul
Seasonal: Cancún, Detroit
Delta Connection Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK B
Emirates Dubai–International A
Ethiopian Airlines2 Addis Ababa A
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi A
Frontier Airlines Atlanta (ends March 12, 2016), Orlando
Seasonal: Cancún, Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Detroit, Las Vegas, Memphis, Minneapolis–St. Paul, West Palm Beach
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík A
JetBlue Airways Boston, New York–JFK B
KLM Amsterdam A
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon A
LAN Perú Lima (begins May 2, 2016)[50] TBA
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich B
Porter Airlines Toronto–Billy Bishop A
Qatar Airways Doha B
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca (begins September 8, 2016)[51] TBA
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh A
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen B
Silver Airways Clarksburg, DuBois, Johnstown (PA), Lewisburg (WV), Morgantown, Parkersburg, Shenandoah Valley Z
South African Airways Accra, Dakar, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo B
Southwest Airlines Atlanta (begins March 10, 2016),[52] Chicago–Midway (ends March 9, 2016), Denver, Las Vegas
Seasonal: San Diego
Sun Air Express Hagerstown, Lancaster A
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk B
United Airlines Amsterdam, Aruba, Austin, Bahrain (ends January 13, 2016),[53] Beijing–Capital, Boston, Brussels, Cancún, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Dubai–International (ends January 23, 2016),[54][55] Dublin, Frankfurt, Geneva, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Honolulu, Houston–Intercontinental, Kuwait (ends January 13, 2016),[53] Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Munich, New Orleans, Newark, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Singapore, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Tampa, Tokyo–Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Atlanta, Barcelona (begins May 25, 2016),[56] Hartford, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Jackson Hole, Lisbon (begins May 25, 2016),[56] Madrid, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Rome–Fiumicino, San José del Cabo, Vancouver
C, D
United Express Albany, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville (VA), Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Detroit, Fayetteville (NC), Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Knoxville, Louisville, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad City,[57] Montréal–Trudeau, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Ottawa, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, San Antonio, Savannah, State College (PA), Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Tulsa
Seasonal: Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Québec City
A, C, D
Virgin America Los Angeles, San Francisco B
Virgin Atlantic London–Heathrow A


  • ^1 : Avianca's flight to La Paz makes a stop in Bogotá.
  • ^2 : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to Dulles stops at Dublin,[58] but the flight from Dulles to Addis Ababa is nonstop.

Airline lounges

Nonstop domestic and nonstop or direct international service from Dulles
Air France operates daily Airbus A380 flights to Charles de Gaulle Airport from gate A20/A22, as seen in the photo. Along with United Airlines, the route carries 480,000 passengers a year.

Since many major domestic and international airlines have a large presence at Washington Dulles, there are several airline lounges within the airport:


Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
Seasonal: Harrisburg
FedEx Feeder
operated by Mountain Air Cargo
UPS Airlines Louisville, Richmond

Ground transportation


Dulles is accessible via the Dulles Access Road/Dulles Greenway (State Route 267) and State Route 28. The Dulles Airport Access Highway (DAAH) is a toll-free, limited access, highway owned by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) to facilitate car access to Dulles from the Washington Capital Beltway and Interstate 66.[63] After it opened, non-airport traffic between Washington and Reston became so heavy that a parallel set of toll lanes were added on the same right-of-way to accommodate non-airport traffic (Dulles Toll Road). However, the airport-only lanes are both less congested as well as toll-free. As of November 1, 2008, MWAA assumed responsibility from the Virginia Department of Transportation both for operating the Dulles Toll Road and for the construction of a rapid transit rail line down its median. Route 28, which runs north–south along the eastern edge of the airport, has been upgraded to a limited access highway, with the interchanges financed through a property tax surcharge on nearby business properties. The Dulles Toll Road has been extended to the west to Leesburg as the Dulles Greenway.

Mass transportation

Fairfax Connector routes 981 and 983 serve Dulles, connecting to the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon, the Reston Town Center transit in Reston, the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station, and the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center Air and Space Museum.

As of 2014, the only Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority service to Dulles is the "Express" 5A Metrobus route. The 5A express bus makes two stops on its way from the airport to downtown Washington. Stops include the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon and the Rosslyn Metro station in Arlington. It terminates at the L'Enfant Plaza Metro station in Southwest DC. Both metro stations can be accessed by the Orange, Blue, and Silver lines, while the L'Enfant Plaza also is serviced by the Yellow and Green lines.

An alternative (but slightly more expensive)[64] way of reaching Dulles is the Washington Flyer Coach bus service that operates roughly every twenty minutes between the airport and the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station. Washington Flyer service will be permanently discontinued when Phase II of the Silver Line opens in 2020.[65]

Passengers connecting to the Shenandoah Valley can use the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus, which connects to the Vienna and Rosslyn Metro stations. Washington Flyer was given a monopoly to operate cabs from Dulles Airport, as no other taxis can take passengers from the airport[66]. SuperShuttle ride sharing vans are also available. A special location for Uber and Lyft to take passenger, but the drivers needs a special permit and there is an additional cost of 4 dollars per trip[67].


Construction is now underway to connect the airport to Washington via the Silver Line of the Washington Metro.[68] While initial plans called for completion of the station in 2016, officials now expect the construction to be completed in 2020.[69][70]

Incidents and accidents


Control Tower view of IAD in 1961.
  • There were three deaths during a nine-day air show held at Dulles in conjunction with Transpo '72 (officially called the U.S. International Transportation Exposition, a $10 million event sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and attended by over one million visitors from around the world).
    • On May 29, 1972, the third day of the show, the pilot of a Kite Rider (a variety of hang glider) was killed in a crash. This was to be the first of the three air deaths during the Air Show.[71]
    • On June 3, 1972, a second death occurred at the Transpo '72 Air Show, during a sport plane pylon race. At 2:40 pm, during the second lap and near a turn about pylon 3, a trailing aircraft's (LOWERS R-1 N66AN) wing and propeller hit the right wing tip of a leading aircraft (CASSUTT BARTH N7017). The right wing immediately sheared off the fuselage, and the damaged aircraft crashed almost instantly, killing the 29-year-old pilot, Hugh C. Alexander. He was a professional Air Racer with over 10,200 hours.[72][73]
    • On June 4, 1972, during the last day of the 9-day Transpo '72 Air Show, the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds experienced their first fatal crash at an air show. Major Joe Howard flying Thunderbird 3 was killed when his F-4E-32-MC Phantom II, 66-0321, lost power during a vertical maneuver. The pilot broke out of formation just after he completed a wedge roll and was ascending at around 2,500 feet AGL. The aircraft staggered and descended in a flat attitude with little forward speed. Although Major Howard ejected as the aircraft fell back to earth from about 1,500 feet (460 m) tail first, and descended under a good canopy, winds blew him into the fireball ascending from the blazing crash site. The parachute melted and the pilot plummeted 200 feet, sustaining fatal injuries.[74]
  • On December 1, 1974, while diverting to Dulles, TWA Flight 514 crashed onto the western slope of Mount Weather.[75] All 85 passengers and 7 crew members were killed on impact.
  • On June 18, 1994, a Learjet 25 operated by Mexican carrier TAESA crashed in trees while approaching the airport from the south. Twelve people died.[76] The passengers were planning to attend the 1994 FIFA World Cup soccer games being staged in Washington, D.C.


  • On June 14, 1979, the number 5 and 6 tires on an Air France Concorde blew out during takeoff. Shrapnel thrown from the tires and rims damaged number 2 engine, punctured three fuel tanks, severed several hydraulic lines and electrical wires, in addition to tearing a large hole on the top of the wing, over the wheel well area.[77]
  • On July 21, 1979, one month after the above tire accident, another Air France Concorde blew several of its landing gear tires during takeoff. After that second incident the "French director general of civil aviation issued an air worthiness directive and Air France issued a Technical Information Update, each calling for revised procedures. These included required inspection of each wheel/tire for condition, pressure and temperature prior to each take-off. In addition, crews were advised that landing gear should not be raised when a wheel/tire problem is suspected."[77]
  • In the September 11 attacks of 2001, American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked while en route from Dulles to Los Angeles and flown into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia.[78]

See also


  1. Pronounced /ˈdʌls/ DUL-iss


  1. 1.0 1.1 FAA Airport Master Record for IAD (Form 5010 PDF)
  2. "Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved August 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Facts About Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Preliminary CY 2012 Enplanements" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report" (PDF). Office of the Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs, U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 16, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Air Service Maps – IAD". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Scheel, Eugene. "History of Dulles Airport". Retrieved June 2, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "History of Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved 2 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 Greenfield, Heather (November 17, 2002). "'Visionary' Dulles Airport hits 40". The Free Lance-Star. Fredericksburg, Virginia. Associated Press. p. B1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "History of Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Davis, J.W. (April 17, 1966). "Dulles Airport: Its future keeps being postponed". Eugene Register-Guard. Oregon. p. 10A.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Aviation Daily 23 Feb 1971 p. 291
  15. "Space Shuttle Pavilion". IntrepidMuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-12-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Reuters (January 25, 1990). "Tribute to Eisenhower". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>see also, 101st Congress, S.J.RES.239.
  17. "Blackbird Records". SR-71 Online. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "United Airlines". Century-of-flight.net. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "United Express moves to Concourse A at Dulles International Airport". United.com. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Coombs, Joe (February 7, 2008). "Passenger numbers up at Dulles International, Reagan National airports". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Lufthansa starts 747-8 flights to Dulles - Washington Business Journal. Bizjournals.com (2012-06-01). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  22. Ethiopian Airlines Inaugurates 787 Dreamliner Airplane at Washington Dulles International Airport. ET African Journeys (2012-08-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  23. "Passenger Walkway to Concourses A and B Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Dulles Development: Main Terminal Improvement Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 "Aerotrain – How the System Works" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved September 14, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Weiss, Eric M. (August 19, 2008). "Dulles Updates Its People Movers". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "D2 Projects: Fourth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "D2 Projects: Future Fifth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Fox, Peggy (January 25, 2010). "Dulles Airport To Open AeroTrain". 9 News Now. WUSA. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 "Air Traffic Statistics - June 2015" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved 13 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Airlines Serving Dulles International". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved 13 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Total Operations by Airline-May 2010 – April 2011" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. May 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. [1]. Mwaa.com (2015-02-18). Retrieved on 2015-03-26.
  34. "U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report". 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Washington, DC: Dulles International (IAD)- Scheduled Services except Freight/Mail". Transtats.bts.gov. June 3, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. http://www.metwashairports.com/file/ATS_Oct_2014.pdf
  37. "Air Traffic Statistics". metwashairports.com. Retrieved July 8, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Total cargo (Freight, Express, & Mail).
  39. 39.0 39.1 "Facts About Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Nick Komons (August 1, 1989). "Air Progress". Air Progress: 65.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Aryanpur, Arianne (February 2, 2006). "At Dulles, The Tarmac Is Their Turf". The Washington Post. p. VA16. Retrieved September 1, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Miroff, Nick (September 14, 2006). "Airport's Future Is on Rails". The Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved September 1, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Freeman, Sholnn (September 22, 2009). "Elbow Room Expands for International Arrivals". The Washington Post. p. B2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "New Passenger Security Screening Areas Open at Dulles International Airport Tomorrow" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority Office of Public Affairs. September 14, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Aerotrain has Opened". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "D2 Dulles Development: Concourse B Expansion" (PDF). Retrieved March 12, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Kidder Smith, G. E. (2000). Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the 10th Century to the Present. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p. 449. ISBN 1-56898-254-2. Retrieved June 16, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 "D2 Projects – Concourse C/D". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Air Canada Unveils Major Expansion to 12 U.S. Destinations". Air Canada. November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. http://airlineroute.net/2015/11/20/la-limiad-may16/
  51. Royal Air Maroc Adds Washington Dulles Service from Sep 2016
  52. http://blogsouthwest.com/attention-spring-breakers-and-april-travelers-schedules-are-open-for-booking/
  53. 53.0 53.1 UNITED Ends Kuwait / Bahrain Service from mid-Jan 2016. Airline Route. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  54. "United withdraws from Dubai". Business Traveller. December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  55. UNITED Cancels Dubai Service from late-Jan 2016. AirlineRoute.net 9 December 2015.
  56. 56.0 56.1 "UNITED S16 International Operation Changes as of 10OCT15". Airlineroute.net. October 10, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. http://airlineroute.net/2015/09/07/ua-iadmli-w15/
  58. "Ethiopian Airlines Moves North American Intermediate Stop to Dublin from May 2015". Airlineroute.net. April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 "Main Terminal" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. July 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Worldwide lounges". Qatar Airways. Retrieved 21 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "United to Introduce Three New Countries to Global Network" (Press release). United AIrlines. November 5, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "Washington". Virgin Atlantic. Retrieved 21 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Dulles Toll Road". mwaa.com. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Washington Flyer Silver Line Express - Schedule". washfly.com. Retrieved July 8, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "USA: Washington DC". To and From the Airport.com. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "End the Dulles Taxi Monopoly!". View from the Wing. Retrieved 2016-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "DC's New Rules for Uber Airport Pickups Aren't Great For Riders". DC Inno. Retrieved 2016-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Dulles International Airport". wmaa.com. 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Metro to Dulles opening date pushed back". WTOP-FM. wtop.com. March 16, 2011. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Metro to Open in 2013". Washington Examiner. Washington Examiner. February 19, 2012. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "Kite Rider Killed in Crash At Transpo 72 Air Show". The New York Times. May 30, 1972.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "NTSB Aviation Query NYC72AN147 N66AN".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "NTSB Aviation Query NYC72AN147 N7017".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. USAF Aircraft Accidents – Life Sciences Aspects, April–June 1972, Directorate of Aerospace Safety, Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Norton AFB, California, pages 59–60.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Shaw, Adam (1977). Sound of Impact: The Legacy of TWA Flight 514. New York, NY: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-65840-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Safety Recommendation" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. April 3, 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. 77.0 77.1 "Safety Recommendations" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. November 9, 1981. Retrieved June 3, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 77" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. February 19, 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

Media related to Washington Dulles International Airport at Wikimedia Commons