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A whistleblower (whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public. The information of alleged wrongdoing can be classified in many ways: violation of company policy/rules, law, regulation, or threat to public interest/national security, as well as fraud, and corruption. Those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to surface either internally or externally. Internally, a whistleblower can bring his/her accusations to the attention of other people within the accused organization. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization. He/She can reach out to the media, government, law enforcement, or those who are concerned. Whistleblowers also face stiff reprisal/retaliation from those who are accused or alleged of wrongdoing.
Third-party groups like Wikileaks and others offer protection to whistleblowers, but that protection can only go so far. Whistleblowers face legal action, criminal charges, social stigma, and termination from any position, office, or job. Two other classifications of whistleblowing are private and public. The classifications relate to the type of organizations someone chooses to whistle-blow on: private sector, or public sector. Both can have different results that depend on many factors. However, whistleblowing in the public sector organization is more likely to result in federal felony charges and jail-time. A whistleblower who chooses to accuse a private sector organization or agency is more likely to face termination and legal and civil charges. Deeper questions and theories of whistleblowing and why people choose to do so can be studied through an ethical approach. Whistleblowing is truly an entirely ethical decision, and action. In the case of many like Edward Snowden, whistleblowing is seen as the last ethically right thing to do. Legal protection can also be granted to protect whistleblowers, but that protection is subject to many stipulations. Hundreds of laws grant protection to whistleblowers, but stipulations can easily cloud that protection and leave whistleblowers vulnerable to retaliation and legal trouble. Whistleblowing is not a new phenomenon. In fact it is thousands of years old. However, the decision and action has become far more complicated with recent advancements in technology and communication. Whistleblowers frequently face reprisal, sometimes at the hands of the organization or group which they have accused, sometimes from related organizations, and sometimes under law. Questions about the legitimacy of whistleblowing, the moral responsibility of whistleblowing, and the appraisal of the institutions of whistleblowing are part of the field of political ethics.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Legal protection
- 3 Advocacy for whistleblower rights and protections
- 4 Modern methods used for whistleblower protection
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes and references
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
Origin of term
The term whistle-blower comes from the whistle a referee uses to indicate an illegal or foul play. US civic activist Ralph Nader is said to have coined the phrase, but he in fact put a positive spin on the term. in the early 1970s to avoid the negative connotations found in other words such as "informers" and "snitches". Originally the term developed from bobbies (British police officers, and later American police officers) blowing their whistle to alert the public to criminals. Later private business owners would use their own whistles to alert the police of thievery and other crimes.
Most whistleblowers are internal whistleblowers, who report misconduct on a fellow employee or superior within their company. One of the most interesting questions with respect to internal whistleblowers is why and under what circumstances people will either act on the spot to stop illegal and otherwise unacceptable behavior or report it. There are some reasons to believe that people are more likely to take action with respect to unacceptable behavior, within an organization, if there are complaint systems that offer not just options dictated by the planning and control organization, but a choice of options for absolute confidentiality.
External whistblowers, however, report misconduct to outside persons or entities. In these cases, depending on the information's severity and nature, whistleblowers may report the misconduct to lawyers, the media, law enforcement or watchdog agencies, or other local, state, or federal agencies. In some cases, external whistleblowing is encouraged by offering monetary reward.
The third party service involves utilizing an external agency to inform the individuals at the top of the organizational pyramid of misconduct, without disclosing the identity of the whistleblower. This is a relatively new phenomenon and has been developed due to whistleblower discrimination. International Whistleblowers is an example of an organization involved in delivering a third party service for whistleblowers.
Private sector whistleblowing
Although not as high profile as public sector whistleblowing, whistleblowing in the private sector is arguably more prevalent and suppressed in society today. Simply because private corporations usually have stricter regulations that suppress potential whistleblowers. Some examples of private sector whistleblowing are when an employee reports to someone in a higher position such as a manager, or a third that is isolated from the individual chapter, such as their lawyer or the police. In the private sector corporate groups can easily hide wrongdoings by individual branches. It isn't until these wrongdoings bleed into the top officials that corporate wrongdoings are seen by the public; such is the case with Edward Snowden. Situations in which a person may blow the whistle are in cases of violated laws or company policy, such as sexual harassment or theft but these instances are small compared to money laundering or fraud charges on the stock market. Whistleblowing in the private sector is typically not as high profile or openly discussed in major news outlets, although occasionally third parties will expose human rights violations and exploitations of workers. Private whistleblowing has grown in notoriety lately due in part to an increase in reports of suppressed sexual harassment and assaults, as well as corruption and discriminatory practices. While there are laws in place to protect whistleblowers, many employees fear for their jobs due to direct or indirect threats from their employers or the other parties involved. Whistleblowers also fear that their revealings of a company's ill practices may not sit well with the public thus another reason why individuals considering blowing the whistle choose not too. As a result, many potential whistleblowers either wait to inform someone in a position of power or just drop the issues all together. The employee must weigh their options, expose the company and stand the moral and ethical high ground, or expose the company, lose their job, their reputation and potentially the ability to be employed again. This fear makes it all that much harder to accurately track how prevalent whistleblowing is in the private sector.
Public sector whistleblowing
Recognizing the public value of whistleblowing has been increasing over the last 50 years. In the United States, both State and Federal statutes have been put in place to protect whistleblowers from retaliation. The United States Supreme Court ruled that public sector whistleblowers are protected under First Amendment rights from any job retaliation when they raise flags over alleged corruption. Exposing misconduct, illegal, or dishonest activity is a big fear for public employees because they feel they are going against their government and country. Private sector whistleblowing protection laws were in place long before ones for the public sector. After many federal whistleblowers were scrutinized in high profile media cases, laws were finally introduced to protect government whistleblowers. These laws were enacted to help prevent corruption and encourage people to expose misconduct, illegal, or dishonest activity for the good of society. People who choose to act as a whistleblower often suffer retaliation from their employer. They most likely are fired because they are an at-will employee, which means they can be fired without a reason. There are exceptions in place for whistleblowers who are at-will employees. Even without a statute, numerous decisions encourage and protect whistleblowing on grounds of public policy. Statutes state that an employer shall not take any adverse employment actions any employee in retaliation for a good faith report of a whistleblowing action or cooperating in anyway in an investigation, proceeding, or lawsuit arising under said action. Federal whistleblower legislation includes a statute protecting all government employees. In the federal civil service, the government is prohibited from taking, or threatening to take, any personnel action against an employee because the employee disclosed information that he or she reasonably believed showed a violation of law, gross mismanagement, and gross waste of funds, abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public safety or health. In order to prevail on a claim, a federal employee must show that a protected disclosure was made, that the accused official knew of the disclosure, that retaliation resulted, and that there was a genuine connection between the retaliation and the employee's action.
Individual harm, public trust damage, and a threat of national security are three categories of harm that may come to whistleblowers. Revealing whistleblower identities automatically puts their life in harm’s way. Especially with media outlets using words like "traitor" and "treason" to associate with whistleblowers. There are many countries around the world that associate treason with the death penalty, even though whoever allegedly committed treason may or may not have caused anyone physical harm. A primary reason for the death penalty would be that they have potentially endangered an entire people, therefore being responsible for any harm to come as a result. US law states,
“...whoever knowingly and willfully communicates, furnishes, transmits, or otherwise makes available to an unauthorized person, or publishes, or uses in any manner prejudicial to the safety or interest of the United States or for the benefit of any foreign government to the detriment of the United States any classified information.”
Public trust dates back to the days of the Vietnam War. Henry Kissinger once said that the purpose of “those who stole” the Pentagon Papers was to “undermine confidence in their government” and “raise doubts about our reliability in the minds of other governments, friend and foe, and indeed about the stability of our political system."
Whistleblowers are sometimes seen as selfless martyrs for public interest and organizational accountability; others view them as "traitors" or "defectors." Some even accuse them of solely pursuing personal glory and fame, or view their behavior as motivated by greed in qui tam cases. Some academics (such as Thomas Alured Faunce) feel that whistleblowers should at least be entitled to a rebuttable presumption that they are attempting to apply ethical principles in the face of obstacles and that whistleblowing would be more respected in governance systems if it had a firmer academic basis in virtue ethics.
It is probable that many people do not even consider blowing the whistle, not only because of fear of retaliation, but also because of fear of losing their relationships at work and outside work.
Persecution of whistleblowers has become a serious issue in many parts of the world:
Employees in academia, business or government might become aware of serious risks to health and the environment, but internal policies might pose threats of retaliation to those who report these early warnings. Private company employees in particular might be at risk of being fired, demoted, denied raises and so on for bringing environmental risks to the attention of appropriate authorities. Government employees could be at a similar risk for bringing threats to health or the environment to public attention, although perhaps this is less likely.
There are examples of "early warning scientists" being harassed for bringing inconvenient truths about impending harm to the notice of the public and authorities. There have also been cases of young scientists being discouraged from entering controversial scientific fields for fear of harassment.
Although whistleblowers are often protected under law from employer retaliation, there have been many cases where punishment for whistleblowing has occurred, such as termination, suspension, demotion, wage garnishment, and/or harsh mistreatment by other employees. For example, in the United States, most whistleblower protection laws provide for limited "make whole" remedies or damages for employment losses if whistleblower retaliation is proven. However, many whistleblowers report there exists a widespread "shoot the messenger" mentality by corporations or government agencies accused of misconduct and in some cases whistleblowers have been subjected to criminal prosecution in reprisal for reporting wrongdoing.
As a reaction to this many private organizations have formed whistleblower legal defense funds or support groups to assist whistleblowers; three such examples are the National Whistleblowers Center in the United States, and Whistleblowers UK and Public Concern at Work (PCaW) in the United Kingdom. Depending on the circumstances, it is not uncommon for whistleblowers to be ostracized by their co-workers, discriminated against by future potential employers, or even fired from their organization. This campaign directed at whistleblowers with the goal of eliminating them from the organization is referred to as mobbing. It is an extreme form of workplace bullying wherein the group is set against the targeted individual.
There is limited research on the psychological impacts of whistle blowing. However, poor experiences of whistleblowing can cause a prolonged and prominent assault upon staff well being. As workers attempt to address concerns, they are often met with a wall of silence and hostility by management. Some whistleblowers speak of overwhelming and persistent distress, drug and alcohol problems, paranoid behaviour at work, acute anxiety, nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive thoughts. Depression is often reported by whistleblowers, and suicidal thoughts may occur in up to about 10%. General deterioration in health and self care has been described. The range of symptomatology shares many of the features of posttraumatic stress disorder, although there is debate about whether the trauma experienced by whistleblowers meets diagnostic thresholds. Increased stress related physical illness has also been described in whistleblowers. The stresses involved in whistleblowing can be huge. As such, workers remain afraid to blow the whistle, in fear that they will not be believed or they have lost faith in believing that anything will happen if they do speak out. This fear may indeed be justified, because an individual who feels threatened by whistleblowing, may plan the career destruction of the ‘complainant’ by reporting fictitious errors or rumours. This technique, labelled as ‘gaslighting’ is a common, unconventional approach used by organizations to manage employees who cause difficulty by raising concerns. In extreme cases, this technique involves the organization or manager proposing that the complainant’s mental health is unstable. Organizations also often attempt to ostracise and isolate whistleblowers by undermining their concerns by suggesting that these are groundless, carrying out inadequate investigations or by ignoring them altogether. Whistleblowers may also be disciplined, suspended and reported to professional bodies upon manufactured pretexts. Where whistleblowers persist in raising their concerns, they increasingly risk detriments such as dismissal. Following dismissal, whistleblowers may struggle to find further employment due to damaged reputations, poor references and blacklisting. The social impact of whistleblowing through loss of livelihood (and sometimes pension), and family strain may also impact on whistleblowers’ psychological well being. Whistleblowers may also experience immense stress as a result of litigation regarding detriments such as unfair dismissal, which they often face with imperfect support or no support at all from unions. Whistleblowers who continue to pursue their concerns may also face long battles with official bodies such as regulators and government departments. Such bodies may reproduce the “institutional silence” by employers, adding to whistleblowers’ stress and difficulties. In all, some whistleblowers suffer great injustice, that may never be acknowledged or rectified. Such extreme experiences of threat and loss inevitably cause severe distress and sometimes mental illness, sometimes lasting for years afterwards. This mistreatment also deters others from coming forward with concerns. Thus, poor practices remain hidden behind a wall of silence, and prevent any organization from experiencing the improvements that may be afforded by intelligent failure. Some whistleblowers who part ranks with their organizations have had their mental stability questioned, such as Adrian Schoolcraft, the NYPD veteran who alleged falsified crime statistics in his department and was forcibly committed to a mental institution.
The definition of ethics is the moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior. The ethical implications of whistleblowing can be negative as well as positive. However, sometimes employees may blow the whistle as an act of revenge. Rosemary O'Leary explains this in her short volume on a topic called guerrilla government. "Rather than acting openly, guerrillas often choose to remain “in the closet,” moving clandestinely behind the scenes, salmon swimming upstream against the current of power. Over the years, I have learned that the motivations driving guerrillas are diverse. The reasons for acting range from the altruistic (doing the right thing) to the seemingly petty (I was passed over for that promotion). Taken as a whole, their acts are as awe inspiring as saving human lives out of a love of humanity and as trifling as slowing the issuance of a report out of spite or anger." The negative results could be one being seen as a traitor. It is believed throughout the professional world that an individual is bound to secrecy within the sector in which they work. The discussions of whistleblowing and employee loyalty usually assume that the concept of loyalty is irrelevant to the issue or, more commonly, that whistleblowing involves a moral choice in which the loyalty that an employee owes an employer comes to be pitted against the employee’s responsibility to serve the public interest. Robert A. Larmer describes the standard view of whistleblowing in the Journal of Business Ethics by explaining that an employee possesses prima facie (based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise) duties of loyalty and confidentiality to their employers and that whistleblowing cannot be justified except on the basis of a higher duty to the public good. It is important to recognize that in any relationship which demands loyalty the relationship works both ways and involves mutual enrichment. In the case of Edward Snowden many Americans perceive his actions to be ethically and morally right. Edward Snowden released classified intelligence to the American people in an attempt to allow Americans to see the inner workings of the government. Is it right to report the shady or suspect practices of the company one works for or perhaps even the government? A person is diligently tasked with the conundrum of choosing to be loyal to the company or to blow the whistle on the company’s wrongdoing. Discussions on whistleblowing generally revolve around three topics: attempts to define whistleblowing more precisely, debates about whether and when whistleblowing is permissible, and debates about whether and when one has an obligation to blow the whistle. One must understand the definition of whistleblowing in order to logically determine if the act itself is wrong.
Legal protection for whistleblowing varies from country to country and may depend on any of the country of the original activity, where and how secrets were revealed, and how they eventually became published or publicized. Over a dozen countries have now adopted comprehensive whistleblower protection laws which create mechanisms for reporting wrongdoing and provide legal protections to the people who informed them. Over 50 countries have adopted more limited protections as part of their anti-corruption, freedom of information, or employment laws. For purposes of the English Wikipedia, this section emphasizes the English-speaking world and covers other regimes only insofar as they represent exceptionally greater or lesser protections.
There are laws in a number of states. The former NSW Police Commissioner Tony Lauer summed up official government and police attitudes as: "Nobody in Australia much likes whistleblowers, particularly in an organization like the police or the government." Mr Lauer's comments are clearly at odds with public support for WikiLeaks.
The Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner of Canada (PSIC) provides a safe and confidential mechanism enabling public servants and the general public to disclose wrongdoings committed in the public sector. It also protects from reprisal public servants who have disclosed wrongdoing and those who have cooperated in investigations. The Office’s goal is to enhance public confidence in Canada’s federal public institutions and in the integrity of public servants.
Mandated by the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act (The Act), PSIC is a permanent and independent Agent of Parliament. The Act, which came into force on April 15, 2007, applies to most of the federal public sector, approximately 400,000 public servants. This includes government departments and agencies, parent Crown corporations, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and other federal public sector bodies.
Not all disclosures lead to an investigation as the Act sets out the jurisdiction of the Commissioner and gives the option not to investigate under certain circumstances. On the other hand, if PSIC conducts an investigation and finds no wrongdoing was committed, the Commissioner must report his findings to the discloser and to the organization’s chief executive. Also, reports of founded wrongdoing are presented before the House of Commons and the Senate in accordance with The Act. As of June 2014, a total of 9 reports have been tabled in Parliament.
The Act also established the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Tribunal (PSDPT) to protect public servants by hearing reprisal complaints referred by the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner. The Tribunal can grant remedies in favour of complainants and order disciplinary action against persons who take reprisals.
PSIC’s current Commissioner is Mr. Mario Dion. Previously, he has served in various senior roles in the public service, including as Associate Deputy Minister of Justice, Executive Director and Deputy Head of the Office of Indian Residential Schools Resolution of Canada, and as Chair of the National Parole Board.
In Jamaica, the Protected Disclosures Act, 2011 received assent in March 2011. It creates a comprehensive system for the protection of whistleblowers in the public and private sector. It is based on the UK's Public Interest Disclosure Act.
The Government of India has been considering adopting a whistleblower protection law for several years. In 2003, the Law Commission of India recommended the adoption of the Public Interest Disclosure (Protection of Informers) Act, 2002. In August 2010, the Public Interest Disclosure and Protection of Persons Making the Disclosures Bill, 2010 was introduced into the Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India. The Bill was approved by the cabinet in June, 2011. The Public Interest Disclosure and Protection of Persons Making the Disclosures Bill, 2010 was renamed as The Whistleblowers' Protection Bill, 2011 by the Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice. The Whistleblowers' Protection Bill, 2011 was passed by the Lok Sabha on 28 December 2011. and by the Rajyasabha on 21 February 2014. The Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011 has received the Presidential assent on May 9, 2014 and the same has been subsequently published in the official gazette of the Government of India on May 9, 2014 by the Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.
The Netherlands has measures in place to mitigate the risks of whistleblowing: the whistleblower advice centre (Adviespunt Klokkenluiders) offers advice to whistleblowers, and the Parliament recently passed a proposal to establish a so-called house for whistleblowers, to protect them from the severe negative consequences that they might endure (Kamerstuk, 2013). Dutch media organizations also provide whistleblower support; on 9 September 2013 a number of major Dutch media outlets supported the launch of Publeaks, which provides a secure website for people to leak documents to the media. Publeaks is designed to protect whistleblowers. It operates on the GlobaLeaks software developed by the Hermes Center for Transparency and Digital Human Rights, which supports whistleblower-oriented technologies internationally.
The Swiss Council of States agreed on a draft amendment of the Swiss Code of Obligations in September 2014. The draft introduces articles 321abis to 321asepties, 328(3), 336(2)(d). An amendment of article 362(1) adds articles 321abis to 321asepties to the list of provisions that may not be overruled by labour and bargaining agreements.
Article 321ater introduces an obligation on employees to report irregularities to their employer before reporting to an authority. An employee will, however, not breach his duty of good faith if he reports an irregularity to an authority and
- a period set by the employer and no longer than 60 days has lapsed since the employee has reported the incident to his employer, and
- the employer has not addressed the irregularity or it is obvious that the employer has insufficiently addressed the irregularity.
Article 321aquarter provides that an employee may exceptionally directly report to an authority. Exceptions apply in cases
- where the employee is in a position to objectively demonstrate that a report to his employer will prove ineffective,
- where the employee has to anticipate dismissal,
- where the employee must assume that the competent authority will be hindered in investigating the irregularity, or
- where there is a direct and serious hazard to life, to health, to safety, or to the environment.
The draft does not improve on protection against dismissal for employees who report irregularities to their employer. The amendment does not provide for employees anonymously filing their observations of irregularities.
Whistleblowing in the United Kingdom is subject to the Public Interest Disclosure Act (PIDA) 1998.
- Culture of raising concerns – to make raising issues a part of normal routine business of any well-led NHS organization.
- Culture free from bullying – freedom of staff to speak out relies on staff being able to work in a culture which is free from bullying.
- Training – every member of staff should receive training in their trust's approach to raising concerns and in receiving and acting on them.
- Support – all NHS trusts should ensure there is a dedicated person to whom concerns can be easily reported and without formality, a "speak up guardian" .
- Support to find alternative employment in the NHS – where a worker who has raised a concern cannot, as a result, continue their role, the NHS should help them seek an alternative job.
Monitor produced a whistleblowing policy in November 2015 which all NHS organisations in England are obliged to follow. It explicitly says that anyone bullying or acting against a whistleblower could be potentially liable to disciplinary action.
Under most federal whistleblower statutes, in order to be considered a whistleblower in the United States, the federal employee must have reason to believe his or her employer has violated some law, rule or regulation; testify or commence a legal proceeding on the legally protected matter; or refuse to violate the law.
In cases where whistleblowing on a specified topic is protected by statute, U.S. courts have generally held that such whistleblowers are protected from retaliation. However, a closely divided U.S. Supreme Court decision, Garcetti v. Ceballos (2006) held that the First Amendment free speech guarantees for government employees do not protect disclosures made within the scope of the employees' duties.
In the United States, legal protections vary according to the subject matter of the whistleblowing, and sometimes the state in which the case arises. In passing the 2002 Sarbanes–Oxley Act, the Senate Judiciary Committee found that whistleblower protections were dependent on the "patchwork and vagaries" of varying state statutes. Still, a wide variety of federal and state laws protect employees who call attention to violations, help with enforcement proceedings, or refuse to obey unlawful directions.
The first US law adopted specifically to protect whistleblowers was the 1863 United States False Claims Act (revised in 1986), which tried to combat fraud by suppliers of the United States government during the American Civil War. The Act encourages whistleblowers by promising them a percentage of the money recovered by the government and by protecting them from employment retaliation.
Another US law that specifically protects whistleblowers is the Lloyd–La Follette Act of 1912. It guaranteed the right of federal employees to furnish information to the United States Congress. The first US environmental law to include an employee protection was the Clean Water Act of 1972. Similar protections were included in subsequent federal environmental laws, including the Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976), Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (through 1978 amendment to protect nuclear whistleblowers), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or the Superfund Law) (1980), and the Clean Air Act (1990). Similar employee protections enforced through OSHA are included in the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (1982) to protect truck drivers, the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act (PSIA) of 2002, the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century ("AIR 21"), and the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, enacted on July 30, 2002 (for corporate fraud whistleblowers).
Investigation of retaliation against whistleblowers under 20 federal statutes falls under the jurisdiction of the Office of the Whistleblower Protection Program of the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). New whistleblower statutes enacted by Congress which are to be enforced by the Secretary of Labor are generally delegated by a Secretary's Order to OSHA's Office of the Whistleblower Protection Program (OWPP).
The patchwork of laws means that victims of retaliation need to be aware of the laws at issue to determine the deadlines and means for making proper complaints. Some deadlines are as short as 10 days (Arizona State Employees have 10 days to file a "Prohibited Personnel Practice" Complaint before the Arizona State Personnel Board), while others are up to 300 days.
Those who report a false claim against the federal government, and suffer adverse employment actions as a result, may have up to six years (depending on state law) to file a civil suit for remedies under the US False Claims Act (FCA). Under a qui tam provision, the "original source" for the report may be entitled to a percentage of what the government recovers from the offenders. However, the "original source" must also be the first to file a federal civil complaint for recovery of the federal funds fraudulently obtained, and must avoid publicizing the claim of fraud until the US Justice Department decides whether to prosecute the claim itself. Such qui tam lawsuits must be filed under seal, using special procedures to keep the claim from becoming public until the federal government makes its decision on direct prosecution.
There are comprehensive laws in New Zealand and South Africa. A number of other countries have recently adopted comprehensive whistleblower laws including Ghana, South Korea, and Uganda. They are also being considered in Kenya and Rwanda. The European Court of Human Rights ruled in 2008 that whistleblowing was protected as freedom of expression.
Advocacy for whistleblower rights and protections
Many NGOs advocate for stronger and more comprehensive legal rights and protections for whistleblowers. Among them are the Government Accountability Project (GAP), Blueprint for Free Speech, Public Concern at Work (PCaW) and the Open Democracy Advice Center (ODAC). Among the more publicly visible whistleblower activists are Thomas M. Devine of GAP, Cathy James of PCaW, Mark Worth of Blueprint for Free Speech.
Modern methods used for whistleblower protection
Whistleblowers that may be at risk of those they are exposing are now using encryption methods and anonymous content sharing software to protect their identity. Tor, a highly accessible and user-friendly anonymous internet browser, is one that is frequently used by whistleblowers around the world.
Notes and references
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- Near, Janet P (Feb 1, 1985). "Organizational dissidence: The case of whistle-blowing". Journal of Business Ethics.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Delmas, Candice (January 2015). "The Ethics of Government Whisltleblowing". Social Theory and Practice.
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- See: New Scientist 9 Dec. 1971, p. 69: "The Code [of Good Conduct of The British Computer Society] contains secrecy clauses that effectively prohibit Nader style whistle-blowing".
- Nader, Petkas, and Blackwell, Whistleblowing (1972).
- Dealing with—or reporting—"unacceptable" behavior (with additional thoughts about the "Bystander Effect") Mary Rowe MIT, Linda Wilcox HMS, Howard Gadlin NIH (2009), Journal of the International Ombudsman Association 2(1), online at ombudsassociation.org
- Mary Rowe, "Options and choice for conflict resolution in the workplace" in Negotiation: Strategies for Mutual Gain, by Lavinia Hall (ed.), Sage Publications, Inc., 1993, pp. 105–119.
- Castagnera, James (Spring 2003). "The Rise of the Whistleblower and the Death of Privacy Impact of 9/11 and Enron". Labor Law Journal. Check date values in:
- Timmerman, Kelsey (2012). Where am I wearing?. California: Wiley.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Stop Post-Firing Harassment Suits By Tracking And Investigating Every Complaint". HR Specialist: Minnesota Employment Law 2.11. 2009.
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- Lee, Katie (2011). "Whistleblower Retaliation in the Public Sector". Public Personnel Management.
- "18 U.S. Code § 798 - Disclosure of classified information". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Delmas, Candice (January 1, 2015). "The Ethics of Government Whistleblowing".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Faunce, T.A. "Developing and Teaching the Virtue-Ethics Foundations of Healthcare Whistle Blowing", Monash Bioethics Review. 2004; 23(4): 41–55
- Faunce, T.A. and Jefferys, S. "Whistleblowing and scientific misconduct: Renewing legal and virtue ethics foundations". Journal of Medicine and Law 2007, 26(3): 567–84.
- Rowe, Mary & Bendersky, Corinne, "Workplace Justice, Zero Tolerance and Zero Barriers: Getting People to Come Forward in Conflict Management Systems," in Negotiations and Change, From the Workplace to Society, Thomas Kochan and Richard Locke (eds), Cornell University Press, 2002. See also "Dealing with — or Reporting — 'Unacceptable' Behavior (With additional thoughts about the 'Bystander Effect')" ©2009Mary Rowe MIT, Linda Wilcox HMS, Howard Gadlin NIH, Journal of the International Ombudsman Association 2(1), online at ombudsassociation.org
- European Environment Agency) (Jan 23, 2013). "Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation: Full Report". p. 614.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- "pcaw.co.uk". pcaw.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Matthiesen SB, Bjorkelo B, Burke RJ “Workplace Bullying as the Dark Side of Whistleblowing” in Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice (2012)
- Drew D (29 January 2015) Francis NHS whistleblower report: a new beginning? The Guardian
- Peters, K. et al. (2011). The emotional sequelae of whistleblowing: findings from a qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20: P2907-14.
- Farnsworth CH (22 February 1987) Survey of Whistleblowers finds retaliation, but few regrets The New York Times
- Lennane J (11 September 1993) "Whistleblowing": a health issue. 307(6905): P667–670
- Greaves R, McGlone JK (2012) The Health Consequences of Speaking Out Social Medicine Vol 6, No 4 P259-263
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- Author Eyal Press discusses whistleblowers and heroism on Conversations from Penn State