A world's fair, world fair, world exposition or universal exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large public exhibition. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in varying parts of the world. The next world's fair is Expo 2017 and is to be held in Astana, Kazakhstan.
Since the entering into force of the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions, the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE; English: International Exhibitions Bureau) has served as an international sanctioning body for world's fairs. BIE-approved fairs are of three types: universal, international, and specialized. They usually last from three weeks to six months.
- 1 History
- 2 Types
- 3 List of expositions
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Current and future potential expositions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
World's fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris. This fair was soon followed by other national exhibitions in continental Europe, and eventually the United Kingdom.
The best-known 'first World Expo' was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations". The Great Exhibition, as it is often called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband, and is usually considered to be the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It influenced the development of several aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations, and tourism. These events have resulted in a remarkable form of Prince Albert's life history, one that continues to be reflected in London architecture in a number of ways, including in the Albert Memorial later erected to the Prince. This expo was the most obvious precedent for the many international exhibitions, later called world's fairs, that have continued to be held to the present time.
Since their inception in 1851, the character of world expositions has evolved. Three eras can be distinguished: the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, and the era of nation branding.
The first era could be called the era of "industrialization" and covered, roughly, the period from 1800 to 1938. In these days, world expositions were especially focused on trade, and were famous for the display of technological inventions and advancements. World expositions were the platforms where the state-of-the-art in science and technology from around the world were brought together. The world expositions of 1851 London, 1853 New York, 1862 London, Philadelphia (1876), 1889 Paris, 1893 Chicago, 1900 Paris, 1901 Buffalo, 1904 St. Louis, 1915 San Francisco, and 1933–34 Chicago were landmarks in this respect. Inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era. An important part of the image of world's fairs stems from this first era.
Cultural exchange (1939–1987)
The 1939–40 New York World's Fair diverged from the original focus of the world's fair expositions. From then on, world's fairs adopted specific cultural themes; they forecasted a better future for society. Technological innovations were no longer the primary exhibits at fairs. The theme of the 1939 fair was "Building the World of Tomorrow"; at the 1964–65 New York World's Fair, it was "Peace Through Understanding"; at the 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal, it was "Man and His World". The fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication for the exchange of innovation.
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67. Event organizers retired the term world's fair in favor of expo. (The Montreal Expos, a former Major League Baseball team, was named for the 1967 fair.)
Nation branding (1988–present)
From Expo '88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use world expositions more widely and more strongly as a platform to improve their national images through their pavilions. Finland, Japan, Canada, France and Spain are cases in point. A large study by Tjaco Walvis called "Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers" showed that improving national image was the primary participation goal for 73% of the countries at Expo 2000. In a world where a strong national image is a key asset, pavilions became advertising campaigns, and the Expo a vehicle for 'nation branding'. Apart from cultural and symbolic reasons, organizing countries (and the cities and regions hosting them) also utilize the world exposition to brand themselves. According to branding expert Wally Olins, Spain used Expo '92 and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona in the same year to underline its new position as a modern and democratic country and present itself as a prominent member of the European Union and the global community.
At Expo 2000 Hanover, where countries created their own architecture, the average pavilion investment was about €12 million. Given these costs, governments are sometimes hesitant to participate, because benefits are often assumed not to outweigh the costs. Tangible effects are difficult to measure, but an independent study for the Dutch pavilion at Expo 2000 estimated that the pavilion (which cost around €35 million) generated around €350 million of potential revenues for the Dutch economy. It also identified several key success factors for world-exposition pavilions in general.
Today's world expositions embody elements of all three eras. They present new inventions, facilitate cultural exchange based on a theme, and are used for city, region and nation branding.
Presently, there are two types of world expositions: registered and recognized (sometimes unofficially known as "major" and "minor" fairs, respectively). Registered exhibitions are the biggest category events. Previously, registered expositions were called "Universal Expositions". Even though this name lingers on in public memory, it is no longer in use as an official term. At registered exhibitions, participants generally build their own pavilions. They are therefore the most extravagant and most expensive expos. Their duration may be between six weeks and six months. Since 1995, the interval between two registered expositions has been at least five years. The latest registered exposition Expo 2015 was held in Milan, Italy, from May 1 to October 31, 2015.
Recognized expositions are smaller in scope and investments and generally shorter in duration; between three weeks and three months. Previously, these expositions were called "International or Specialized Expositions" but these terms are no longer used officially. Their total surface area must not exceed 25 ha and organizers must build pavilions for the participating states, free of rent, charges, taxes and expenses. The largest country pavilions may not exceed 1,000 m2. Only one recognized exhibition can be held between two registered exhibitions.
There are also two types of auxiliary expositions: the horticultural exhibitions, which are joint BIE and AIPH-sanctioned 'garden' fair in which participants present gardens and garden pavilions; and the Milan Triennial Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Modern Architecture.
Registered expositions encompass universal themes that affect the full gamut of human experience, and international and corporate participants are required to adhere to the theme in their representations. Registered expositions are held every 5 years because they are more expensive as they require total design of pavilion buildings from the ground up. As a result, nations compete for the most outstanding or memorable structure—recent examples include Japan, France, Morocco & Spain at Expo '92. Recent Registered Expositions include Brussels Expo '58, Montreal Expo 67, Osaka Expo '70, and Seville Expo '92. Sometimes prefabricated structures are also used to minimize costs for developing countries or for countries from a geographical block to share space (i.e. Plaza of the Americas at Seville '92).
The only Registered (Universal) exposition to be held without BIE approval was the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair. The sanctioning organization at Paris denied them "official" status because its president, Robert Moses, did not comply with BIE rules in place at the time, namely the one limiting the duration for universal expositions to six months only. Both World's Fairs in New York (1939–40 and 1964–65) have the distinction of being the only two-year world expositions in history. The Fair proceeded without BIE approval and turned to tourism and trade organizations to host national pavilions in lieu of official government sponsorship. However, a large number of countries did participate in the world's fair including several newly independent African and Asian states.
Frederick Pittera, a producer of international fairs and exhibitions and author of the history of world's fairs in the Encyclopædia Britannica and Compton Encyclopedia, was commissioned by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. of New York City in 1959 to prepare the first feasibility studies for the 1964 New York World's Fair. Pittera was joined in his study by Austrian architect Victor Gruen (Inventor of the 'Shopping Mall').The Eisenhower Commission ultimately awarded the world's fair bid to New York City against several major U.S. cities.
Since the turn of the 21st century the BIE has moved to sanction expos only every five years; following the numerous expos of the 1980s and 1990s, some see this as a means to cut down potential expenditure by participating nations. The move was also seen by some as an attempt to avoid conflicting with the Summer Olympics. The rule may apply to all expos, or it may end up that universal expositions will be restricted to every five years or so, with international or specialized expositions in the in-between years for countries wishing to celebrate a special event. The most recent universal expo is Expo 2015 in Milan.
"Recognized Expositions" or International or Specialized Expositions
International expositions are usually united by a common theme—such as 'Transportation' (Vancouver Expo 86), or, 'Leisure in the Age of Technology' (Brisbane, Expo '88). Such themes are narrower than the wider scope of universal expositions.
The International Exposition, Tsukuba, Japan, popularly known as Expo '85 was held in the city of Tsukuba located near Tokyo. This Exposition is more formally known as "The International Science Technology Exposition".
Specialized and international expositions are usually smaller in scale and cheaper to run for the host committee and participants because the architectural fees are lower and they only have to rent the space from the host committee, usually with the prefabricated structure already completed. Countries then have the option of 'adding' their own colours, design etc. to the outside of the prefabricated structure and filling in the inside with their own content. One example of this is China, which has often chosen to add a Chinese archway in the front of its prefabricated pavilions to symbolize the nation (Expo '88, Expo '92, Expo '93).
List of expositions
List of official world expositions (Universal, International/Specialised, Horticultural) according to the Bureau International des Expositions and ExpoMuseum: Upcoming world expositions are in italics.
International Horticultural Exhibition
The BIE, since 1960, grants recognition to the International Horticultural Exhibitions approved by the International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH) subject to it meeting certain criteria including being approved by the BIE general assembly.
And a list of these International Horticultural Exhibitions (upcoming in italics):
The majority of the structures are temporary and are dismantled after the fair closes. Landmark towers from several fairs are notable exceptions. By far the most famous of these is the Eiffel Tower, built for the Exposition Universelle (1889) and now the most recognized symbol of its host city Paris; some contemporary critics wanted it dismantled after the fair's conclusion.
Other major structures that were held over from these fairs:
- 1851: The Crystal Palace, from the first World's Fair in London, designed so that it could be recycled to recoup losses, was such a success that it was moved and intended to be permanent, only to be destroyed by a fire in 1936.
- 1876: The Centennial Exposition's main building, Memorial Hall, is still in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and serving as the new home for the Please Touch Museum.
- 1880: The World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, constructed for the Melbourne International Exhibition.
- 1893: The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago is housed in the former Palace of Fine Arts, one of the last remaining buildings of the World's Columbian Exposition. The intent or hope was to make all Columbian structures permanent, but most of the structures burned, possibly the result of arson during the Pullman Strike. The foundation of the world's first Ferris wheel, which operated at the Exposition, was unearthed on the Chicago Midway during a construction project by the University of Chicago, whose campus now surrounds the Midway. Relocated survivors include the Norway pavilion, a small house now at a museum in Wisconsin, and the Maine State Building, now at the Poland Springs Resort in Maine.
- 1894: The Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park is the last major remnant of the California Midwinter International Exposition. Large ornamental wooden gates and a pagoda from the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition were brought in after the latter fair closed, making the Tea Garden a rare if not unique instance of a survivor that incorporates architectural features from two completely separate fairs.
- 1897: A full-scale replica of the Parthenon was built for the Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition where it stands today in Centennial Park. It features plaster reproductions of the Elgin Marbles and, in 1990, a re-creation of the original Athena Parthenos statue was installed inside just as it was in the original Parthenon in ancient Greece.
- 1901: The New York State pavilion at the Pan-American Exposition remains today as the home of the Buffalo History Museum, and is set on grounds originally laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted. Across the man-made lake on the Scajaquada Creek is the Albright–Knox Art Gallery, originally intended as the Beaux Arts Exhibition Hall, but not completed in time for the exhibition.
- 1904: The St. Louis Art Museum in Forest Park, originally the Palace of the Fine Arts, and Brookings Hall at Washington University in St. Louis, are remnants of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (held a year late, as it was originally intended to be the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase), better known as the St. Louis World's Fair. The aviary in Forest Park gave root to the St. Louis Zoo.
- 1906: The aquarium built for the Milan Exposition is still open after 100 years and was recently renovated. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) was settled in Milan during the fair and had its first congress in the Expo pavilions. In June 2006 the ICOH celebrated the first century of its life in Milan. An elevated railway with trains running at short intervals linked the fair to the city center. It was dismantled in the 1920s.
- 1909: The landscaping (by the Olmsted brothers) from the Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition (AYPE) in Seattle still forms much of the University of Washington campus. The only major building left from the AYPE, Architecture Hall, is used by the University's architecture school.
- 1915: The Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco and its adjacent artificial lagoon are the only major remnants of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition still in their original locations on the former fairgrounds (now the city's Marina District neighborhood), but the building is almost entirely a reconstruction. The plaster-surfaced original, not intended to survive the fair, was a crumbling ruin in 1964 when all but the steel framework was demolished so that it could be reproduced in concrete. The San Francisco Civic Auditorium, now the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium, is another major legacy of the fair but was built off-site in the city's Civic Center. The independent Panama-California Exposition in San Diego left a substantial legacy of permanent buildings and other structures which today define its site, San Diego's central Balboa Park, including the Prado walkway, the California Tower and Dome (now home to the Museum of Man), the 1500-foot Cabrillo Bridge, the lily pond and botanical gardens, and the Spreckels Organ Pavilion.
- 1929: Much survives from the two simultaneous fairs Spain hosted in that year. Most famous are the remnants of the Ibero-American Exposition in Seville, in which the Spanish Pavilion's Plaza de España forms part of a large park and forecourt. Most of that fair's pavilions have survived and been adapted for other uses, with many of them becoming consulates-general for the countries that built them. The Barcelona International Exposition featured the famous German pavilion designed by Mies van der Rohe, which was demolished but later recreated on the original site.
- 1942: A special case is the EUR quarter in Rome, built for a World's Fair planned for 1942 but cancelled because of World War II. Today it hosts various offices, both governmental and private, and several museums.
- 1958: In Brussels, the Atomium still stands at the exposition site. It is a 165-billion-times-enlarged iron-crystal-shaped building. Until June 2012, the "American Theatre" on the Expo grounds was frequently used as a television studio by the VRT.
- 1962: The Space Needle, theme building of the Century 21 Exposition commonly known as the Seattle World's Fair, still stands as Seattle's iconic landmark. The Seattle Center Monorail, the other widely known "futuristic" feature of the fair, still operates daily. The US pavilion became the Pacific Science Center.
- 1964: The Unisphere, built for the second New York World's Fair, still stands on its original site in Flushing Meadows, Queens, New York City. Also surviving are the building housing the New York State Museum, and the former Singer Bowl, since converted into Louis Armstrong Stadium, part of the Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, site of the US Open.
- 1967: Among the structures still standing from Expo 67 in Montreal are Moshe Safdie's Habitat 67, Buckminster Fuller's American pavilion, and the French pavilion (now the Montreal Casino).
- 1968: San Antonio kept the Tower of the Americas, the Institute of Texan Cultures and the Convention Center from HemisFair '68.
- 1974: Spokane still has its Riverfront Park that was created for Expo '74—the park remains a popular and iconic part of Spokane's downtown.
- 1982: The Sunsphere from the Knoxville World's Fair remains as a feature of Knoxville's skyline. Ironically, the Sunsphere was destroyed during the Bart on the Road episode of The Simpsons.
- 1984: The main pavilions of the 1984 New Orleans World's Fair became the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, which is also known for its use as a shelter of last resort during Hurricane Katrina.
- 1986: In Vancouver, many Expo 86 projects were designed as legacy projects. Of note are the Skytrain, Science World and Canada Place.
- 1988: The Skyneedle, the symbol tower of Expo '88 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, still stands. Other survivors are the Nepal Peace Pagoda of the Nepalese representation, now at the transformed World Expo '88 site South Bank Parklands, and the Japan Pond and Garden from the Japanese representation, now at the Brisbane Mount Cooth-tha Botanic Gardens.
- 1992: The pavilions of Expo '92 in Seville had been converted into a technological square and a theme park.
- 1998: The main buildings of Expo '98 in Lisbon were completely integrated into the city itself and many of the art exhibition pieces still remain.
- 2005: The home of Satsuki & Mei Kusakabe, built for the 2005 Expo in Aichi, remains operating at its original site in Morikoro Park and is a popular tourist attraction.
- 2010: The China pavilion from Expo 2010 in Shanghai, the largest display in the history of the World Expo, is now the China Art Museum, the largest art museum in Asia.
Some world's fair sites became (or reverted to) parks incorporating some of the expo elements, such as:
- Audubon Park, New Orleans: Site of New Orleans's World Cotton Centennial in 1884
- Jackson Park, Chicago and the Chicago Midway: Site of the 1893 Columbian Exposition
- Centennial Park, Nashville: Tennessee Centennial Expo in 1897
- Forest Park, Saint Louis: Home of the Saint Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904
- San Diego: Panama-California Exposition (1915) & California Pacific International Exposition (1935)
- Seattle Center: Century 21 Exposition in 1962
- Flushing Meadows Park, Queens, New York City: Site of both the 1939 New York World's Fair and the 1964 New York World's Fair
- Montreal: Expo 67
- San Antonio: HemisFair '68
- Expo Commemoration Park, Osaka: Expo '70
- Riverfront Park, Spokane: Expo '74
- World's Fair Park, Knoxville: 1982 World's Fair
- Vancouver: Expo 86
- Brisbane: Expo '88: now represented with the South Bank Parklands
- Seville: Expo '92
- Daejeon (Taejŏn): Expo '93
- Lisbon: Expo '98 which was divided in several structures, namely Pavilhão Atlântico, Casino Lisboa, Oceanário and pt.
- Shanghai Expo Park: Expo 2010
Some pavilions have been moved overseas intact:
- The Argentinian Pavilion from the 1889 Paris was relocated to Buenos Aires, Argentina until its demolition in 1932.
- The Chilean Pavilion from 1889 Paris is now in Santiago, Chile and following significant refurbishment in 1992 functions as the Museo Artequin
- The Peruvian Pavilion from 1900 Paris is now in Lima, as home to the Military Academy of History.
- The Japanese Tower of the 1900 World's Fair in Paris was relocated to Laken (Brussels) on request of King Leopold II of Belgium.
- The Belgium Pavilion from the 1939 New York World's Fair was relocated to Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia.
- The USSR Pavilion from Expo 67 is now in Moscow.
- The Sanyo Pavilion from Expo '70 is the Asian Centre at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
- The Portugal Pavilion from Expo 2000 is now in Coimbra, Portugal.
- The United Arab Emirates Pavilion from Expo 2010 is now in Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi in UAE
The Brussels Expo '58 relocated many pavilions within Belgium: the pavilion of Jacques Chocolats moved to the town of Diest to house the new town swimming pool. Another pavilion was relocated to Willebroek and has been used as dance hall Carré ever since. One smaller pavilion still stands on the boulevard towards the Atomium: the restaurant "Salon 58" in the pavilion of Comptoir Tuilier.
Many exhibitions and rides created by Walt Disney and his WED Enterprises company for the 1964 New York World's Fair (which was held over into 1965) were moved to Disneyland after the closing of the Fair. Many of the rides, including "it's a small world", "Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln", and "Carousel of Progress" (since moved to the Walt Disney World Resort and updated), are still in operation.
Disney had contributed so many exhibits to the New York fair in part because the corporation had originally envisioned a "permanent World's Fair" at the Flushing site. That concept instead came to fruition with the Disney theme park Epcot, an extension of the Walt Disney World Resort, near Orlando, Florida. Epcot has many of the characteristics of a typical universal exposition: national pavilions, as well as exhibits concerning technology and/or the future, along with more typical amusement park rides. Meanwhile, several of the 1964 attractions, relocated to Disneyland, have been duplicated at the Walt Disney World Resort.
Occasionally other bits and pieces of the fairs remain. In the New York subway system, signs directing people to Flushing Meadows, Queens remain from the 1964–65 event. In the Montreal subway at least one tile artwork of its theme, "Man and His World", remains. Also, a seemingly endless supply of souvenir items from fair visits can be found, and in the United States, at least, can often be bought at garage or estate sales. Many of these events also produced postage stamps and commemorative coins. The 1904 Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in conjunction with the 1904 St. Louis fair, although no particular tie-in seems to have been made. (The 1900 Paris Exposition was also loosely tied to the Olympic Games.)
Current and future potential expositions
Several Canadian cities had been interested in 2017 as it is the year of Canada's 150th anniversary, or sesquicentennial. In 2007, a Vancouver, British Columbia based group (Expo 17 Inc) publicly unveiled a 51-page proposal to stage a sustainable "hybrid" expo in Montreal, consisting of an expo approved and recognized by the BIE, a horticultural expo, and a housing expo. Following a recent decision by Canadian Heritage which allows only the city of Edmonton, Alberta to bid for an expo, however, the group is now pursuing alternative events to mark Canada's sesquicentennial. Meanwhile, Edmonton had been actively developing a bid for Edmonton EXPO 2017 since 2008, but failed to receive Federal funding in support of it. In May 2009, Calgary announced to Canadian Heritage it would begin to develop a bid for 2017 as well, but withdrew in November 2009. Ottawa, Canada's capital city, had also considered bidding for 2017. As of November 2009, Edmonton was the only Canadian bidder.
Thessaloniki unsuccessfully bid for the 2008 World EXPO, this time won by Zaragoza in Spain; another planned bid for 2017 was announced in September 2006 and was in full development but they did not make a bid.
The bidding process for this larger sized exposition formally began in 2011, with five cities being selected to participate in the final round of votes:
- São Paulo, Brazil – the largest city in Brazil, the Americas and the Southern Hemisphere
- Yekaterinburg, the Russian capital of the Ural region
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates has placed a bid themed "Connecting Minds, Creating the Future".
- İzmir, Turkey – following a victory in a national competition with Ankara.[needs update]
Other participating cities and countries that were not selected for the final voting process to host Expo 2020, or did not submitted bids for consideration by the BIE:
- Ayutthaya was Thailand's official nomination to host World Expo 2020. The province was chosen and approved as Thailand's bid city to host World Expo 2020 by the Thai cabinet as the Prime Minister, Abhisit Vejjajiva, announced during the Shanghai World Expo 2010. Ayutthaya brought a bid under the theme "Redefine Globalisation – Balanced Life, Sustainable Living" concept when bidding on behalf of Thailand to be the host country. However, Thailand's bid was disqualified by the Bureau of International Expositions due to concerns that the bid did not have sufficient government support.
- The United States has had several citizen efforts directed at bringing a World's Fair to the country, even though it is not a member of the Bureau of International Expositions. These efforts included the following cities:
- Philippines did not bid for the Expo 2020 although Manila had been considered a possible contender under the theme "Manila, Celebrating Light and Life"
- Brisbane, Queensland, Australia also considered putting an official bid to host Expo 2020 but did not bid.
- Sydney, New South Wales, Australia has been quoted by media reports as another potential candidate for the Australian 2020 bid.
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- Findling, John E. and Kimberly D. Pelle, ed. Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions Jefferson, NC and London:McFarland, 2008.
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|Look up Expo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to World's Fairs.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for World's Fair.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: World's fair|
- ExpoBids.com, information about bids for future world's fairs
- ExpoMuseum, The Online World's Fair Museum
- ExpositionMedals, Award medals of American World's Fairs and Expos
- Expo FAQs Celebrate 88
- A lot of World's Fairs presented by a lot of photographs
- "Spin City". CNBC Business. April 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Exposition Posters". Paintings and Drawings. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2007-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "A Treasury of World's Fair Art and Architecture: A Digital Archive, 1851–1986". essays, images, virtual exhibits, postcards and ephemera. University of Maryland Libraries, Digital Collections. Retrieved 2007-12-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Burnham, Beaux-Arts, Plan of Chicago, & Fairs: Ryerson & Burnham Libraries: Archives Collection
- Alexander C.T. Geppert, Jean Coffey, Tammy Lau: International Exhibitions, Expositions Universelles and World's Fairs, 1851–1951. A Bibliography.
- Donald G. Larson Collection on International Expositions and Fairs, from the website of California State University, Fresno
- World's Fairs and the Landscapes of the Modern Metropolis Posters, photographs, pamphlets, commemorative books, maps, government reports, and ephemera from the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University