Yttrium(III) oxide

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Yttrium(III) oxide
Yttrium(III) oxide
IUPAC name
Yttrium(III) oxide.
Other names
diyttrium trioxide,
yttrium sesquioxide
1314-36-9 YesY
RTECS number ZG3850000
Molar mass 225.81 g/mol
Appearance White solid.
Density 5.010 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 2,425 °C (4,397 °F; 2,698 K)
Boiling point 4,300 °C (7,770 °F; 4,570 K)
Solubility in alcohol
Cubic (bixbyite), cI80[1]
Ia-3, No. 206
Vapor pressure {{{value}}}
Related compounds
Other cations
Scandium(III) oxide,
Lanthanum(III) oxide
Related compounds
Yttrium barium
copper oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3. It is an air-stable, white solid substance. Yttrium oxide is used as a common starting material for both materials science as well as inorganic compounds.


Materials science

It is the most important yttrium compound and is widely used to make Eu:YVO4 and Eu:Y2O3 phosphors that give the red color in color TV picture tubes. Yttrium oxide is also used to make yttrium iron garnets, which are very effective microwave filters.

Y2O3 is used to make the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7, known as "1-2-3" to indicate the ratio of the metal constituents:

2 Y2O3 + 8 BaO + 12 CuO + O2 → 4 YBa2Cu3O7

This synthesis is typically conducted at 800 °C.

The thermal conductivity of yttrium oxide is 27 W/(m·K).[2]

Inorganic synthesis

Yttrium oxide is an important starting point for inorganic compounds. For organometallic chemistry it is converted to YCl3 in a reaction with concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride.


Y2O3 is a prospective solid-state laser material. In particular, lasers with ytterbium as dopant allow the efficient operation both in continuous operation[3] and in pulsed regimes.[4] At high concentration of excitations (of order of 1%) and poor cooling, the quenching of emission at laser frequency and avalanche broadband emission takes place.[5]

Natural occurrence

Yttriaite-(Y), approved as a new mineral species in 2010, is the natural form of yttria. It is exceedingly rare, occurring as inclusions in native tungsten particles in a placer deposit of the Bol’shaja Pol’ja river, Prepolar Ural, Siberia. As a chemical component of other minerals, the oxide yttria was first isolated in 1789 by Johan Gadolin, from rare-earth minerals in a mine at the Swedish town of Ytterby, near Stockholm.[6]


  1. Yong-Nian Xu; Zhong-quan Gu; W. Y. Ching (1997). "Electronic, structural, and optical properties of crystalline yttria". Phys. Rev. B56 (23): 14993–15000. Bibcode:1997PhRvB..5614993X. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.56.14993. 
  2. P. H. Klein and W. J. Croft (1967). "Thermal conductivity , Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77-300 K". J. Appl. Phys. 38 (4): 1603. Bibcode:1967JAP....38.1603K. doi:10.1063/1.1709730. 
  3. J. Kong; D.Y.Tang; B. Zhao; J.Lu; K.Ueda; H.Yagi; T.Yanagitani (2005). "9.2-W diode-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser". Applied Physics Letters. 86 (16): 161116. Bibcode:2005ApPhL..86p1116K. doi:10.1063/1.1914958. 
  4. M.Tokurakawa; K.Takaichi; A.Shirakawa; K.Ueda; H.Yagi; T.Yanagitani; A.A. Kaminskii (2007). "Diode-pumped 188 fs mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser". Appl.Phys.Lett. 90 (7): 071101. Bibcode:2007ApPhL..90g1101T. doi:10.1063/1.2476385. 
  5. J.-F.Bisson; D.Kouznetsov; K.Ueda; S.T.Fredrich-Thornton; K.Petermann; G.Huber (2007). "Switching of emissivity and photoconductivity in highly doped Yb3+:Y2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics". Appl.Phys.Lett. 90 (20): 201901. Bibcode:2007ApPhL..90t1901B. doi:10.1063/1.2739318. 
  6. Mindat,

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