Yuri (genre)

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File:Shiroi00 cover1.jpg
Dealing with the romance between an "average blonde" and a "stately brunette" at a girls' boarding school, Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first yuri manga,[1] established archetypes that can be seen even in yuri works of the 2000s.[2]

Yuri (百合?, "lily"), also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu?),[3] is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving love between women in manga, anime, and related Japanese media.[4][5] Yuri focuses on the sexual orientation or the romantic orientation aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of which sometimes being called shōjo-ai by Western fandom.[6]

The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian fiction of the early twentieth century,[7][8] with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya.[9] Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda.[1] The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content.[10] In 2003, the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai, was launched, and this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, which was launched after the former was discontinued in 2004.[11][12]

Although yuri originated in female-targeted (shōjo, josei) works, today it is featured in male-targeted (shōnen, seinen) ones as well.[8] Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, which was launched in 2007.[13]

Definition and semantic drift

Etymology

The word yuri (百合?) literally means "lily", and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name.[4] In 1976, Bungaku Itō, editor of Barazoku (薔薇族?, lit. rose tribe), a magazine geared primarily towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku (百合族?, lit. lily tribe) in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya (百合族の部屋?, lit. lily tribe's room).[14] It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the term. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were necessarily lesbians, but some were and gradually an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan (アラン Aran?) began running a Yuri Tsūshin (百合通信?, "Lily Communication") personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate.[15] Along the way, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai (pornographic) dōjinshi, and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped.[6] Since then, the meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the intimate emotional connections between women.[16]

Japanese vs. Western usage

As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual or romantic; explicit or implied) in manga, anime, and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories primarily dealing with this content.[5][16] The wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu?), occasionally spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is also used with this meaning.[3][16] Yuri is generally a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005.[3][5] The term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is primarily used by the publishers.[16][17]

In North America, yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed primarily as a variety of hentai.[6] Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term already in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, Western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex.[6] In Japan, the term shōjo-ai (少女愛?, lit. girl love) is not used with this meaning,[6] and instead tends to denote pedophilia (actual or perceived), with a similar meaning to the term lolicon (Lolita complex).[18] The Western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s, picking up connotations from the Japanese use.[16] American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.[19][20]

Thematic history

Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya,[9] a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan.[21] Yoshiya was a pioneer in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre.[22] These kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death.[21] The root of this genre is in part the contemporary belief that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood.[23] Class S stories in particular tell of strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.[22]

Around the 1970s, yuri began to appear in shōjo manga,[1] presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century.[7] This early yuri generally features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, and a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end.[7] In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending.[24][25] Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship,[1] is a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s.[26] It is also in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism,[27] sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue.[28] These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works,[29] including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisama e..., and Claudine...![30] Some shōnen works of this period feature lesbian characters too, but these are mostly depicted as fanservice and comic relief.[31]

File:Hito-nana1.jpg
In general, manga from specialized yuri publications, such as Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo, display more explicit depictions of physical affection: from holding hands to kissing, and in some cases even sex scenes.

Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s:[10] manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni Akisato, published in 1992, began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics.[32] This stood side-by-side with dōjinshi works, which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor Moon,[33] the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian couple.[8][29] Furthermore, many of the people behind this show went on to make Revolutionary Girl Utena, a shōjo anime series where the main storyline focuses on a yuri relationship, which is widely regarded today as a masterpiece.[34] Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series, based on a homonym seinen manga by Go Nagai, began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too.[35] The first magazines specifically targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period, containing sections featuring yuri manga.[36] These stories range from high school crush to lesbian life and love, featuring different degrees of sexual content.[36][37] It is at this point (the mid-1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable.[29]

The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru, which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri novels.[38] This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya:[39] strong emotional bonds between females, mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic, like those portrayed in Class S.[39] Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama, active since the early 1990s, with works involving love stories among lesbians.[38]

Around the early 2000s, the first magazines specifically dedicated to yuri manga were launched,[11][12] containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful, to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in First Love Sisters,[40] and realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no Jōken.[41] Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well,[42][43] sometimes in combination with other themes, including mecha and science fiction.[44][45] Examples include series such as Kannazuki no Miko, Blue Drop, and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl. In addition, male-targeted stories tend to make extensive use of moe and bishōjo characterizations.[13]

Publications

File:Yuri Shimai Autumn 2004 cover.jpg
Cover of the autumn 2004 issue of Yuri Shimai, illustrated by Reine Hibiki, the illustrator for the yuri light novel series Maria-sama ga Miteru.

Sun Magazine published the yuri manga anthology magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November 2004 in quarterly installments, ending with only five issues.[11] After the magazine's discontinuation, Comic Yuri Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival of the magazine,[5] containing manga by many of the authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai.[12] Like its predecessor, Comic Yuri Hime is also published quarterly.[12] A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication by Ichijinsha in June 2007.[46] Unlike either Yuri Shimai or Comic Yuri Hime, Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a male audience.[13] Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri novels under their shōjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko Iris, scheduled to begin on July 19, 2008.[47] Some Japanese lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections, including the now-defunct magazines Anise (1996–97, 2001–03) and Phryné (1995).[36] Carmilla, an erotic lesbian publication,[36] released an anthology of lesbian manga called Girl's Only.[48] Additionally, Mist (1996–99), a ladies' comic manga magazine, contained sexually explicit lesbian-themed manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest topics.[36]

The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC Publishing.[49] Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?—which in 2006 was course material for Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University[50][51]—and their annual yuri manga anthology Yuri Monogatari; both were first released in 2003.[49] The latter collects stories by American, European, and Japanese creators, including Akiko Morishima, Althea Keaton, Kristina Kolhi, Tomomi Nakasora, and Eriko Tadeno.[52][53] These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming out and sexual orientation.[53] Besides ALC Publishing, the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also incurred in the genre, with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga and the Strawberry Panic! light novels.[20] On October 24, 2006, Seven Seas announced the launch of their specialized yuri manga line, which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga, The Last Uniform,[20] and Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.[40]

Yuri series

These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. The first list shows series in which interpersonal attraction between females and/or lesbian themes or tropes play a central role in their storylines; most of which are labeled by publishers as yuri. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief, as fanservice, subtext, or for character development in a larger, sometimes unrelated context; these are generally recognized by the fandom as to contain prevalent elements of yuri (even if the series is not marketed as such).

Yuri as a central element

Yuri as a secondary element

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 1)". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2008-01-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Friedman, Erica (2006-06-27). "Yuri Manga: Maya's Funeral Procession / Maya no Souretsu". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Morishima, Akiko (January 2008). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (11). ASIN B00120LP56. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 Charlton, Sabdha. "Yuri Fandom on the Internet". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Query Wayback Bibalex Wayback WebCite Wikiwix
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Joseidōshi no LOVE wo egaita, danshi kinsei no "Yuri būmu" gayattekuru!?" (in Japanese). Cyzo. Retrieved 2008-03-21. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Friedman, Erica. "What is Yuri?". What are Yuri and Shoujoai, anyway?. Yuricon and ALC Publishing. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005. Retrieved 20 May 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Fujimoto, Yukari (1998). Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo. ISBN 4-313-87011-3. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-03-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tsuchiya, Hiromi (March 9–12, 2000). "Yoshiya Nobuko's Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and Feminism". Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese Culture. San Diego, CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting. Archived from the original on 2001-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2008-02-16. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Sources: Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? by Yukari Fujimoto (ISBN 4313870113), Otoko Rashisa to Iu Byōki? Pop-Culture no Shin Danseigaku by Kazuo Kumada (ISBN 4833110679), and Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (ISBN 978-4860110345).
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Yuri Shimai". ComiPedia. Retrieved 2008-01-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Comic Yuri Hime". ComiPedia. Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2015-04-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Ichijinsha's info about Comic Yuri Hime S" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-03. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Yurizoku no heya (lily tribe's room)". Barazoku (Rose tribe) (in Japanese): 66–70. November 1976. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>After this first column, Yurizoku no heya appeared sporadically through the mid-1980s.
  15. Welker, James (2008). "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". In Fran Martin, Peter Jackson, Audrey Yue. AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. University of Illinois Press. pp. 46–66. ISBN 978-0-252-07507-0. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 1)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-05-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Comic Yuri Hime official website" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-19. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Ichijinsha classifies their yuri manga publication Comic Yuri Hime as a "Girls Love" comic magazine.
  18. Miyajima, Kagami (April 4, 2005). Shōjo-ai (in Japanese). Sakuhinsha. ISBN 4-86182-031-6. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "ALC Publishing". Yuricon. Retrieved 2011-12-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Query Wayback Bibalex Wayback WebCite Wikiwix
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  21. 21.0 21.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  22. 22.0 22.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  23. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
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  25. Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. 26.0 26.1 Welker, James (2006). "Drawing Out Lesbians: Blurred Representations of Lesbian Desire in Shōjo Manga". In Chandra, Subhash. Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory, Literature, Cinema. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. ISBN 81-8424-075-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Thorn, Matt. "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-10-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Subramian, Erin. "Women-loving Women in Modern Japan". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Query Wayback Bibalex Wayback WebCite Wikiwix
  30. 30.0 30.1 Corson, Suzanne (2007). "Yuricon Celebrates Lesbian Anime and Manga". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2007-05-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Ebiharai, Akiko (2002). "Japan's Feminist Fabulation: Reading Marginal with Unisex Reproduction as a Key Concept". Genders Journal (36). Retrieved 2015-04-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. 32.00 32.01 32.02 32.03 32.04 32.05 32.06 32.07 32.08 32.09 32.10 "Shōjo Yuri Manga Guide". Yuricon. Retrieved June 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Hayama, Torakichi. "What is Doujin?". Akiba Angels. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 34.9 Friedman, Erica (2007). "Erica Friedman's Guide to Yuri". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2007-11-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Huxley, John. "The Devil Lady Review". Anime Boredom. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. Retrieved 2015-04-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  37. "ALC Publishing announces yuri manga Works by Eriko Tadeno". Active Anime. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-02-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Works by Eriko Tadeno is an anthology of four stories and three short gag comics that were originally published in Phryné, Anise and Mist magazines.
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    "Fairy Tale Fantasy Anime "Angel's Drop" to Begin Broadcasting This Month". Tokyo Otaku Mode (media company). Retrieved 2015-03-29. The is a yuri anime that interweaves various elements of fetishism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  64. "Flower Tales (花物語) Manga Guest Review by Michelle W." Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. ...Yoshiya Nobuko's Taisho-era (1912-1926) work …almost 100 years later, Ozawa Mari turned fourteen of these stories into a manga by the same name. … Squee! No, seriously, this manga sounds just fantastic.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Short Story: Yoshiya Nobuko's Yellow Rose (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. …Yoshiya Nobuko's Yellow Rose (黄薔薇) from her Hana Monogatari collection.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Friedman, Erica (2008-02-08). "Yuri Manga: Girl Friends, Volume 1". Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – January 21, 2012".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> , "Yuri Network News – January 28, 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-27. Yuri Anime …<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Official anime site, 第5話--第6話 contains screenshots of some yuri-scenes" (in Japanese). CAMMOT Animation Project. Retrieved 2015-03-27. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "New ecchi-yuri anime in 2012" (in Chinese). VeryCD and 178.com. Retrieved 2015-03-27. 工口满载百合漫《极乐园女子高寮物语》[Ecchi-yuri anime Gokurakuin Joshikōryō Monogatari] <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. The writing is stellar, the art is captivating, the story is compelling, raw, horrible and beautiful.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri of 2009". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. It'’s dark, it's ugly, it's violent and dysfunctional… Gunjo is my absolute Best Yuri of 2009…and possibly, Ever.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri of 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. GUNJO is not the third best thing I've read this year, it is the very best thing I have ever read.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri of 2012".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Yuri Manga: Hanjuku Joshi, Volume 1". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. I stated that I thought that this book might well be the most perfect “Yuri” manga I'd ever seen.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Yuri Manga; Hanjuku Joshi, Volume 2". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. Morishima has actually written a story that covers that last little piece – the gap between lesbian content and lesbian identity.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Haru Natsu Aki Fuyu".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Yuri Mini-Drama CD: Haru Natsu Aki Fuyu".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  70. "HEN 1" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved May 25, 2014. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "Inugami-san to Nekoyama-san Yuri Manga Gets Anime". Anime News Network. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "Iono the Fanatics" (in Japanese). MooNPhase. Archived from the original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2008-01-27. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Kuttsukiboshi OVA's Part 2 Trailer Reveals Date". Animekon. March 21, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. 74.0 74.1 Yuri Hime editorial department, ed. (2008). "Yuri Works Catalog". Yuri Works File (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ichijinsha. ISBN 978-4-7580-7015-7. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Love Vibes". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. Love Vibes by Sakurazawa Erica from 1996, is classic Yuri that does not suck.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Live-Action Movie: Kakera, A Piece of Our Lives". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. ...a live-action adaptation of Sakurazawa Erika’s Love Vibes manga.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Media Blasters Adds Kishi's Maka-Maka Color Yuri Manga". Anime News Network. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-06-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Hairston, Marc (2006). "The Yin and Yang of Schoolgirl Experiences: Maria-sama ga miteru and Azumanga Daioh". Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts. 1: 177–180. Retrieved 2008-04-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "Yuri Manga: Octave Volume 1". Okazu. October 29, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 3, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. Erm, "Yuri Spirits on the Roof." Cute art…<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 Friedman, Erica; members of the Yuricon Mailing List. "Yuri 101". Yuricon. Retrieved 2007-11-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Query Wayback Bibalex Wayback WebCite Wikiwix
  81. Friedman, Erica (May 30, 2011). "Revolutionary Girl Utena Anime Box Set – Disk 1 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved May 5, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Yuri romance is strongly implied<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Riddle Story of a Devil (English) End of Season Review".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "…兎角が晴の百合キスでデレる [Tokaku is embarrassed by Haru's yuri kiss]" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Tachi's Yuri 4-panel Manga Sakura Trick Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2013-08-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "Yuri Game: Sapphism no Gensou, Guest Review by Mara". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. …this game does have some greatness that is not totally obscured by the crap that makes up the rest.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. "Sasameki Koto Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime Green-Lit". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Friedman, Erica. "Shōjo Sect". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. その花びらにくちづけを (in Japanese). a1c. Retrieved March 24, 2013. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Lau, Enoch. "Steel Angel Kurumi 2 Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Chavez, Eduardo M. "Stray Little Devil Vol 4 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-01-07. SLD is unorthodox in the way it almost has created a yuri story in the realm of knight and wizard filled fantasy.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Takako Shimura's Aoi Hana Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-03-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  92. Thompson, Jason. "Tokyo Love ~ Rica 'tte Kanji!?". Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-04-07. Rica 'tte Kanji, possibly THE best lesbian-themed (Yuri) manga in English<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. "Tokyo Love ~ Rica 'tte Kanji!?" named a "Best Manga for Grownups" at Comic-Con<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri of 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 1) Fu~Fu... For teaching lessons about lesbian couples to an audience that doesn't much care, in the most charming of all possible ways…<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Tiu, Diane. "Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. ゆるゆり (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved April 5, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "Yuri Manga Yurikuma Arashi Volume 1". Okazu. January 25, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "Official manga site is hosting a trial version of manga's part" (in Japanese). Dengeki Comics EX (Kadokawa Corporation). Retrieved 2015-03-30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Yuri Seijin Naoko-san Manga Gets Anime". ANN. Retrieved 2015-03-30. …Naoko-san, the strange alien from Yuri-sei (Yuri Planet) who loves eroticism, yuri, and girls.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News: July 14, 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. There is some mild Yuri in the series – it’s all gags and nosebleeds, mostly.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. ".hack//Sign Review". CAA: Christian Anime Alliance. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-12-05. During the anime the characters Tsukasa and Subaru fall in love. (...) Later on in the series it’s learned that Tsukasa is a girl ([at first] Tsukasa doesn't even know this because his memory was fragmented ever since he was confined in the world). But when they do find out, Subaru does still seem to have feelings for him/her.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. Friedman, Erica. "Aim for the Ace". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Tolentino, Josh. "Japanator's Spring 2011 Preview: Part 1. A Channel". Japanator.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. … with subtle (and not-so-subtle) lesbian undertones<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. "Agent Aika Final Battle Review". DVD Vision Japan. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2009-07-28. We do get two pairs of women kissing, but it's not what you are hoping for. One kiss between the two Delmo leaders is almost all off camera. The other is Aika kissing a woman she thinks is a man.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Beard, Jeremy A. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, Tucker, Derrick L. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri News This Week – June 14, 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 3)". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2008-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "Yuri elements in ep. 7" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – October 22, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Yuri Anime …<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-02. That Hana is so obsessed with aggressive, exploitive BL and yet resistant to the yuri analog to what she is writing…<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. Friedman, Erica (April 18, 2007). "Yuri Anime: Best Student Council, Volume 1". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-05-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "Bodacious Space Pirates 2 Anime, Disk 1 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. a perfect Yuri couple... Jenny makes a lovely princess to Lynn’s prince. ^_^<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Bodacious Space Pirates 2 Anime, Disk 2 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  114. Crocker, Janet. "Cosplay Complex Review". Animefringe. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Jenny, a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. Fukuda, Mitsuo. "「クロスアンジュ 天使と竜の輪舞(ロンド)」 クリスマス・ファンミーティング♪" [Creative producer of Cross Ange Fukuda has given an interview at Fanmeeting] (in Japanese). Retrieved March 21, 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Text of interview" (in Japanese). The Funnel. Retrieved March 21, 2015. レズシーンは入れる [I put lesbian scenes] <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Hard yuri sex in ep. 2" (in Japanese). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "Lesbian play (in Zola's yuri harem) in ep. 4" (in Japanese). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "Lesbian play in ep. 18" (in Japanese). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "Yuri love confession and yuri kiss in ep. 23" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-09. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "Yuri Anime: Doki Doki School Hours, Volume 3".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Yuri Anime: Doki Doki School Hours, Volume 4".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "...イリヤと美遊、とっても仲良し(百合的に)!" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. …レズレズじゃのう。... 百合百合じゃのう! <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  127. Gilvear, Kevin. "Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-12-03. Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4, and thus we get another character insight when we learn that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. Beveridge, Chris. "Godannar Vol. #5 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. "Interview with CVs, Kotobuki's words about yuri" (in Japanese). Famitsu.com (Kadokawa Corporation). Retrieved 2015-04-19. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  136. Jones, Davey C. "Ikki Tousen The Complete Thinpack Collection". Active Anime. Retrieved 2007-11-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Query Wayback Bibalex Wayback WebCite Wikiwix
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    "Review (anime)". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-19. Once you throw in the predatory lesbian Nobara, a fair amount of innuendo-laden speech (principally from Zange) and the S&M maniac Kagerou it becomes apparent that the show isn't for kids.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  138. Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2010".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2012".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Jormungand Perfect Order Anime Guest Review by Mara".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> "Jormungand Anime (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. Yuri – Valmet is in love/lust with Koko<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Eternal Alice Rondo, Volume 2 (English)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "Yuri Manga: Eternal Alice Rondo, Volume 3 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    Alexander, Matthew. "Key Princess Story: Eternal Alice Rondo Vol. #03".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, "Key Princess Story: Eternal Alice Rondo Vol. #04". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "...百合風呂[Yuri bath]" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  145. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – April 12, 2014". Okazu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. Yuri Anime; YNN Correspondent Vivi C.is excited to let you know that school life anime Kiniro Mosaic is getting a sequel<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    "メインキャストコメント [with Tōyama's and Nitta's words about yuri love between Naichan and Gacchan)]" (in Japanese). MoCa News (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. Tōyama: school, battle, history, love, friendship,… Yuri! So many elements... [translated] <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. "Lady Snowblood Review". RPGnet. Retrieved 2008-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  152. "Maria Holic Manga Confirmed to Get TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. "Maze TV". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2009-07-26. Solude is exactly like Fuuko-chan from Flame of Recca (or heck, Asagiri Priss, weaponry-wise), with the lesbian bent of Akane from KOR.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  156. Friedman, Erica. "Myself:Yourself Anime". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. The Yuri in Myself;Yourself begins in episode nine with some meaningful looks and is fully revealed in episode eleven.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  157. Divers, Allen. "Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-11-28. Yes, this show is full of panty shots, upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  162. Friedman, Erica. "Mawaru Penguindrum (輪るピングドラム) Anime".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top (?) Ten Yuri Anime of 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. While not technically *better* than Utena, Mawaru Penguindrum is new, is just as compelling and is wholly, uniquely Ikuhara... He’s not afraid to consciously embrace Yuri tropes like predatory lesbians, Takarazuka, Rose of Versailles and then stand them on their heads in a way that actually makes the series more interesting...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. Anderson, Matthew. "Project Ako Review". DVD Vision Japan. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. Retrieved 2015-04-04. Yes, Bko is a lesbian, in love with Cko, and all of the people on the ship were women.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. Friedman, Erica. "Psycho-Pass Anime (English)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Psycho-Pass Anime (English) End of Series Review".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Psycho-Pass 2 Anime, Guest Review by Katherine H".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2013". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. Technically, this series is a "Snatches of Yuri" series... But in the middle of intense psychological drama, horror and violence – the lesbian couple live happily ever after.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  165. Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 17, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2011-11-17. Yuri Anime; The English dubbed trailer for the Mahou Shoujo Madoka Magica anime release is up for your viewing pleasure.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. Smith, Lesley. "Puni Puni Poemy Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Further reading