Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham

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Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham (literally "the resthouse of the mother of vultures")[1] is located on the North coast of Egypt 20 km to the west of Marsa Matruh, and about 300 km to the west of Alexandria[2]

During the reign of Ramesses II, it was the location of a major fortress-town which probably marked the western extent of direct Egyptian influence.[3]

It was discovered in 1948 and in the subsequent years was sporadically examined by Alan Rowe and Labib Habachi. Since 1994 extensive excavations have been undertaken at the site by a team from the University of Liverpool under the direction of Steven Snape.[3]


  1. "Trade secrets uncovered at the 'rest house of the mother of vultures'". Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  2. "Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham". Archived from the original on 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Finding a lost civilisation". Retrieved 2008-09-27. 

Further reading

  • S. Snape & P. Wilson Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham I: The Temple and Chapels (Rutherford Press, Bolton: 2007)
  • L. Habachi: The Military Posts of Ramesses II on the Coastal Road and the Western Part of the Delta, in: BIFAO 80 (1980), S. 13-30
  • S. R. Snape: Walls, Wells and Wandering Merchants: Egyptian Control of the Marmarica in the Late Bronze Age in: C.J. Eyre (Hrsg.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists, Leuven 1998, S. 1081-84
  • S. R. Snape: The excavations of the Liverpool University Mission to Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham 1994-2001, in: ASAE 78 (2004), S. 149-160, Kairo.

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