Guru Ram Das

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Guru Ram Das
ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮਦਾਸ
Guru Ram Das
Opaque watercolour on paper c 1800
Government Museum, Chandigarh
Born Bhai Jetha
9 October 1534 (1534-10-09)
Chuna Mandi, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Died September 1, 1581 (1581-10) (aged 46)
Goindval, India
Other names The Fourth Master
Occupation Guru
Years active 1574–1581
Known for Founded the city of Amritsar
Predecessor Guru Amar Das
Successor Guru Arjan
Spouse(s) Bibi Bhani
Children Baba Prithi Chand, Baba Mahan Dev, and Guru Arjan
Parent(s) Hari Das and Mata Anup Devi

Guru Ram Das ([ɡʊru ɾɑm dɑs]; 1534–1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 30 August 1574. He was Guru for seven years. Ram Das was born in Chuna Mandi Lahore, Punjab on 24 September 1534. His father was Hari Das and his mother Anup Devi(Daya Kaur). His wife was Bibi Bhani, the younger daughter of Guru Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Guru Arjan.

His father-in-law, Guru Amar Das, was third of the Ten Gurus. Guru Ram Das became guru on 1 September and was guru for 7 years.


As a Guru, one of his main contributions to Sikhism was organizing the structure of Sikh society. Additionally, he was the author of Laava, the four hymns of the Sikh Marriage Rites. He was planner and creator of the township of Ramdaspur which became the Sikh holy city of Amritsar. He founded it in 1574 on land he bought for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to the new place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das). In Amritsar, he designed the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, which translates as "The Abode of God" also known as the Darbaar sahib.

There are 688 Hymns by Guru Ram Das which have various teachings for Sikhs—that are in the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh supreme granth

one of which can be found on page 305 as follows

— Bani of Guru Ram Das Guruf on Sadhu People and Pilgrimage Bath.

Guru's Bani is also part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs.

Anand Karaj: Sikh marriage ceremony

The standard Sikh marriage ceremony known as the Anand Karaj is centered on a four-stanza hymn composed by Guru Ram Das. During the marriage ceremony the couple circumscribe the Guru Granth Sahib as each stanza of the Lawan is read. The first round is the Divine consent for commencing the householders life through marriage. The second round states that the union of the couple has been brought about by God. In the third round the couple is described as the most fortunate as they have sung the praises of the Lord in the company of saints. In the fourth round the feeling of the couple that they have obtained their hearts' desire and are being congratulated is described.


Guru Ram Das composed a beautiful bani called Laavan about the meaning of marriage to a Sikh couple. Effectively, the Guru defines a Sikh marriage as a spiritual union in these two lines: "They are not said to be husband and wife who merely sit together. Rather they alone are called husband and wife, who have one soul in two bodies."


Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in the city of Amritsar, Punjab.


External links

Preceded by
Guru Amar Das
Sikh Guru
1 September 1574 – 1 September 1581
Succeeded by
Guru Arjan