Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

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MRI of brain and brain stem
Diagnostics
Brain Mri nevit.svg
Brain MRI
ICD-10-PCS [1]
ICD-9-CM 88.91
OPS-301 code 3-800, 3-820
[[[d:Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 863: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).|edit on Wikidata]]]

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nervous system uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of nervous system structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers.

History

The first MR images of a human brain were obtained in 1978 by two groups of researchers at EMI Laboratories led by Ian Robert Young and Hugh Clow.[1] In 1986, Charles L. Dumoulin and Howard R. Hart at General Electric developed MR angiography[2] and Denis Le Bihan, obtained the first images and later patented diffusion MRI.[3] In 1990, Seiji Ogawa at AT&T Bell labs recognized that oxygen-depleted blood with dHb was attracted to a magnetic field, and discovered the technique that underlies Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).[4] In 1997, Jürgen R. Reichenbach, E. Mark Haacke and coworkers at Washington University developed Susceptibility weighted imaging.[5] The first study of the human brain at 3.0 T was published in 1994,[6] and in 1998 at 8 T.[7] Studies of the human brain have been performed at up to 9.4 T.[8]

This axial T2-weighted MR image shows a normal brain at the level of the lateral ventricles.

Applications

One advantage of MRI of the brain over computed tomography of the head is better tissue contrast,[9] and it has fewer artifacts than CT when viewing the brainstem. MRI is also superior for pituitary imaging.[10] It may however be less effective at identifying early cerebritis.[11]

In the case of a concussion, an MRI should be avoided unless there are progressive neurological symptoms, focal neurological findings or concern of skull fracture on exam.[12]

In analysis of the fetal brain, MRI provides more information about gyration than ultrasound.[13]

A number of different imaging modes can be used with imaging the nervous system:

See also

Gallery

References

  1. "Britain's brains produce first NMR scans". New Scientist: 588. 1978.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Blood-flow checker". Popular Science: 12. 1987.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Le Bihan, D; Breton E. (1987). "Method to Measure the Molecular Diffusion and/or Perfusion Parameters of Live Tissue". US Patent # 4,809,701.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Faro, Scott H.; Mohamed, Feroze B (2010-01-15). Bold fMRI. a guide to functional imaging for neuroscientists. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-1328-9. Retrieved 10 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  6. Mansfield P, Coxon R, Glover P (May 1994). "Echo-planar imaging of the brain at 3.0: first normal volunteer results". J Comput Assist Tomogr. 18 (3): 339–43. PMID 8188896.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  8. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  9. Ebel, Klaus-Dietrich; Benz-Bohm, Gabriele (1999). Differential diagnosis in pediatric radiology. Thieme. pp. 538–. ISBN 978-3-13-108131-5. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Bradley, William G.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Cambray-Forker, Jane (2001-01-15). MRI of the brain. Surendra Kumar. ISBN 978-0-7817-2568-2. Retrieved 24 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Roos, Karen L.; Tunkel, Allan R. (2010). Bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-0-444-52015-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (24 April 2014), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, retrieved 29 July 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Garel, Cathérine (2004). MRI of the fetal brain: normal development and cerebral pathologies. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-40747-8. Retrieved 24 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Butler, Paul; Mitchell, Adam W. M.; Ellis, Harold (2007-11-19). Applied Radiological Anatomy for Medical Students. Cambridge University Press. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-521-81939-8. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Tofts, Paul (2005-09-01). Quantitative MRI of the Brain: Measuring Changes Caused by Disease. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-470-86949-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Chowdhury, Rajat; Wilson, Iain; Rofe, Christopher; Lloyd-Jones, Graham (2010-04-19). Radiology at a Glance. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-1-4051-9220-0. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Granacher, Robert P. (2007-12-20). Traumatic brain injury: methods for clinical and forensic neuropsychiatric assessment. CRC Press. pp. 247–. ISBN 978-0-8493-8138-6. Retrieved 18 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>