Ofer Biham

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The Biham–Middleton–Levine traffic model, named after Ofer Biham, Alan Middleton, and Dov Levine.

Ofer Biham is a faculty member at The Racah Institute of Physics of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. Biham received his Ph.D. for research on quasiperiodic systems at the Weizmann Institute of Science, under the supervision of Prof. David Mukamel.

In later years, Biham was involved in the development of methods for the calculation of unstable periodic orbits in chaotic systems, models for efficient simulations of traffic flow and quantum computation.

The focus of Biham's current research is on the development of computational methodologies for the simulation of stochastic processes in interstellar chemistry and in genetic networks. Biham is known for the Biham–Middleton–Levine traffic model, which is possibly the simplest model containing phase transitions and self-organization.


  • Ofer, Biham "Molecular Hydrogen Formation on Ice Under Interstellar Conditions". The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 627, Issue 2, pp. 850–860.
  • Ofer, Biham "Self-organization and a dynamical transition in traffic-flow models". Physical Review A (Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics), Volume 46, Issue 10, November 15, 1992, pp. R6124–R6127.
  • Ofer, Biham "Characterization of unstable periodic orbits in chaotic attractors and repellers". Physical Review Letters (ISSN 0031-9007), vol. 63, Aug. 21, 1989, p. 819–822.
  • Ofer, Biham "Genetic Toggle Switch without Cooperative Binding". Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, Issue 18, id. 188101

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