Antifaschistische Aktion, Antifascistische Aktie or Antifascistisk Aktion — abbreviated as Antifa (German/Dutch) or AFA (Scandinavian) — is a militant extremist extra-parliamentary network in Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and other countries, whose stated goal is to "smash fascism in all its forms". Some of its members are influenced by the theory of triple oppression; its members oppose sexism, racism and classism. The point of the organization is to exchange information and to coordinate activities between local groups.
The group's activities have included handing out flyers, organizing demonstrations and engaging in direct action. They believe that physical aggression is inevitable in the struggle against fascism: in their opinion, fascists should either conform or be killed. In line with their ideology, and as a consequence of being constantly monitored by the police, the group has no central authority. This means it has a flat organization consisting of many independent groupings, without a board or leader. AFA works with other anti-racist groups all over Europe. It is also described as a heterogeneous group which in the 1940s was mostly made up of social democrats, communists, as well as progressive Christians.
The first German movement to call itself Antifaschistische Aktion was proclaimed by the German Communist Party (KPD) in their newspaper Rote Fahne in 1932 and had its first rally in Berlin 10 July 1932. May 1932 the communist paramilitary organisation Rotfrontkämpferbund had been banned and after a fight between Nazi and Communist members of parliament the Antifaschistische Aktion was created to ensure that the communists could have a militant organisation to rival the paramilitary organisations of the Nazis. After a forceful dissolution by the Nazis in 1933, the movement was revived during the 1980s.
One of the biggest antifascist campaigns in Germany in recent years was the, ultimately successful, effort to block the annual Nazi-marches in the eastern German city of Dresden which had become "Europe's biggest gathering of Nazis".
Antifascistisk Aktion (AFA) was founded in Sweden in 1993. Their Activity Guide advocates violence against neo-Nazis. AFA members have admitted to arson by timed firebombs, and have pleaded guilty to burning the Tråvad spinnery in 2005. In January 2006, Swedish AFA members attacked the Norrköping immigration office and threatened officials. In June 2006, AFA members broke windows of an estate of the Christian Democrats in Kalmar. In October 2006, AFA members threatened to block a municipal council meeting in Gothenburg, because the Sweden Democrats had been elected to the council.
In July 2007, AFA members threatened and attacked an immigration judge in Gothenburg. The judge's front door was hit with an axe, and the house was vandalized with red spraypaint. Personal information about the judge and other judges was posted in the Internet. On 7 March 2008, Säpo, the Swedish security police agency, reported that AFA or people using its symbols constantly threaten municipal and provincial elected council members. In August 2008, AFA members spread announcements in Uppsala with the name and image of an opponent, encouraging people to attack him. For this, AFA promised to pay 500 Swedish kronor and a free "knogjärn" (knuckle duster). In February 2009, AFA members attacked the National Democrats politician Vávra Suk. The police called it an attempted murder.
Some in the mainstream media have called Swedish AFA left extremists. An editorial in the tabloid newspaper Expressen argued that the label 'anti-fascist' was misleading, because of the organization's methods, such as stealing the subscriber list of the National Democrats newspaper, and threatening the subscribers. Other critics say the group does not respect freedom of speech, because some members have attacked right-wing nationalists.
Logo of Antifaschistische Aktion (1930s) (Germany)
Toilet brush symbol adopted for the Hamburg protests (Antifaschistische Aktion (Germany))
Anti-Fascistische Aktie (logo).svg
Logo of Antifascistische Aktie (Netherlands)
Logo of Sicilia Antifascista (Sicily)
Logo of Action Antifasciste Marseille (Marseille)
Logo of Union Antifasciste Toulousaine (Toulouse)
Logo of Action Antifasciste 06 (France)
Logo of Action Antifasciste 04 (France)
Logo of Antifascistisk Aksjon (Norway)
Logo of Antifa London (London)
Logo of Akcja Antyfaszystowska (Poland)
Logo of Kampania Antyfaszystowska (Poland)
Logo of Acción Antifascista (Spain)
Logo of Antispeciesism
Logo of Acció Antifeixista Països Catalans (Catalan Countries).jpg
Logo of Acció Antifeixista Països Catalans (Catalan Countries)
- antifa.se - Antifascistisk Aktion Sverige
- (Swedish) AFA Lokalgrupper
- (Swedish) AFA Presentation, Plattform
- Pritchard, Gareth (2012). Niemandsland: A History of Unoccupied Germany, 1944-1945. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 110701350X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- (Swedish) AFA - Aktivitetsguide för antifascister, Antifa.se, 2004, pp. 9-11
- "Afa riktar ilska mot Migrationsverket" (in Swedish). 1 January 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Afa tar på sig mordbrand på nazistgård" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. 28 December 2005. Retrieved 26 November 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- (Swedish) Afa riktar ilska mot Migrationsverket SVT 10 januari 2006.
- (Swedish) Slåss med knogjärn Aftonbladet 13.9.2009.
- (Swedish) Aktivister försökte stoppa möte med Sverigedemokrat DN 2 november 2006.
- (Swedish) Migration judge threatened by extremists
- (Swedish) Domare som utvisat irakier attackerades Dagens Nyheter 31 juli 2007.
- (Swedish) Hot mot förtroendevalda ny rapport Säpo 7 November 2008.
- (Swedish) http://www.svt.se/svt/jsp/Crosslink.jsp?d=22620&a=1221280&lid=puff_1221455&lpos=rubrik Ruotsin TV
- (Swedish) Expressen: Afa tar på sig våld mot ND-politiker
- (Swedish) http://svt.se/2.33538/1.1750213/polisen_afa_bakom_upplopp_i_fittja&from=rss?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Svtse-NyheterABC+%28svt.se+-+Nyheter+ABC%29
- (Swedish) http://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/article5784027.ab
- (Swedish) http://www.expressen.se/ledare/1.1466908/090215-stoppa-afa
- "Vänsterextrema infiltrerade IOGT-NTO" (in svenska). Svenska Dagbladet. 7 September 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>