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Childhood's End

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Childhood's End
Cover of first edition hardcover
Author Arthur C. Clarke
Cover artist Richard M. Powers
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre Science fiction
Publisher Ballantine Books
Publication date
Media type Print (hardcover and paperback)
Pages 214 pp
ISBN 0-345-34795-1
OCLC 36566890

Childhood's End is a 1953 science fiction novel by the British author Arthur C. Clarke. The story follows the peaceful alien invasion[1] of Earth by the mysterious Overlords, whose arrival begins decades of apparent utopia under indirect alien rule, at the cost of human identity and culture.

Clarke's idea for the book began with his short story "Guardian Angel" (1946), which he expanded into a novel in 1952, incorporating it as the first part of the book, "Earth and the Overlords". Completed and published in 1953, Childhood's End sold out its first printing, received good reviews, and became Clarke's first successful novel. The book is often regarded by both readers and critics as Clarke's best novel,[2] and is described as "a classic of alien literature".[3] Along with The Songs of Distant Earth (1986), Clarke considered Childhood's End one of his favourite own novels.[4] The novel was nominated for the Retro Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2004. It also correctly predicted a "Space Race" between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Several attempts to adapt the novel into a film or miniseries have been made with varying levels of success. Director Stanley Kubrick expressed interest in the 1960s, but collaborated with Clarke on 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) instead. The novel's theme of transcendent evolution also appears in Clarke's Space Odyssey series, and compared to earlier work by British author Olaf Stapledon. In 1997, the BBC produced a two-hour radio dramatization of Childhood's End that was adapted by Tony Mulholland. The Syfy Channel produced a three-part, six-hour television mini-series of Childhood's End, which was broadcast on December 14–16, 2015.

Plot summary

The novel is divided into three parts, following a third-person omniscient narrative with no main character.[5]

Earth and the Overlords

In the late 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union are competing to launch the first spaceship into orbit, for military purposes. When vast alien spaceships suddenly position themselves above Earth's principal cities, the space race ceases. After one week, the aliens announce they are assuming supervision of international affairs, to prevent humanity's extinction, under the name of Overlords. They interfere only twice: in South Africa, where sometime before their arrival Apartheid had collapsed and was replaced with savage persecution of the white minority; and in Spain, where they put an end to bull fighting. Some humans are suspicious of the Overlords' benign intent, as they never visibly appear. Overlord Karellen, the "Supervisor for Earth," speaks directly only to Rikki Stormgren, the UN Secretary-General, whom he tells that the Overlords will reveal themselves in 50 years, when humanity will have become used to their presence. Stormgren smuggles a device onto Karellen's ship in an attempt to see Karellen's true form. He succeeds, is shocked, and chooses to keep silent.

The Golden Age

Men called them Overlords
They had come from outer space—
they had brought peace
and prosperity to Earth
But then the change began.
It appeared first in the children
—frightening, incomprehensible.
Now the Overlords made their announcement:
This was to be the first step
in the elimination of the human race
and the beginning of—What?

—Original back cover quote, paperback edition

Humankind enters a golden age of prosperity at the expense of creativity. Five decades after their arrival the Overlords reveal their appearance, resembling the traditional Christian folk images of demons: large bipeds with cloven hooves, leathery wings, horns, and tails. The Overlords are interested in psychic research, which humans suppose is part of their anthropological study. Rupert Boyce, a prolific book collector on the subject, allows one Overlord, Rashaverak, to study these books at his home. To impress his friends with Rashaverak's presence, Boyce holds a party, during which he makes use of a Ouija board. An astrophysicist and Rupert's brother-in-law, Jan Rodricks, asks the identity of the Overlords' home star. George Greggson's wife Jean faints as the Ouija board reveals a star-catalog number consistent with the direction in which Overlord supply ships appear and disappear. With the help of an oceanographer friend Jan Rodricks stows away on an Overlord supply ship and travels 40 light-years to their home planet. Due to the time dilation of special relativity at near-light speeds, the elapsed time on the ship is only a few weeks, and he arranges to endure it in drug-induced hibernation.

The Last Generation

Although humanity and the Overlords have peaceful relations, some believe human innovation is being suppressed and that culture is becoming stagnant. One of these groups establish New Athens, an island colony in the middle of the Pacific Ocean devoted to the creative arts, which George and Jean Greggson join. The Overlords conceal a special interest in the Greggsons' children, Jeffrey and Jennifer Anne, and intervene to save Jeffrey's life when a tsunami strikes the island. The Overlords have been watching them since the incident with the Ouija board, which revealed the seed of the coming transformation hidden within Jean.

Sixty years after the Overlords' arrival, human children, beginning with the Greggsons', begin to display clairvoyance and telekinetic powers. Karellen reveals the Overlords' purpose; they serve the Overmind, a vast cosmic intelligence, born of amalgamated ancient civilizations, and freed from the limitations of material existence. The Overlords themselves are unable to join the Overmind, but serve it as a bridge species, fostering other races' eventual union with it. For the transformed children's safety, they are segregated on a continent of their own. No more human children are born, and many parents die or commit suicide. The members of New Athens destroy themselves with a nuclear bomb.

Jan Rodricks emerges from hibernation on the Overlord supply ship and arrives on their planet. The Overlords permit him a glimpse of how the Overmind communicates with them. When Jan returns to Earth (approximately 80 years after his departure by Earth time) he finds an unexpectedly altered planet. Humanity has effectively become extinct, and he is now the last man alive. Hundreds of millions of children – no longer fitting what Rodricks defines as "human" – remain on the quarantined continent, having become a single intelligence readying themselves to join the Overmind.

Some Overlords remain on Earth to study the children from a safe distance. When the evolved children mentally alter the Moon's rotation and make other planetary manipulations, it becomes too dangerous to remain. The departing Overlords offer to take Rodricks with them, but he chooses to stay to witness Earth's end, and transmit a report of what he sees.

Before they depart, Rodricks asks Rashaverak what encounter the Overlords had with Humanity in the past, according to an assumption that the fear that Humans had of their "demonic" form was due to a traumatic encounter with them in the distant past; but Rashaverak explains that the primal fear experienced by Humans was not due to a racial memory, but a racial premonition of the Overlords' role in their metamorphosis.

The Overlords are eager to escape from their own evolutionary dead end by studying the Overmind, so Rodricks's information is potentially of great value to them. By radio, Rodricks describes a vast burning column ascending from the planet. As the column disappears, Rodricks experiences a profound sense of emptiness when the Overlords have gone. Then material objects and the Earth itself begin to dissolve into transparency. Jan reports no fear, but a powerful sense of fulfillment. The Earth evaporates in a flash of light. Karellen looks back at the receding Solar System and gives a final salute to the human species.

Publication history


Barrage balloons over London during World War II. Clarke observed balloons like these floating over the city in 1941. He recalls that his earliest idea for the story may have originated with this scene, with the giant balloons becoming alien ships in the novel.[6]

The novel first took shape in July 1946, when Clarke wrote "Guardian Angel", a short story that would eventually become Part I of Childhood's End. Clarke's portrayal of the Overlords as devils was influenced by John W. Campbell's depiction of the devilish Teff-Hellani species in The Mightiest Machine,[2] first serialized in Astounding Stories in 1934. After finishing "Guardian Angel", Clarke enrolled at King's College London and served as the chairman of the British Interplanetary Society from 1946 to 1947, and later from 1951 to 1953. He earned a first-class degree in mathematics and physics from King's in 1948, after which he worked as an assistant editor for Science Abstracts. "Guardian Angel" was submitted for publication but was rejected by several editors, including Campbell. At the request of Clarke's agent and unbeknown to Clarke, the story was edited by James Blish, who rewrote the ending. Blish's version of the story was accepted for publication in April 1950 by Famous Fantastic Mysteries magazine.[7] Clarke's original version of "Guardian Angel" was later published in the Winter 1950 issue of New Worlds magazine.[5] The latter version published in New Worlds more closely resembles Part I of the novel, "Earth and the Overlords".

After Clarke's nonfiction science book The Exploration of Space (1951) was successfully received, he began to focus on his writing career. In February 1952, Clarke started working on the novelization of "Guardian Angel"; he completed a first draft of the novel Childhood's End in December, and a final revision in January 1953.[8] Clarke travelled to New York in April 1953 with the novel and several of his other works. Literary agent Bernard Shir-Cliff convinced Ballantine Books to buy everything Clarke had, including Childhood's End, "Encounter in the Dawn" (1953), (which Ballantine retitled Expedition to Earth), and Prelude to Space (1951). However, Clarke had composed two different endings for the novel, and the last chapter of Childhood's End was still not finished.[9] Clarke proceeded to Tampa Bay, Florida, to go scuba diving with George Grisinger, and on his way there visited his friend Frederick C. Durant - President of the International Astronautical Federation from 1953 to 1956 - and his family in the Washington Metropolitan Area, whilst he continued working on the last chapter. He then travelled to Atlanta, Georgia, where he visited Ian Macauley, a friend who was active in the anti-segregation movement. Clarke finished the final chapter in Atlanta while Clarke and Macauley discussed racial issues; these conversations may have influenced the development of the last chapter, particularly Clarke's choice to make the character of Jan Rodricks – the last surviving member of the human species – a black man.[10]

Clarke arrived in Florida at the end of April. The short story, "The Man Who Ploughed the Sea", included in the Tales from the White Hart (1957) collection, was influenced by his time in Florida. While in Key Largo in late May, Clarke met Marilyn Mayfield, and after a romance lasting less than three weeks, they travelled to Manhattan and married at New York City Hall. The couple spent their honeymoon in the Pocono Mountains in Pennsylvania, where Clarke proofread Childhood's End. In July, Clarke returned to England with Mayfield, but it quickly became clear that the marriage would not last as Clarke spent most of his time reading and writing, and talking about his work. Further, Clarke wanted to be a father, and Marilyn, who had a son from a previous marriage, informed Clarke after their marriage that she could no longer have children. When Childhood's End was published the following month, it appeared with a dedication: "To Marilyn, For letting me read the proofs on our honeymoon." The couple separated after a few months together, but remained married for the next decade.[11]


Ballantine wanted to publish Childhood's End before Expedition to Earth and Prelude to Space, but Clarke wanted to wait. He felt that it was a difficult book to release. He had written two different endings for the novel and was unsure of which to use. According to biographer Neil McAleer, Clarke's uncertainty may have been because of its thematic focus on the paranormal and transcendence with the alien Overmind. While the theme was used effectively by Clarke in the novel, McAleer wrote that "it was not science fiction based on science, which he came to advocate and represent". When he wrote Childhood's End, Clarke was interested in the paranormal, and did not become a sceptic until much later in his life.[12] Ballantine convinced Clarke to let them publish Childhood's End first, and it was published on August 24, 1953, with a cover designed by American science fiction illustrator Richard M. Powers.[13] Childhood's End first appeared in paperback and hardcover editions, with the paperback as the primary edition, an unusual approach for the 1950s. For the first time in his career, Clarke became known as a novelist.[12]

Decades later, Clarke was preparing a new edition of Childhood's End after the story had become dated. After the book was first published, the Apollo missions landed humans on the Moon in 1969, and in 1989 US President George H. W. Bush announced the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), calling for astronauts to eventually explore Mars. In 1990, Clarke added a new foreword and revised the first chapter, changing the venue for the space race from the Moon to Mars.[8] Editions since have appeared with the original opening or have included both versions. "Guardian Angel" has also appeared in two short story collections: The Sentinel (1983), and The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001).


The novel was well received by most readers and critics.[14] Two months after publication, all 210,000 copies of the first printing had been sold.[15] The New York Times published two positive reviews of the book: Basil Davenport (1905–1966) compared Clarke to Olaf Stapledon, C. S. Lewis, and H. G. Wells, a "very small group of writers who have used science fiction as the vehicle of philosophic ideas."[16] William DuBois (1903–1997) called the book "a first rate tour de force that is well worth the attention of every thoughtful citizen in this age of anxiety."[17] Don Guzman of the Los Angeles Times admired the novel for its suspense, wisdom, and beauty. He compared Clarke's role as a writer to that of an artist, "a master of sonorous language, a painter of pictures in futuristic colors, a Chesley Bonestell with words".[18] Galaxy reviewer Groff Conklin called the novel "a formidably impressive job ... a continuous kaleidoscope of the unexpected."[19]

Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas were more sceptical, and faulted the novel's "curious imbalance between its large-scale history and a number of episodic small-scale stories." While praising Clarke's work as "Stapledonian [for] its historic concepts and also for the quality of its prose and thinking," they concluded that Childhood's End was "an awkward and imperfect book."[20] P. Schuyler Miller said the novel was "all imagination and poetry," but concluded it was "not up to some of Clarke's other writing" due to weakness in its "episodic structure."[21]

Brian W. Aldiss and David Wingrove wrote that Childhood's End rested on "a rather banal philosophical idea," but that Clarke "expressed [it] in simple but aspiring language that vaguely recalls the Psalms [and] combined [it] with a dramatized sense of loss [for] undeniable effect."[22]

Adaptations, and media inspired by the novel

In the 1960s, director Stanley Kubrick was interested in making a film adaptation of the novel, but blacklisted director Abraham Polonsky had already optioned it. Instead, Kubrick collaborated with Clarke on adapting the short story "The Sentinel" into what eventually became 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).[23] Months before his performance at Woodstock in 1969, folk singer and guitarist Richie Havens told Ebony magazine about his appreciation of Clarke's story and expressed his interest in working on a future film adaptation of Childhood's End.[24] Screenplays by Polonsky and Howard Koch were never made into films.[25]

Two British progressive rock bands coincidentally released songs based on the book in 1972. The first was Pink Floyd, with their song "Childhood's End" on the album Obscured by Clouds. Later in that same year, Genesis adapted part of the story into lyrics for their single "Watcher of the Skies". A third progressive rock band, Van der Graaf Generator, included the song "Childlike Faith in Childhood's End" on their 1976 album "Still Life".

David Elgood first proposed a radio adaptation of the novel in 1974, but nothing came of it in that decade.

Philip DeGuere, whose credits include the TV series Alias Smith and Jones, developed a script in the late 1970s for Universal, who planned to film it initially as a six-hour mini-series for CBS Television, and later as a two- or three-hour telemovie for ABC. However, Universal discovered that its contracts with Arthur C. Clarke - some of which dated back to 1957 - were out of date. These contractual difficulties were resolved in 1979 and DeGuere worked with legendary comic book artist Neal Adams on preproduction drawings and other material. The project had Clarke's approval. However Universal decided that the budget required would be nearly $40 million and they were only prepared to spend $10 million, so the movie was not made.[26]

Director Brian Lighthill revisited the radio adaptation proposal and obtained the rights in 1995. After Lighthill received a go-ahead from BBC Radio in 1996, he commissioned a script from Tony Mulholland, resulting in a new, two-part adaptation. The BBC produced the two-hour radio dramatization of the novel, and broadcast it on BBC Radio 4 in November 1997. The recording was released on cassette by BBC Audiobooks in 1998 and on CD in 2007.[27]

As of 2002, film rights to the novel were held by Universal Pictures, with director Kimberly Peirce attached to a project.[28]

On October 28, 2008, released a 7 hour 47 minute unabridged audiobook version of Childhood's End, narrated by Eric Michael Summerer, under its Audible Frontiers imprint. An AudioFile review commended Summerer's narration as "smoothly presented and fully credible".[29] An audio introduction and commentary is provided by Canadian science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer.[30]

On April 10, 2013, the Syfy Channel announced its plans to develop a Childhood's End TV miniseries.[31] The three-episode, six-hour production premiered December 14, 2015. Charles Dance portrays the Supervisor Karellen.

See also


  1. Booker & Thomas 2009, pp. 31–32.
  2. 2.0 2.1 McAleer 1992, p. 88.
  3. Dick 2001, pp. 127–129.
  4. Cordeiro 2008, pp. 47–50.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Samuelson 1973.
  6. Childhood's End, pp. vii–viii.
  7. Clarke 2000, p. 203. See also: ACC Photographic reproduction of the first pages of the original tale, Guardian Angel, from "FANTASTIC Mysteries", 1950 April – Vol. 11 #4 – pages 98–112,127–129.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Childhood's End, p. v.
  9. McAleer 1992, p. 89-91.
  10. McAleer 1992, pp. 91–92.
  11. McAleer 1992, pp. 92–100.
  12. 12.0 12.1 McAlleer 1992, pp. 90–91.
  13. "Publication Listing". Internet Speculative Fiction Database. 2009-03-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Howes 1977; McAleer 1992, pp. 98–99.
  15. McAleer 1992, p. 99.
  16. Davenport 1953, p. BR19.
  17. Du Bois 1953.
  18. Guzman 1953, p. D5.
  19. "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf", Galaxy Science Fiction, January 1954, p.129
  20. "Recommended Reading," F&SF, October 1953, p. 72.
  21. "The Reference Library," Astounding Science Fiction, February 1954, pp.151
  22. Brian W. Aldiss and David Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1986 p.308
  23. Baxter 1997, pp. 199–230. See also: Buhle & Wagner 2002.
  24. Bogle 1969, pp. 107-108.
  25. For a brief discussion as to why novels like Childhood's End have not been adapted into films, and the challenges involved in production, see Beale, Lewis (2001-07-08). "A Genre of the Intellect With Little Use for Ideas". The New York Times. p. 12. ISSN 0362-4331. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "A Difficult Childhood: The Unmanifested Destiny of Arthur C. Clarke's "Childhood's End'" in David Hughes, The Greatest Sci-Fi Movies Never Made. Chicago IL: A Capella Books, 2001, pp. 18-23.
  27. Pixley 2007.
  28. Elder & Hart 2008, p. 9.
  29. McCarty 2009.
  30. "Childhood's End". Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Syfy to Adapt Childhood's End, Ringworld, The Lotus Caves and More!


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  • Baxter, John (1997). "Kubrick Beyond the Infinite". Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Basic Books. pp. 199–230. ISBN 0-7867-0485-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bogle, Donald E. (May 1969). "Richie Havens". Ebony. 24 (7): 101–108.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Booker, M. Keith; Anne-Marie Thomas (2009). "The Alien Invasion Narrative". The Science Fiction Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-4051-6205-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clarke, Arthur C. (1990) [1953]. Childhood's End. Del Rey Books. ISBN 0-345-34795-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clarke, Arthur C. (2000). "Guardian Angel". The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke. Tor Books. pp. 203–224. ISBN 0-312-87821-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Cordeiro, José Luis (July–August 2008). "Tribute to Sir Arthur C. Clarke". The Futurist. World Future Society. 42 (4). ISSN 0016-3317.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Davenport, Basil (1953-08-23). "The End, and the Beginning, of Man". The New York Times. p. BR19. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Elder, Robert K.; Maureen M. Hart (2008-03-28). "Director put soldiers 1st in her film". Chicago Tribune. p. 9. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Guzman, Don (1953-08-30). "'Childhood's End' Brings Beauty to Science Fiction". Los Angeles Times. p. D5. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Howes, Alan B. (1977). "Expectation and Surprise in Childhood's End". In Martin Harry Greenberg, Joseph D. Olander (eds.). Arthur C. Clarke. Taplinger Publishing Company. pp. 149–171. ISBN 0-8008-0402-3.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Further reading

  • Beatie, Bruce A. (Spring 1989). "Arthur C. Clarke and the Alien Encounter". Extrapolation. 30 (1): 53–69.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Buhle, Paul; Dave Wagner (2002). A Very Dangerous Citizen: Abraham Lincoln Polonsky and the Hollywood Left. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23672-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Candelaria, Matthew (Jan 2002). "The Overlord's Burden: The Source of Sorrow in Childhood's End". Ariel. University of Calgary. 33 (1): 37–58.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clarke, Bruce (2008). Posthuman Metamorphosis: Narrative and Systems. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2851-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clark, Stephen R. L. (1995). "Childhood end". How to Live Forever: Science Fiction and Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 154–156. ISBN 0-415-12626-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Clareson, Thomas D. (1976). "The Cosmic Loneliness of Arthur C. Clarke". Voices for the Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers. Popular Press. pp. 216–237. ISBN 0-87972-120-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Feenberg, Andrew (March 1977). "An End to History: Science Fiction in the Nuclear Age". Johns Hopkins Magazine: 12–22. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gordon, Andrew (1980-09-01). "Close Encounters". Literature/Film Quarterly. Salisbury University. 8 (3): 156–164. ISSN 0090-4260.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Goswami, Amit (1985). The Cosmic Dancers: Exploring the Physics of Science Fiction. Mcgraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-023867-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hillegas, Mark R. (1967). The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. Oxford University Press. pp. 153–154 17. ISBN 0-8093-0676-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hollow, John (1987) [1983]. Against the Night, the Stars: The Science Fiction of Arthur C. Clarke. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-103966-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hughes, David (2008). "A Difficult Childhood". The Greatest Sci-fi Movies Never Made (2 ed.). Titan Books. pp. 18–23. ISBN 1-84576-755-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hull, Elizabeth Anne (1997). "On His Shoulders: Shaw's Influence On Clarke's Childhood's End". In Milton T. Wolf (ed.). Shaw and Science Fiction. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 107–132. ISBN 978-0-271-01681-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Huntington, John (Spring 1974). "The Unity of "Childhood's End"". Science Fiction Studies. DePauw University. 1 (3): 154–164.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-07518-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Olander, Joseph D; Martin Harry Greenberg (1977). Arthur C. Clarke. P. Harris. ISBN 0-904505-41-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Out of Space". The Economist. The Economist Group. 343 (8012): 85–86. 1997-04-12. ISSN 0013-0613.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Rabkin, Eric S. (1980). Arthur C. Clarke (2 ed.). Wildside Press. ISBN 0-916732-21-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Rickels, Laurence (2008). The Devil Notebooks. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-5052-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Schwam, Stephanie (2000). The Making of 2001, A Space Odyssey. Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-375-75528-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32950-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Westfahl, Gary; George Edgar Slusser (1999). Nursery Realms. University of Georgia Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 0-8203-2144-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links