Editions of Dungeons & Dragons
Several different editions of the Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) fantasy role-playing game have been produced since 1974. The current publisher of D&D, Wizards of the Coast, produces new materials only for the most current edition of the game. Many D&D fans, however, continue to play older versions of the game and some third-party companies continue to publish materials compatible with these older editions.
After the original edition of D&D was introduced in 1974, the game was split into two branches in 1977: the rules-light system of Dungeons & Dragons and the more complex, rules-heavy system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D). The standard game was eventually expanded into a series of five box sets by the mid-1980s before being compiled and slightly revised in 1991 as the D&D Rules Cyclopedia. Meanwhile, the 2nd edition of AD&D was published in 1989. In 2000, the 3rd edition, called simply Dungeons & Dragons, debuted. The 4th edition was published in 2008. The 5th edition was released in 2014.
- 1 Timeline
- 2 Version history
- 2.1 Original Dungeons & Dragons
- 2.2 Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
- 2.3 Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set and revisions
- 2.4 Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition
- 2.5 Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition Player's Options
- 2.6 Dungeons & Dragons 3rd edition
- 2.7 Dungeons & Dragons v3.5
- 2.8 Dungeons & Dragons 4th edition
- 2.9 Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition
- 3 Dungeons & Dragons variants
- 4 International editions
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
|1974||Dungeons & Dragons (original white box set with three booklets)
|1977||Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (1st Edition)
||Dungeons & Dragons (2nd version)
|1981||Dungeons & Dragons (3rd version)
|1983||Dungeons & Dragons (4th version)
|1989||Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition
|1991||Dungeons & Dragons (5th version)|
|1995||Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition revised
|2000||Dungeons & Dragons 3rd edition (Core rulebooks)
|2003||Dungeons & Dragons revised 3rd edition (v3.5)
Revised editions of the core rulebooks (compatible with 3rd Ed. via errata)
|2008||Dungeons & Dragons 4th edition (Core rulebooks)
||Dungeons & Dragons Essentials
|2014||Dungeons & Dragons 5th Edition
Original Dungeons & Dragons
The original D&D was published as a box set in 1974 and featured only a handful of the elements for which the game is known today: just three character classes (fighting-man, magic-user, and cleric); four races (human, dwarf, elf, and hobbit); only a few monsters; only three alignments (lawful, neutral, and chaotic). The rules assumed that players owned and played the miniatures wargame Chainmail and used its measurement and combat systems. An optional combat system was included within the rules that later developed into the sole combat system of later versions of the game. In addition, the rules presumed ownership of Outdoor Survival, a board game by then-unaffiliated company Avalon Hill for outdoor exploration and adventure. D&D was a radically new gaming concept at the time, but the rules provided no overview of the game so it was difficult, without prior knowledge of tabletop wargaming, to see how it was all supposed to work. The release of the Greyhawk supplement removed the game's dependency on the Chainmail rules, and made it much easier for new, non-wargaming players to grasp the concepts of play. It also inadvertently aided the growth of competing game publishers, since just about anyone who grasped the concepts behind the game could write smoother and easier to use rules systems and sell them to the growing D&D fanbase (Tunnels & Trolls being the first such).
Supplements such as Greyhawk, Blackmoor, Eldritch Wizardry and Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes, published over the next two years, greatly expanded the rules, character classes, monsters and spells. For example, the original Greyhawk supplement introduced the thief class, and weapon damage varying by weapon (as opposed to character class). In addition, many additions and options were published in the magazines The Strategic Review and its successor, The Dragon.
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
An updated version of D&D was released as Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D). This was initially published as a set of three rulebooks, compiled by Gary Gygax, between 1977 and 1979. The AD&D rules are reorganized and recodified, incorporating the original D&D rules and many additions and revisions from supplements and magazine articles. The three core rulebooks are the Monster Manual (1977), the Player's Handbook (1978), and the Dungeon Master's Guide (1979). Later supplements included Deities & Demigods (1980), Fiend Folio (another book of monsters produced semi-autonomously in the UK - 1981), Monster Manual II, Oriental Adventures and Unearthed Arcana (1985), the latter of which mostly compiled material previously published in Dragon magazine, and others.
Differences from Dungeons & Dragons
- The game rules were reorganized across three hardcover rulebooks (the Player's Handbook, Dungeon Master's Guide, and Monster Manual) rather than one boxed set of three booklets (Men & Magic, Monsters & Treasure, and The Underworld and Wilderness Adventures), and a series of supplements.
- Supplemental rules cut included hit locations.
- The Chainmail-based combat system was completely abandoned.
- Character classes from original D&D supplemental material (assassin, druid, monk, paladin, and thief) are added in the core rules. Classes (bard, illusionist and ranger) that had only appeared in magazine publication were also added, and fighting-men are renamed "Fighters".
- Alignment is reworked into a two-axis system:, "ethics" (lawful, neutral, or chaotic) and "morals" (good, neutral, or evil), so there are now nine alignments: lawful good, neutral good, chaotic good, lawful neutral, true neutral, chaotic neutral, lawful evil, neutral evil, and chaotic evil.
Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set and revisions
While AD&D was still in the works, TSR was approached by an outside writer and D&D enthusiast, John Eric Holmes, who offered to re-edit and rewrite the original rules into an introductory version of D&D. Although TSR was focused on AD&D at the time, the project was seen as a profitable enterprise and a way to direct new players to anticipate the release of the AD&D game. It was published in July 1977 as the Basic Set, collecting together and organized the rules from the original D&D boxed set and Greyhawk supplement into a single booklet, which covered only character levels 1 through 3, and included dice and a beginner's module. The booklet featured a blue cover with artwork by David C. Sutherland III. The "blue booklet" explained the game's concepts and method of play in terms that made it accessible to new players not familiar with tabletop miniatures wargaming. Unusual features of this version include an alignment system of five alignments as opposed to the three or nine alignments of the other versions. This Basic Set was very popular and allowed many to discover and experience the D&D game for the first time. Although the Basic Set is not fully compatible with AD&D, as some rules were simplified to make the game easier for new players to learn, players were expected to continue play beyond third level by moving on to the AD&D version.
Once AD&D had been released, the Basic Set saw a major revision in 1981 by Tom Moldvay, which was immediately followed by the release of an Expert Set written by David Cook, to accompany the Basic Set, extending it to levels 4 through 14, for players who preferred the simplified introductory ruleset. With this revision, the Basic rules became their own game, distinct both from original D&D and AD&D. The revised Basic rules can be distinguished from the original ones by cover colors: the Basic booklet had a red cover, and the Expert booklet a blue one.
Between 1983 and 1985 this system was revised and expanded by Frank Mentzer as a series of five boxed sets, including the Basic Rules (red cover), Expert Rules (blue), Companion Rules (green, supporting levels 15 through 25), Master Rules (black, supporting levels 26 through 36), and Immortals Rules (gold, supporting Immortals – characters who had transcended levels).
This version was compiled and slightly revised by Aaron Allston in 1991 as the Rules Cyclopedia, a hardback book which included all the sets except Immortals Rules which was discontinued and replaced with Wrath of the Immortals box set. While the Rules Cyclopedia included all information required to begin the game, there were also several printings of an introductory boxed set, named The New Easy-to-Master Dungeons & Dragons Game in early printings, The Classic Dungeons & Dragons Game in later ones, and commonly called "the black box" to contrast with the earlier red covered Basic Sets.
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition
In 1987, a small team of designers began work on the second edition of the AD&D game, which would take two years to complete. In 1989, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition was published, featuring new rules and characters. By the end of its first decade, AD&D had expanded to several rulebooks, including three Monster Manuals, and two books governing character skills in wilderness and underground settings. Initially, the 2nd edition would consolidate the game, with three essential books to govern Dungeon Masters and players alike. Periodically, TSR published optional rulebooks for character classes and races to enhance game play.
The combat system was changed. The minimum number required to hit a target uses a mathematical formula in which the defender's armor class (AC) is subtracted from the attacker's THAC0 ("To Hit Armor Class '0'") instead of 1st edition's attack matrix tables. Distances are based on in-game units (feet) rather than miniatures-board ones (inches). Demi-human races are given higher level maximums to increase their long-term playability, though they are still restricted in terms of character class flexibility. Critical hits are offered as optional rules.
The release of AD&D 2nd Edition corresponded with important policy changes at TSR. An effort was made to remove aspects of the game which had attracted negative publicity, most notably the removal of all mention of demons and devils, although equivalent monsters were later added, now renamed tanar'ri and baatezu, respectively. Moving away from the moral ambiguity of the 1st edition AD&D, the TSR staff eliminated character classes and races like the assassin and the half-orc, and stressed heroic roleplaying and player teamwork. The target age of the game was also lowered, with most 2nd edition products being aimed primarily at teenagers.
The game was again published as three core rulebooks which incorporated the expansions and revisions which had been published in various supplements over the previous decade. However, the Monster Manual was replaced by the Monstrous Compendium, a loose-leaf binder in which every monster is given a full page of information, the justification being that packs of new monsters (often setting specific) could be purchased and added to the binder without the expense or inconvenience of a separate book. However, this idea was eventually dropped and the Compendium was replaced by the hardcover Monstrous Manual in 1993.
It was intended that the loose-leaf binder would allow the book to be updated, in the manner of Avalon Hill's Advanced Squad Leader. Originally this was considered for all the core rulebooks, but was eventually adopted only for the Monstrous Manual. This form of presentation was abandoned because of susceptibility to wear and tear, and difficulties in keeping alphabetic order when many pages had been printed with more than one monster. Aside from the formatting, a substantial change was made to the contents of the Monstrous Compendium by greatly increasing the power of dragons. This was done to counter the impression of relative weakness of the game's titular monster.
Gygax had already planned a second edition for the game, which would also have been an update of the rules, incorporating the material from Unearthed Arcana, Oriental Adventures, and numerous new innovations from Dragon magazine in the Player's Handbook and Dungeon Master's Guide and would have consolidated the Monster Manual, Monster Manual II and Fiend Folio into one volume.
In 1995, the core rulebooks were slightly revised and a series of Player's Option manuals were released as "optional core rulebooks". Although still referred to by TSR (and later Wizards of the Coast) as the 2nd edition, this revision is seen by some fans as a distinct edition of the game and is sometimes referred to as AD&D 2.5.
Differences from Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
- Half-orcs are removed from the Player's Handbook (rules for half-orcs were included in a later supplement)
- Character classes are organized into four groups: warrior (fighter, paladin, ranger), wizard (mage, specialist wizard), priest (cleric, druid), and rogue (thief, bard).
- Assassins and monks are removed from the game as character classes.
- "Magic-users" are renamed "mages".
- Illusionists are made into a subtype of the wizard class, along with new classes specializing in the other seven schools of magic (which were first introduced in Dragonlance Adventures).
- Bards are made a normal character class, rather than the multiple-classed character that they are in 1st edition, although they still possess elements of fighters, thieves, and mages.
- Rangers are retooled from a heavily armored, commando-style survivalist and "giant-class" monster hunter to a much more nature oriented, lightly armored, two-weapon-wielding, druid-influenced nature warrior.
- Proficiencies are officially supported in the Player's Handbook and many supplements, rather than being an optional add-on.
- Attack matrices are replaced with a mathematical formula involving a character stat called THAC0, and the table printed only once in the Dungeon Master's Guide is reprinted in the 2nd edition Player's Handbook and Dungeon Master's Guide.
- References to "segments" (individual units of time representing one phase of initiative, or six seconds of game-time [simulated time]) are removed from the game; instead, actions are given an "Initiative Modifier". "Melee rounds" are unchanged, representing one minute of game-time, with a "turn" representing ten rounds (ten minutes). An optional alternative where one "melee round" represents 12 to 15 seconds of "game-time" is presented in the Player's Option: Combat & Tactics book, first of the so-called "2.5" edition.
- Other changes are made to combat including the function of weapon speed, initiative, and surprise rules.
- Priest and druid spells are organized into themed "spheres" that are similar to the wizard spell schools that had been introduced in Dragonlance Adventures, with access to spheres being determined by the priest's class and deity.
- Descriptions of artifacts (unique magic items) are removed from the Dungeon Master's Guide.
- Many utilities, including tables for random generation of dungeons, are removed from the Dungeon Master's Guide.
- Exchange rates for the low-valued coins are doubled; it now takes only 100 copper pieces or 10 silver pieces to make one gold piece; coin weights changed from 10 per pound (1st edition) to 50 per pound (2nd edition).
- The hardcover Monster Manual was initially replaced by the looseleaf binder-format Monstrous Compendium; but this was eventually replaced by the hardcover Monstrous Manual.
- Fiendish and angelic creatures (demons, devils, daemons, devas, solars, etc.) are removed from the game, as are spells that allowed such creatures to be summoned or controlled. These creatures were later renamed and modified in the Monstrous Compendium supplement on the Outer Planes.
- Psionics are no longer included in the Player's Handbook, though they later appeared in their own supplement.
- Maximum level is standardized at 20 rather than varying by class.
- Magic resistance is changed so that a mage above 11th level would not impose a 5% penalty per mage level above 11th on an unwilling subject the mage is casting a spell on.
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition Player's Options
In 1995, TSR re-released the core rulebooks for 2nd Edition featuring new covers, art, and page layouts. These releases were followed shortly by a series of volumes labelled Player's Option, allowing for alternate rules systems and character options, as well as a Dungeon Master's Option for high-level campaigns. These releases are sometimes referred to as "Edition 2.5" by fans, though their adoption was not widespread.
- Player's Option: Combat & Tactics
- Player's Option: Skills & Powers
- Player's Option: Spells & Magic
- Dungeon Master Option: High-Level Campaigns
Differences from Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition
- Humans are prohibited from switching classes (dual classing) more than 4 times, and may not mix classes within the four major class groups
- Character points allow players to create their own subrace via purchasing abilities of other races, for demihumans.
- Character points allow players to pick and choose parts of classes to make their own class in a similar fashion to Non-weapon Proficiencies.
- Ability scores were broken down into further subabilities.
- Monsters were available for PC races such as gnoll, orc, and githzerai
- Under the optional Combat & Tactics system, melee rounds are 15 seconds long rather than 1 minute, and attacks of opportunity are possible.
Dungeons & Dragons 3rd edition
A major revision of the AD&D rules was released in 2000. As the Basic game had been discontinued some years earlier, and the more straightforward title was more marketable, the word "advanced" was dropped and the new edition was named just Dungeons & Dragons, but still officially referred to as 3rd edition (or 3E for short). It is the basis of a broader role-playing system designed around 20-sided dice, called the d20 System. The 3rd edition removes previous editions' restrictions on class and race combinations that were supposed to track the preferences of the race, and on the level advancement of non-human characters. Level advancement for all characters is greatly eased, allowing players to reasonably expect to reach high level in about one year of weekly play. Skills and the new system of feats are introduced into the core rules to encourage players to further customize their characters.
Monte Cook, Jonathan Tweet, and Skip Williams all contributed to the 3rd edition Player's Handbook, Dungeon Master's Guide, and Monster Manual, and then each designer wrote one of the books based on those contributions.
The d20 system uses a more unified mechanic than earlier editions, resolving nearly all actions with a d20 die roll plus appropriate modifiers. The combat system is greatly expanded, adopting into the core system most of the optional movement and combat system of the 2nd edition Players Option: Combat and Tactics book. Third edition combat uses a grid system, encouraging highly tactical gameplay and facilitating the use of miniatures. The new sorcerer class is introduced, and in later books such as the Complete Arcane further spellcasting classes such as warmage are added. The thief is renamed rogue, a term that 2nd edition uses to classify both the thief and bard classes. Third edition also presents the concept of prestige classes, which characters can only enter at higher character levels, and only if they meet certain character-design prerequisites or fulfill certain in-game goals. Later products included additional and supplementary rules subsystems such as "epic-level" options for characters above twentieth level, as well as a heavily revised treatment of psionics.
The d20 System is presented under the Open Game License, which makes it an open source system for which authors can write new games and game supplements without the need to develop a unique rules system and, more importantly, without the need for direct approval from Wizards of the Coast. This makes it easier to market D&D-compatible content under a broadly recognizable commercial license. Many other companies have produced content for the d20 system, such as White Wolf Publishing (under the Sword and Sorcery Studios label), Alderac Entertainment Group, Malhavoc Press, and Privateer Press.
Differences from Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition
- The game system converted to the d20 System, which standardized task resolution to a roll of a 20-sided die ("d20"), adding or subtracting relevant modifiers, and then comparing the result to a "Difficulty Class" (DC) in order to determine the outcome.
- THAC0 is replaced by a bonus to attack rolls. Armor Class (AC) operates as the Difficulty Class for attack rolls, and therefore increases (rather than decreases, as in 2nd edition) as defensive capabilities increase.
- Ability scores follow a single table and give standardized bonuses. Ability scores are no longer capped at 25.
- Saving throws are reduced from five categories (based on forms of attack) to three (based on type of defense): fortitude (constitution-based), reflex (dexterity-based), and will (wisdom-based), and also go up instead of down.
- "Non-weapon proficiencies" are replaced by skills, and become a fundamental part of the game rather than an optional one, with class abilities such as thieving skills being translated directly into skills. All characters are given a pool of points to spend on a wide range of specific skills to further define a character.
- Special abilities known as feats allow greater customization of characters. Fighters are no longer differentiated simply by weapons, roleplay and equipment selection, but rather by the number of feats they possess relative to other characters.
- Magic item creation is simplified, requiring a prerequisite feat, spells, and monetary and experience costs, replacing the obscure rules of earlier editions.
- Barbarians, monks, and half-orcs return to the Player's Handbook as basic character types, and the sorcerer class is introduced.
- Class groups are removed. "Mage" is renamed to "wizard", with "specialist wizards" being simply wizards that specialize in one school of magic, and "thief" is renamed to "rogue." The bard class is no longer considered a type of rogue.
- "Priests of a specific mythos", also known as specialist priest classes, are eliminated (except druid), though some make their return in the form of prestige classes or through other options such as feats.
- The sorcerer class is added to the game as an arcane caster that uses magic naturally, instead of through study.
- Multi-classing and dual-classing as per previous editions is removed. In the new multi-classing system, multi-classing functions similar to dual-classing had previously, except that a character could gain a level of any character class upon gaining a level instead of only gaining levels in the second class, and with experience needed to reach the next level calculated on the sum of the level of all classes instead of the latest class. Multi-classing is made available to all races, although easier for humans and half-elves, and characters with multiple classes of differing levels are penalized.
- Prestige classes are added, representing special training or membership in an organization outside the generic scope of core classes. Entry into prestige classes requires characters to meet certain prerequisites. Assassins make their return here, as well as blackguards (fallen paladins) and several others.
- Any combination of race and class is now permitted, with the exception of some prestige classes. (In 2nd edition, characters of some fantasy races/species are not allowed to belong to some character classes.)
- Priest spell spheres are removed from the game; each spellcasting class now has its own specific spell list (although wizard and sorcerer share a list). Instead, clerics gain domains that allow them to use bonus spells and abilities based on their deity's area of influence, as well as the ability to swap out prepared spells for curative spells.
- Initiative is changed to a cyclic system where the order of resolving actions is determined once per encounter and then repeated, and actions are resolved on the player's turn. In previous editions the order is redetermined each round and many actions do not resolve on the player's turn but at the end of the round.
- Diagonal movement and range are simplified. Each square of diagonal distance is equivalent to 1.5 squares of orthogonal distance, rounded down.
- The system for multiple attacks is changed so that, when making multiple attacks in the same round, later attacks are generally less accurate than earlier attacks.
Dungeons & Dragons v3.5
In July 2003, a revised version of the 3rd edition D&D rules (termed v3.5) was released that incorporated numerous small rule changes, as well as expanding the Dungeon Master's Guide and Monster Manual. This revision was intentionally a small one focusing on addressing common complaints about certain aspects of gameplay, hence the "half edition" version number. The basic rules are fundamentally the same, and many monsters and items are compatible (or even unchanged) between those editions.
Differences from Dungeons & Dragons 3rd edition
- Barbarians receive more and improved class features, especially regarding barbarian rage.
- Bards receive more skill points and bardic music abilities.
- Druids can cast summon nature's ally spells spontaneously in place of any prepared spells, just like clerical spontaneous casting of cure/inflict wounds spells. Their abilities are also reworked and animal companions are improved, but restricted to one, having become a class feature, making animal companions akin to familiars in this regard.
- Monks had a major rework of their class features, some balancing unbalanced aspects, others improving old abilities.
- Paladins can summon their mounts, instead of finding them; they can also smite more often.
- Rangers receive more skill points and new class abilities, though fewer hit points, and are able to choose between being dual wielding melee specialists (which all rangers are forced into in 3rd edition), or archery specialists.
- New spells are added, and numerous changes are made to existing spells, while some spells are removed from the updated Player's Handbook.
- Spontaneous arcane spellcasters can change a few of their spell choices in later levels.
- New feats are added and numerous changes are made to existing feats.
- Several skills are renamed or merged with other skills.
- Monsters gain feats and skills the same way as PCs, usually resulting in more skill points and feats for every monster.
- The chapter on combat in the Player's Handbook is modified to increase focus on grid-based movement and combat.
- Damage Reduction no longer requires a weapon to have a minimum magical bonus to overcome; for example, DR 10/+2 becomes DR 10/magic. Additional requirements to overcome some Damage Reduction include the substance the weapon is made of (cold iron, silver etc.) or alignment (good or evil).
Dungeons & Dragons 4th edition
On August 15, 2007, Wizards of the Coast announced the development of D&D 4th edition. In December 2007, the book Wizards Presents: Races and Classes, the first preview of 4th Edition, was released. This was followed by a second book in January 2008 named Wizards Presents: Worlds and Monsters. The Player's Handbook, Monster Manual, and Dungeon Master's Guide were released in June 2008.
Slashdot reported anger from some players and retailers due to the financial investment in v3.5 and the relatively brief period of time that it had been in publication. Although many players chose to continue playing older editions, or other games such as Pathfinder, the initial print run of the 4th edition sold out during preorders, and Wizards of the Coast announced a second print run prior to the game's official release.
Unlike previous editions with just three core rulebooks, 4th edition core rules include multiple volumes of the Player's Handbook, Dungeon Master's Guide, and Monster Manual that were released yearly, with each new book becoming a part of the core. They include core classes, races, monsters, powers, feats, paragon paths and epic destinies not present in the first Player's Handbook and Monster Manual.
Differences from Dungeons & Dragons v3.5
- The alignment system was reduced from nine alignments to five (lawful good, good, unaligned, evil and chaotic evil); eliminating lawful neutral, lawful evil, chaotic good, and chaotic neutral, and replacing true neutral with unaligned.
- Revision of saving throws and defense values. Fortitude, Reflex and Will are now static defense values which the attacker rolls against in the same way physical attacks roll against Armor Class. "Saving throw" now refers to rolls made at the end of one's turn in order to end certain ongoing detrimental effects; saving throw rolls generally have no bonus and a DC of 10.
- Changes in spells and other per-encounter resourcing, giving all classes a similar number of at-will, per-encounter and per-day powers. Powers have a wide range of effects including inflicting status effects, creating zones, and forced movement, making combat very tactical for all classes but essentially requiring use of miniatures. Powers are typically used with particular types of equipment; for example, powers for the fighter class receive bonuses for certain types of weapons, while rogue powers usually require rogue weapons such as daggers and crossbows, and more magical classes can use implements (such as wands) with their powers to add their enhancement bonuses in the same way weapons do for weapon powers.
- In the first Player's Handbook, the warlock and warlord are included, while the barbarian, bard, druid, sorcerer and monk are not present. Of those classes, the first four have been published in Player's Handbook 2, while the monk class appears in Player's Handbook 3.
- Characters at 11th level choose a "paragon path", a specialty often (but not always) based on their class, which defines some of their new powers through 20th level. At level 21, an "epic destiny" is chosen in a similar manner. In many respects, the paragon path and the epic destiny replace the prestige class system of 3rd edition.
- Core rules extend to level 30 rather than level 20, bringing "epic level" play back into the core rules (level 21+ play had last been explicitly written into core rules in the black-covered "Master" rule set of classic D&D).
- The multi-classing system is revised. Rather than splitting levels between multiple classes, characters properly belong to only one class but may choose feats to gain abilities from other classes. Hybrid characters combine selected features from two classes. Eleventh level characters with sufficient multi-class feats can use "paragon multi-classing" to gain additional powers from another class in lieu of picking a "paragon path".
- Standardized level-based bonus increases. Attack rolls, skill checks and defense values all get a bonus equal to one-half level, rounded down, rather than increasing at different rates depending on class or skill point investment. This bonus also applies to ability-score checks (such as strength checks).
- Revision of the healing system. Each character has a number of daily "healing surges" based on their class and Constitution score. Spending a healing surge usually heals a character for slightly under one-quarter of a character's maximum hit points. Generally, characters can only spend a healing surge during combat by using a special once-per-encounter "second wind" action; however, certain powers allow additional surges to be spent (by the character using it or another character), and characters can spend any number of their healing surges while taking a five-minute "short rest" outside of combat. Finally, players recover full hit points after a (once daily) six hour "extended rest".
- Elimination of skill points. Each skill is either trained (providing a fixed bonus on skill checks, and sometimes allowing more exotic uses for the skills) or untrained, but in either case all characters also receive a bonus to all skill rolls based on level.
- Many non-combat spells (such as Knock, Raise Dead, Tenser's Floating Disc, and Water Breathing) are replaced by rituals, which are not class-specific but require a feat (given to certain classes for free) and a skill check to perform. All rituals have a financial cost in the form of material components, such as herbs and alchemical reagents. Item creation feats are also replaced by rituals.
- Elves are split into three races (excluding half-elves) rather than numerous subraces. Eladrin (not to be confused with the quite different monster of the same name in previous editions) are more civilized and magical, while regular elves are agile forest dwellers rather than city builders, and the evil subterranean drow are largely unchanged in flavor. All three elven races are considered fey. Gnomes are also considered fey.
- The Dungeon Master's Guide officially supports leveling monsters down and up to allow for easier encounter design and flexibility. Many monsters have their mechanics redesigned to help differentiate them from others. Some monsters are designed to work well in group fights whereas others can be used as a solo monster versus the players' party.
- Distances previously measured in feet are now measured in five-foot squares; a diagonally adjacent square is considered to be one square away, so effect areas are generally square rather than circular or cone-shaped. The five-foot step, usually taken to avoid attacks of opportunity, is replaced with a type of movement called shifting. Normally a character can shift one square as a move action, but some powers can allow shifting a greater distance or as part of another action.
Dungeons & Dragons Essentials
This product line debuted in September 2010 and consists of ten products. Essentials uses the D&D 4th edition rule set and provides simple player character options intended for first-time players. Many of the new player character options emulate features from previous editions of the D&D game, such as schools of magic for the wizard class.
The Essentials line contains revisions to the ruleset compiled over the prior two years, in the form of the Rules Compendium, which condenses rules and errata into one volume while also updating the rules with newly introduced rules changes. The player books Heroes of the Fallen Lands and Heroes of the Forgotten Kingdoms contain rules for creating characters as well as new builds for each class described in the books. Other Essentials releases included a Dungeon Master's Kit and Monster Vault, each also containing accessories.
Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition
In January 2012, Wizards of the Coast announced that the fifth major edition of the game, at the time referred to as D&D Next, was under development. In direct contrast to the previous editions of the game, D&D Next was developed partly via a public open playtest. An early build of the new edition debuted at the 2012 Dungeons & Dragons Experience event to about 500 fans. Public playtesting began on May 24, 2012, with the final playtest packet released on September 20, 2013.
The fifth edition's Basic Rules, a free PDF containing complete rules for play and a subset of the player and DM content from the core rulebooks, was released on July 3, 2014. The Starter Set was released on July 15, featuring a set of pregenerated characters, a set of instructions for basic play, and the adventure module Lost Mine of Phandelver. The Player's Handbook was released on August 19, 2014. The fifth edition Monster Manual was released on September 30, 2014. The Dungeon Master's Guide was released on December 9, 2014.
Differences from Dungeons & Dragons 4th edition
- The two-axis alignment system introduced in earlier editions returns, increasing the total alignments to 9 with the introduction of a 10th alignment, "unaligned," used for monsters and animals that act on instinct rather than morality and values.
- Actions are now more dependent on checks made with the six core abilities with skills taking a more supportive role.
- Saving throws are reworked to be situational checks based on the six core abilities instead of generic d20 rolls.
- The "Advantage/Disadvantage" mechanic was introduced, streamlining conditional and situational modifiers to a simpler mechanic: rolling two d20s for a situation and taking the higher of the two for "advantage" and the lower of the two for "disadvantage" and cancelling each other out when both apply.
- Skills, weapons, items, saving throws and other things that a character is trained in (proficient) now all use a single proficiency bonus that increases as level increases.
- Multiple defense values have been removed, returning to a single defense value of Armor Class and using more traditional saving throws.
- Action Points have been removed entirely. The first "Unearthed Arcana" article reintroduced Action Points in their Eberron format (along with many other Eberron campaign standards).
- The Death Saving Throw system has been changed; 3 successes or a single roll of 20 results in a stabilization and 3 failures results in death.
- The power system of 4th edition has been removed, replacing them with more traditional class features that are gained as characters level.
- Each spell-casting class uses a unique system to cast their spells, with wizards and clerics using a slightly modified version of the spell preparation system of previous editions.
- Characters are allowed a single action and movement in their turn with the ability to break up their movement with their action.
- Healing Surges are replaced by Hit Dice, requiring a character to roll a hit die during a short rest instead of healing a flat rate of hit points.
- The time of a short rest is increased from 5 minutes to a full hour of light activity.
- "Bloodied" is no longer a condition.
- Multiclassing is reminiscent of 3rd edition. When a character levels, they can choose to instead add new levels of a different class and gain some of the features of that class.
- Most major races (and subraces) and classes are now included in the main Player's Handbook volume instead of being spread throughout multiple volumes.
- Feats are now optional features that can be taken instead of core ability score increases and are reworked to be occasional major upgrades instead of frequent minor upgrades.
- Character and monster average hit point values are lower resulting in combat situations that are resolved more quickly.
Dungeons & Dragons variants
Due to the nature of the Open Game License that 3rd edition was published under, other companies were able to use the d20 System rules to create their own variants of Dungeons & Dragons, providing that they did not use anything Wizards of the Coast considered trade dress, known as "product identity" under the terms of the OGL.
Dungeons & Dragons retro-clones are variants created to simulate previous editions, part of a movement known as the Old School Revival, or the Old School Renaissance (OSR). These games are possible because presentation, artwork, and text can be copyrighted, but rules are not generally copyrightable.
The Pathfinder Roleplaying Game was first published in 2009 by Paizo Publishing. It is intended to be backward-compatible with D&D version 3.5 while adjusting some rules balance, and has been nicknamed "v 3.75" by some fans. Pathfinder has been one of the best-selling role playing games in the industry.
The D&D franchise has been translated and published in many languages around the world.
A particular challenge has been the word dungeon, which in standard English means a single prison cell or oubliette originally located under a keep. Some languages, like Spanish, Italian, Finnish, and Portuguese, didn't translate the title of the game and kept it as it is in English: Dungeons & Dragons. In Spanish-speaking countries, the 1983 animated series was translated in Hispanic America as Calabozos y Dragones and in Spain as Dragones y Mazmorras (calabozo and mazmorra have in all Spanish-speaking countries the same meaning: a dungeon). In Brazil, the same animated series was translated as Caverna do Dragão (Dragon's Cave). This still brings great confusion amongst Spanish-speaking and Brazilian gamers about the name of the game, since all Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese translations of the game kept the original English title. In gaming jargon, however, a dungeon is not a single holding cell but rather a network of underground passages or subterranea to be explored, such as a cave, ruins or catacombs. Some translations conveyed this meaning well, e.g. Chinese 龙与地下城 (Dragons and Underground Castles, or Dragons and Underground Cities). Some translations used a false friend of "dungeon", even if it changed the meaning of the title, such as the French Donjons et dragons (Keeps and Dragons). In Hebrew, the game was published as מבוכים ודרקונים (Labyrinths and Dragons). Additionally, some translations adopted the English word "dungeon" as a game term, leaving it untranslated in the text as well.
- Pulsipher, Lewis (February–March 1981). "An Introduction to Dungeons & Dragons". White Dwarf (23). London, England: Games Workshop. pp. 8–9.
Chainmail was needed to conduct combat...." "Greyhawk introduced a new combat system....<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pulsipher, Lewis (August–September 1977). "Open Box: Tunnels and Trolls". White Dwarf (2). London, England: Games Workshop. ISSN 0265-8712.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Appelcline, Shannon. "Players Handbook (1e)". dndclassics.com. Retrieved August 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, Gary (March 1985). "Demi-Humans Get a Lift". Dragon. TSR (95): 8–10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Turnbull, Don (December 1979 – January 1979). "Open Box: Player's Handbook". White Dwarf. Games Workshop (10): 17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Holmes 1981.
- Holmes, J. Eric (1977). Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set. p. 6.
"...experience levels that high are not discussed in this book and the reader is referred to the more complete rules in Advanced Dungeons & Dragons<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "D&D Clones!". White Dwarf. Games Workshop (24): 29. April–May 1981.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Appelcline, Shannon. "D&D Rules Cyclopedia". Retrieved June 26, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The History of TSR". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Dungeons & Dragons FAQ". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved October 3, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, Gary. "From the Sorcerer's Scroll: The Future of the Game". Dragon Magazine, #103, November, 1985, p.8.
- Appelcline, Shannon. "Player's Option: Combat & Tactics". dndclassics.com. Retrieved July 23, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Profiles: Monte Cook". Dragon. Renton, Washington: Wizards of the Coast (#275): 10, 12, 14. September 2000.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "D&D v3.5 Accessory Update Booklet". wizards.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zonk (August 22, 2007). "Gen Con 2007 In A Nutshell". Slashdot.org. Retrieved August 23, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Harnish, MJ (January 9, 2012). "5th Edition D&D Is in Development — Should We Care?". Wired.com. Conde Nast. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "D&D 4E Back to Press". ICv2.com. May 30, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dave Noonan, Mike Mearls, and James Wyatt (October 5, 2007). Episode 16: Monsters, Monsters, Monsters! (podcast). Wizards of the Coast. Event occurs at 1:57.
quote="So, one of the things that I thought a lot about when I was first putting together the outline for this book... this is not the core Monster Manual.... So, there are some monsters that I very intentionally left out of this book so that when they appear in Monster Manual II, that will help communicate, "Hey, look, this is a core Monster Manual." You don't have frost giants if you don't have Monster Manual N".Missing pipe in:
- Cordell, Bruce R. (September 5, 2007). "Elves:Design & Development". wizards.com. Dragon Magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2013. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "The Wizards Community | Community". Forums.gleemax.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dave Noonan & Mike Mearls (October 5, 2007). "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (Monsters, Monsters, Monsters)". Wizards.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Slavicsek, Bill (February 7, 2010). "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (Dungeons & Dragons Essentials Are Coming!)". Wizards.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "D&D XP 2010: Dungeons & Dragons Essentials — Critical Hits". Critical-hits.com. January 29, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Complete Mike Mearls D&D 4th Edition Essentials Interview. "| The Escapist". Escapistmagazine.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Radney, Stephen (September 24, 2010). "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (Essentials Survival Guide)". Wizards.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mearls, Mike. "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (Powers, Implements, Feats ...)". Wizards.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Slavicsek, Bill. "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (Fighter Preview, Part 2)". Wizards.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gilsdorf, Ethan (January 9, 2012). "Players Roll the Dice for Dungeons & Dragons Remake". New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved January 9, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ohannessian, Kevin (February 3, 2012). ""Dungeons & Dragons Next" Creators Look To Simplicity, Open Development To Regain Lost Gamers". Co.Create. Retrieved August 30, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mike Mearls (April 25, 2012). "Dungeons & Dragons Roleplaying Game Official Home Page - Article (News on D&D Next)". Wizards.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Final Playtest Packet". Wizards.com. September 20, 2012. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "5E Basic Rules". Wizards.com. July 3, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "5E starter Set". Wizards.com. Retrieved August 20, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mearls, Mike. "Player's Handbook | Dungeons & Dragons". Dnd.wizards.com. Retrieved August 8, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Monster Manual". wizards.com. Retrieved August 20, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mearls, Mike. "Dungeon Master's Guide | Dungeons & Dragons". Dnd.wizards.com. Retrieved November 13, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Open Gaming License v1.0a". Wizards of the Coast. 2000. Retrieved October 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Harnish, MJ (August 27, 2011). "Everything Old Is New Again: Old School D&D". Wired. Retrieved November 23, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Malisczewski, James (August 20, 2009). "Full Circle: A History of the Old School Revival". The Escapist. Retrieved November 23, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bebergal, Peter (May 6, 2013). "Old School Dungeons & Dragons: Wizards of the Coast's Problem Child". BoingBoing. Retrieved November 23, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tito, Greg (December 28, 2011). "The State of D&D: Present". The Escapist. Retrieved October 1, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Baichtal, John (March 25, 2008). "No D&D 4E for Paizo?!?". Wired.com. Conde Nast. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Pelgrane Press Ltd » Blog Archive » Through the Scrying Glass: 13th Age Released". Pelgranepress.com. Retrieved August 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Allston, A. (August 1992). Wrath of the Immortals. Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition (AD&D2E). Lake Geneva, WI: TSR. ISBN 978-1-56076-412-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Carter, M. (December 2007). Races and Classes. Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) 4th edition. Renton, WA: Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-4801-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cook, D. (March 1989). Breault, M (ed.). Player's Handbook. AD&D2E. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-716-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cook, D. (June 1989). Spector, W.; Rabe, J.; Schend, S (eds.). Dungeon Master's Guide. AD&D2E. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-729-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cook, M.; Tweet, J. & Williams, S. (September 2000). Dungeon Master's Guide: Core Rulebook II. D&D 3rd edition. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-1551-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cook, M.; Tweet, J. & Williams, S. (July 2003). Dungeon Master's Guide: Core Rulebook II v.3.5. Revised by D. Noonan & R. Redman. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-2889-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Collins, A.; Noonan, D.; Wyatt, J. (2003). D&D v.3.5 Accessory Update Booklet (PDF). Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved March 12, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. (1977). Monster Manual. Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D). TSR. ISBN 978-0-935696-00-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. (1978). Player's Handbook. AD&D. TSR. ISBN 978-0-935696-01-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. (1979). Dungeon Master's Guide. AD&D. TSR. ISBN 978-0-935696-02-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (1974). Dungeons & Dragons (Original ed.). TSR.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (1977). Holmes, J. E (ed.). D&D: Basic Set. TSR. ISBN 978-0-394-51111-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (March 1981). Moldvay, T (ed.). D&D Fantasy Adventure Game: Basic Set. TSR. ISBN 978-0-394-51834-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (November 1981). Cook, D (ed.). D&D: Expert Set. TSR. ISBN 978-0-394-52198-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (May 1983). Mentzer, F (ed.). D&D Set 1: Basic Rules. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-338-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Arneson, D. (October 1983). Mentzer, F (ed.). D&D Set 2: Expert Rules. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-339-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gygax, G. & Mentzer, F. (January 1985). D&D Set 4: Master Rules. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-342-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hahn, J. A.; Mead, L.; Malcolmson, I. (2003). "Dungeons & Dragons FAQ". Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved April 3, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Holmes, J. E. (1981). Fantasy Role Playing Games. New York City, NY: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-88254-514-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Johnson, H.; Winter, S.; Adkinson, P.; Stark, E. & Archer, P. (October 2004). 30 Years of Adventure: A Celebration of Dungeons & Dragons. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-3498-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mentzer, F. (July 1984). D&D Set 3: Companion Rules. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-340-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mentzer, F. (June 1986). D&D Set 5: Immortals Rules. TSR. ISBN 978-0-88038-341-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Schend, S. E. (November 1991). Pickens, J; Warty, D (eds.). D&D Rules Cyclopedia. TSR. ISBN 978-1-56076-085-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tweet, J.; Cook, M. & Williams, S. (August 2000). Player's Handbook: Core Rulebook I. D&D 3rd edition. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-1550-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tweet, J.; Cook, M. & Williams, S. (July 2003). Player's Handbook: Core Rulebook I v.3.5. Revised by A. Collins. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-2886-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ward, J. M. (February 1990). Moore, R. E (ed.). "The Game Wizards: Angry Mothers from Heck (and what we do about them)". Dragon. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR (154): 9. ISSN 0279-6848.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Williams, S.; Cook, M. & Tweet, J. (October 2000). Monster Manual: Core Rulebook III. D&D 3rd edition. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-1552-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Williams, S.; Cook, M. & Tweet, J. (July 2003). Monster Manual: Core Rulebook III v.3.5. Revised by R. Baker. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 978-0-7869-2893-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Williams, S. (2000). "Conversion Manual" (PDF). Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved March 12, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>