Close-mid back unrounded vowel

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Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA number 315
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ
Unicode (hex) U+0264
X-SAMPA 7
Kirshenbaum o-
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨12px⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top. The symbol was revised to be ⟨Ram's horns.svg⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gammaɣ⟩.[2] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Chinese Mandarin /hē About this sound [xɤ˥]  'to drink' See Standard Chinese phonology
Taiwanese Hokkien /ô [ɤ˧] 'oyster' Mostly southern Taiwanese speech
English Cape Flats dialect[3] foot [fɤt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[3]
Indian South African[4] Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[4]
Received Pronunciation[5] long ago [lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯] 'long ago' Near-back; allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants.[5] See English phonology
White South African[6] pill [pʰɤ̟ɫ] 'pill' Near-back; allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[6] Also described as close [ɯ̟].[7]
Irish Ulster[8] Uladh [ɤ̟l̪ˠu] 'Ulster' Near-back.[9] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[10] [ˈᵐbɤ] 'tail' Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][11]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi [ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ] 'there' See Korean phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄] 'it was squeezed' May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Önge önge [ˈɤŋe] 'man'
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [d̪̊ɤrʲɤv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu [iɤ] 'this'
Thai[12] ธอ/thoe [tʰɤ̟ː] 'you' Near-back[12]
Xumi Upper[13] [Htsɤ] 'crown of a head' Occasional realization of /o/.[13]

See also

References

  1. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Finn (2004), p. 970.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Gimson (2014), p. 138.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Wells (1982), p. 617.
  7. Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  8. Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  9. Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  10. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677 and 682.
  11. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676 and 682.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.

Bibliography