Lebanon bologna

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Lebanon bologna is a type of cured, smoked, and fermented semi-dry sausage. Made of beef, it is similar in appearance and texture to salami, though somewhat darker in color. Lebanon bologna has a distinct tangy flavor, more so than other fermented meat products such as summer sausage. Hardwood smoking imparts a strong smoky flavor to the traditionally prepared versions of the product.


Lebanon bologna was developed in the 19th century by the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, reflecting the slow-cured and smoked sausage traditions of northern Europe. Still produced primarily in that area, it is nowadays available in markets throughout the United States and typically served as a cold cut as well as an appetizer. Four versions include original, sweet, double smoked, and honey smoked.


Lebanon bologna is slow cold smoked at a temperature below 120 °F (49 °C). Curing salts are added to control microbial growth during processing.[1]

Typically, the blended and stuffed beef sausage is aged for 10 days prior to smoking to enrich lactic acid bacteria and allow for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite.[2] Fermentation occurs during the smoking step, which can last for up to four days.[3] A one pH unit (or more) decline is observed during this step, as well as the development of nitrosohemochrome, the pigment responsible for the red color of cured meats.

See also


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