A Portuguesa (Portuguese)
The Portuguese Empire during the 20th century.
|•||1926||José Mendes Cabeçadas|
|•||1926||José Mendes Cabeçadas|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|•||Established||29 May 1926|
|•||Disestablished||19 March 1933|
|•||1930||92,391 km² (35,672 sq mi)|
|Density||73.9 /km² (191.3 /sq mi)|
Part of a series on the
|History of Portugal|
The Ditadura Nacional (Portuguese pronunciation: [ditɐˈðuɾɐ nɐsiuˈnaɫ], National Dictatorship) was the name of the Portuguese regime initiated by the election of President Óscar Carmona in 1928 (following all of the turbulence derived from the 28th May 1926 coup d'état, period which is named Ditadura Militar) that lasted until the adoption of the new constitution in 1933, when the régime changed its name to Estado Novo (New State). It is considered that the Ditadura Nacional, together with the Estado Novo, forms the historical period of the Portuguese Second Republic.
- May 27, The General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa arrives at Braga with the purpose of initiating a Coup d'état.
- The Republican Government and Prime Minister António Maria da Silva, knowing of the forthcoming coup, try to organize resistance, believing the uprising can be defeated.
- May 28, A military coup d'état (henceforth known as the 28th May 1926 coup d'etat) begins in Braga led by Gomes da Costa. Believing the attempt to have failed, Gomes da Costa announces his surrender.
- May 29
- The Portuguese Communist Party interrupts its 2nd Congress due to the political and military situation.
- The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) declares its neutrality in the military confrontations.
- The military coup spreads to the rest of the country, by influence of Mendes Cabeçadas, Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, and establishes the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) against the democratic but unstable 1st Republic.
- The Government of Prime Minister António Maria da Silva resigns.
- May 30
- June 3, António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance; he resigns 16 days after nomination.
- June 3, The Congress of the Republic of Portugal (National Assembly) is dissolved by dictatorial decree.
- All heads of Municipalities are replaced.
- The Carbonária is banned.
- All political parties are banned.
- June 17, General Gomes da Costa provokes a military coup.
- June 19, General Gomes da Costa becomes Prime Minister.
- June 22, Censorship is instituted.
- June 29, General Gomes da Costa becomes President of the Republic.
- July 9
- September 15 – Failed military coup.
- September 18 – Failed military coup.
- November 29 – General António Óscar Carmona becomes President of the Republic.
- December 16, The Police of Information of Lisbon, a Political Police, is created.
- February, Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional in Porto and Lisbon.
- March 26, The Police of Information of Porto, a Political Police, is created.
- May 17, Minimum school years are reduced from the 6th to the 4th grade; in all levels of non-university schooling students are divided by sex.
- The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) is dissolved.
- August – Failed right wing military coup.
- December 1 – Students demonstrate in Lisbon against the Ditadura Nacional.
- February, The Comissão de Propaganda da Ditadura (Commission for the Propaganda of the Dictatorship) is created.
- March 17, The Police of Information of Porto and Lisbon are fused.
- April 18, General José Vicente de Freitas becomes Prime Minister.
- April 26, António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance for the 2nd time.
- General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona remains President of the Republic.
- Acordo Missionário (Missionary Agreement) between the Catholic Church and the Portuguese Republic, giving special status to the action of the Catholic Church in Portugal's colonies.
- Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional.
- The Portuguese Communist Party's Main Office is closed.
- July 8, Artur Ivens Ferraz becomes Prime Minister.
- Roman Catholic religious institutes are again permitted in Portugal.
- The Portuguese Communist Party is reorganized under Bento Gonçalves. Adapting the Party to its new illegal status, the reorganization creates a net of clandestine cells to avoid the wave of detentions.
- January 21, Domingos da Costa e Oliveira becomes Prime Minister.
- The Acto Colonial (Colonial Act) is published, defining the status of Portuguese colonies (Portuguese Angola, Cabinda, Portuguese Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese Mozambique, Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Portuguese Macau).
- The fundamental principles of the new regime are presented by António de Oliveira Salazar in the 4th anniversary of the 28th of May Revolution.
- A new Constitution is approved in a referendum, defining Portugal as a Corporative, Single Party and Multi-continental country (in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).
- An authoritarian right-wing Dictatorial regime entitled Estado Novo is installed.
- The Single Party União Nacional (National Union) is created.
- The Estatuto do Trabalho Nacional (Code of National Labour) is published, prohibiting all free trade unions.
- A Political Police, the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado; State Defense and Vigilance Police) is created.
- Censorship, particularly of the Mass media, is systematic and generalized.