Fang Chih

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Dr
Fang Chih
方治
FangChiOkinawaMemorial1.jpg FangChiOkinawaMemorial5.JPG
The memorial to Fang Chi at Okinawa.
KMT Chairman of Fukien Province[1]
In office
1927–1929
President Chiang Kai-shek
Governor Sa Chen-Ping
Yang Shu-chuang
Constituency Fukien Province (Fujian Province)
KMT Chairman of Anhwei Province[1]
In office
1927–1929
President Chiang Kai-shek
Governor Ch'en Tiao-yuan
Han Kuo-chun
Constituency Anhwei Province (Anhui Province)
KMT Chairman of Tsingtao Municipality[1]
In office
1927–1929
Serving with Ma Fu-hsiang (Mayor)
President Chiang Kai-shek
Succeeded by Chen Tiao-yuan
Constituency Tsingtao (Qingdao)
Acting Minister of Information of the Republic of China[1]
In office
1930–1937
President Chiang Kai-shek
Constituency Republic of China
Commissioner of Education for Anhwei Province and Hupeh Province[1]
In office
1938–1939
President Chiang Kai-shek
Governor Liao Lei (Anhwei)
Constituency Anhwei Province (Anhui Province)
Hupeh Province (Hubei Province)
Chairman of the Transitional National Government Committee of the Ministry of Education[1]
In office
1940–1940
President Chiang Kai-shek
Constituency Republic of China
KMT Chairman of Chungking Municipality[1]
In office
1941–1946
Serving with Zhang Dulun (Mayor)
President Chiang Kai-shek
Constituency Chunking (Chongqing)
KMT Chairman of Shanghai Municipality[1][2]
In office
1946 – 25 May 1949
Serving with K. C. Wu (Mayor)
President Chiang Kai-shek
Preceded by Wu Shao-hsu
Succeeded by City taken by communists Chen Yi
Constituency Shanghai
Secretary General & Acting Governor of Fukien Province
and
KMT Chairman of Fukien Province[1][3]
In office
May 1949 – 23 November 1949 (From Kinmen after 17 August 1949)
President Chiang Kai-shek
Governor Zhu Shaoliang
Hu Lien
Vice President Li Zongren
Preceded by Zhu Shaoliang
Succeeded by Fukien Province, Republic of China Huang Jintao
Constituency Fukien Province (Fujian Province)
Secretary General & Chairman of the Free China Relief Association[1][4][5]
In office
1949–1972
President Chiang Kai Shek
Preceded by Organization Founded
Succeeded by Ku Cheng-kang
President of the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association[1][6][7]
In office
1958–1988
President Chiang Kai Shek
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Preceded by Organization Founded
Succeeded by David Chang Hsi-cheh[8]
Founder and Trustee of the Sino-Laotian Economic and Cultural Association
In office
27 August 1959 – 1988
President Chiang Kai Shek
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Preceded by Organization Founded
National Policy Adviser to the President
President Chiang Kai Shek
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Preceded by Various
Succeeded by Various
Constituency Republic of China
Personal details
Born Fang Chih
(1895-11-23)23 November 1895
Tongcheng, Zongyang County, Anhwei Province, Qing Empire
Died 28 March 1989(1989-03-28) (aged 93)
Taipei, Taiwan Province, Republic of China
Resting place Onna Village, Kunigami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan
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Citizenship Republic of China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Kuomintang
Alma mater Tokyo Higher Normal School
Tokyo Imperial University
Committees KMT Central Executive Committee
Central Advisory Commission
Chinese National Committee for World Refugee Year
Military service
Allegiance Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China
Service/branch Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg National Revolutionary Army
Rank Secretary General
Chief Executive
Unit Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Beijing-Hangzhou Garrison Corps, General Headquarters
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Beijing-Shanghai Garrison Corps, General Headquarters
Battles/wars World War II
Chinese Civil War: Fall of Shanghai, Guningtou
Korean War
Burma Campaign
Fang Chih
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 方治
Simplified Chinese 方治
Japanese name
Kanji 方治
Kana 方治先生は

Fang Chih, also known as Fang Chi and Fang Zhi, (Chinese: 方治; pinyin: Fāng Zhì), courtesy name: Xi Kong (希孔), (23 November 1895 – 28 March 1989) was a Chinese party boss, provincial governor, diplomat, scholar, author and a high-ranking official of the KMT in the service of the Republic of China.

Family History and Early Life

Fang Chih was born in Tongcheng, Zongyang County, Anhwei Province, Qing Empire in November 1895 to a family of the minor nobility with landed interests at Jiangning House, Liuhe County and at Tongcheng.[9] His father was Fang Rong (zh: 方蓉, pinyin: Fāng Róng), the middle son of Fang Lanfen (zh: 方蘭芬, pinyin: Fāng Lánfēn), a Qing dynasty author whose woodblock print work from 1841, National Kansai Lineage in Six Volumes is kept at the National Library of China.[10] He is a direct descendant of Fang Zhipu (zh: 方至朴, Fāng Zhìpǔ) and Fang Zhenru (zh: 方震孺, pinyin Fāng Zhènrú), an early Qing scholar, author, magistrate and Governor of Guangxi Province. He was also a descendant of Fang Bao (zh: 方苞, pinyin: Fāng Bāo), a distinguished Qing dynasty author[11] who founded the Tongcheng school of literary prose.[12][13]

His paternal uncles were Fang Quan (zh: 方荃, pinyin: Fāng Quán), a late Qing dynasty era prefect and Fang Zao (zh: 方藻, pinyin: Fāng Zǎo). Fang's father died when he was 1 or 2 years old in 1896 and his mother sent him to be raised by his paternal grandfather[14] or paternal uncle.

Education

Fang Chih graduated from Anhui Province Tongcheng Secondary School (zh: 安徽省桐城中学), known as a producer of many revolutionary Anhui leaders, which he attended alongside Zhang Bojun (zh: 章伯鈞), Wu Zipei (zh: 吴子培), and Yu Guanglang (zh: 余光烺) among other notable classmates. Due to the hostility between the Beiyang government regime and the KMT, many of the KMT families moved into exile in Japan and Chiang Kai Shek's Northern Expedition defeated Beiyang by 1928. In 1919, with financial support from his uncle, Fang Peiqing (zh: 方培卿, pinyin: Fāng Péiqīng),[15] Fang Chi went to Tokyo, Japan where he learned Japanese and pursued his studies at the Tokyo Higher Normal School (jp: 東京師範学校, Tōkyō Shihan Gakkō) and the Tokyo Imperial University (jp: 東京帝國大學, Tōkyō Teikoku Daigaku), graduating with a doctorate from its College of Arts and Science in 1927.[16]

Whilst at school, Fang was involved in the leadership structure of the KMT student groups active in Japan in the Chinese student community. These groups were founded by the Tongmenghui clique cemented in Japan by Wang Jingwei.[17] The KMT student organization was set up in the Kanda district where a Chinese communist group was already active at the Tokyo YMCA. Specifically, Fang was involved in countering Communist propaganda and student groups run by Japanese educated Chinese Communists such as Shi Qian (zh: 史迁, pinyin: Shǐ Qiān), Wang Buwen (zh:王步文), Tong Changrong (zh: 童长荣), Yu Dahua (zh: 余大化) and Fang Bin (zh: 房斌) at the Hubei Railway School of Tokyo or the Tokyo Railway Specialized School, a school set up by Zhang Zhidong for Chinese international students whose graduates went on to serve in the railway industry at Hubei for 6 years.[18]

Return from Japan

Fang Chih returned from Japan in 1927. After his return, he joined the Northern Expedition of Chiang Kai-shek working in Hubei, Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei Provinces where he gained the attention of General Chiang. He was made the Chairman of the Fukien Provincial Party Headquarters of the KMT at the suggestion of a fellow Japanese educated classmate Dai Chuanxian (zh: 戴傳賢, pinyin: Dài Chuánxián) with Chiang's approval. This role was expanded to oversee the KMT Chairmanship of Anhwei Provincial Party Headquarters and that of Tsingtao. Whilst in Anhwei, Fang Chi led a political purge of the local party together with Shao Hua on the orders of Chen Lifu (zh: 陈立夫, pinyin: Chén Lìfū) founder of the CC Clique or the Central Club Clique and head of the Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics of the Central Committee.[19] The purge mechanism in Anhwei later swept up his former rival and classmate from Japan, Wang Buwen who was arrested in April 1931 and executed the following month. His work during this period was focused primarily in Hupeh, Kiangsi, Qingdao, Nanking, Hunan, Anhwei and Fukien provinces in various military, political, party affairs and education related jobs.

His organizational skills and writing ability soon gained the attention of Chen Lifu, with whom he regularly corresponded. The connection with Chen Lifu aligned Fang with the CC Clique faction of the KMT and led to his increased involvement in the operations of the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics. By March 1929, he was promoted to Chief Secretary of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee by Shao Yuan-chong (zh: 邵元沖, pinyin: Shào Yuán Chōng) who was one of four people responsible for the lyrics of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. He was posted to Nanking and Shanghai. In 1930, he was acting Minister of Information and by September 1931, he was promoted to the Chief Secretary of the Publicity Committee.[20]

Information Ministry Activities

In the early 1930s, rumors in Shanghai began spreading of an assassination list compiled by a secretive KMT group that became collectively known as the Blue Shirts Society. By 1933, these rumors began to come into the mainstream Shanghai press, particularly due to articles printed in the left leaning China Forum published by American radical Harold Isaacs. On 20 July 1933, due to the perceived negative public perception, Fang published an article in the Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury denouncing the rumors and the existence of the Blue Shirts saying "No Blue Shirts; No (death) list, its all wrong."[21][22]

In fact, the Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, the CC Clique's counterintelligence organ was heavily involved in myriad kill or capture missions in Shanghai during this period. In 1929, Zhou Enlai returned to Shanghai, after a brief period of exile following the 1927 Shanghai Massacre, to set up the Communist response to the KMT Secret Police called the "Special Service Section of the Central Committee" or "Teke" (zh: 中央特科). The resulting tit for tat cycle of killings and retribution spiraled into a bloodbath culminating in the summer of 1931 with a full blown purge and the second flight of Zhou Enlai from the city.

In April 1931, KMT agents arrested Gu Shunzhang in Wuhan. Gu was one of Zhou's Aides of Security Affairs and his interrogation and subsequent defection from the Communists yielded to the Nationalists the entire scope of Zhou's operations in Shanghai and beyond.[23] On 21 June 1931, Gu's entire section of the Special Service was either captured or fled with 24 arrested including his superior and General Secretary Xiang Zhongfa in Shanghai and Cai Hesen in Hong Kong. Xiang was quickly executed after his interrogation and the resulting windfall of information led the KMT to conduct an even greater purge of the Communist intelligence networks. The scope of this purge was put at around 3,000 Communists by the French Intelligence Bureau of the Shanghai French Concession and lasted until at least 1934 as the Communists from Jianxi attempted to reestablish networks in Guangzhou and Shanghai under Chen Geng and Deng Zhongxia. Deng and Chen were both arrested though only Deng was executed as Chen had saved Chiang Kai-shek's life during a previous battle against the Warlord Chen Jiongming. As retaliation for his betrayal, Zhou ordered the execution of no less than 15 members of his immediate family and various members of the KMT's statistics bureau were also targeted and the "Teke" operation fled to the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet.[24]

Gu Shunzhang, who had alienated his Nationalist handlers by re-involving himself in Communist affairs despite Zhou's retribution was ordered to be shot. He was executed in Suzhou in December 1934 or June 1935.

By 1935, the counterintelligence situation had quieted down with most of the Communist networks significantly weakened. Fang was an elected to become a member of the Kuomintang Central Executive Committee,[25] attending the Kuomintang 5th National Congress in November[26] where he was confirmed as Deputy Minister of Propaganda. He was also transferred again, this time to Tsingtao Municipality where he again served as the KMT Chairman of the region.

CC Clique

In April 1935, whilst serving as Secretary of the Central Party Publicity Committee, he attended the Second National Motion-Picture Conference which was convened by the Central Party Publicity Committee in Shanghai. Fang used the motion picture industry in Shanghai to promote KMT party ideals to the people. Specifically, the national virtues of propriety, righteousness, honesty and honor were announced as central themes to future film projects. These national virtues propagated the ideas of the New Life Movement which was the brainchild of General Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling and was supported by the CC Clique and the Blue Shirts Society.[27]

In October 1935, Fang collaborated with Zhang Daofan (zh: 张道藩, pinyin: Zhāng Dàofān), Lei Chen (zh: 雷震, pinyin: Léi Zhèn), and Yu Shangyuan (zh: 余上沅, pinyin: Yú Shàngyuán) to build the Nanjing National Theatre Academy (zh: 南京戏剧学校) where Yu was installed as president. The school was run as an organ of the KMT Propaganda Department and the Ministry of Education. In 1938, a second school was opened in Sichuan, Jiang'an County and named the National Theatre Academy (zh: 国立戏剧专科学校). The development was significant because it was the first modern drama school for higher education ever built in China.

In November 1935 at a meeting of the KMT Big Five, Fang Chih was elected to the Central Committee of the Kuomintang cementing his position as a prominent fixture of the administration. In July 1936, there was a shakeup of the propaganda department after Liu Luyin (zh: 刘芦隐, pinyin: Liú Lúyǐn) was arrested on spy charges by Dai Li (zh: 戴笠, pinyin: Dài Lì) who was carrying out a purge of the party and Fang became the vice minister of the Board of Publicity.[25] On 13 August 1937, Fang was transferred to the Ministry of Education, a department run by Minister and KMT Party Chairman Wang Shijie (zh: 王世杰, pinyin: Wáng Shìjié). The following year, Chen Lifu was appointed as Minister of Education.

Ministry of Education

In October 1938, with the CC Clique's hold on the Ministry of Education in place, Fang Chih was appointed to the position of Education Commissioner of his native Anhwei Province (Anhui Province) and of Hupeh Province (Hubei Province).

In addition to his functions at the Education Ministry, Fang was also involved in anti-Japanese government propaganda leaflet drops over Japan during the war in his capacity as Deputy Minister of the Central Propaganda Department. On 19 May 1938, a squadron of two Chinese Air Force Martin B-10 bombers took off from Ningbo. The squadron flew over Nagasaki, Fukuoka, Kurume, Kyushu, Saga, and Sasebo distributing over 1 million leaflets containing various propaganda and disinformation, completing the mission with no human losses.[28]

In the late 1800s, Fang's uncle Fang Quan, who was a late-Qing era prefect and Tongcheng School literary figure, returned to Tongcheng to oversee the establishment of the Huabiao Primary School (zh: 华表小学), serving for a time as its principal. Continuing this tradition of establishing schools in their hometown, Fang oversaw the completion of Anhui Number 4 Provincial Primary School (zh: 安徽省省立第四临时小学会宫分校) in 1939.[29]

Chungking

In early 1941, Fang Chih was named the Party Boss and Chairman of the KMT in Chungking. He was again elected to the Central Executive Committee at the 6th National Congress of Kuomintang in May 1945. In January 1946, Fang Chih was involved in an effort to disrupt Communist rally activities in Chungking. The rallies which were held throughout January and early February, were hosted by high level Communist representatives like Zhou Enlai, Guo Moruo, Shen Junru, Luo Longji, Ma Yinchu, Li Dequan who acted as general chairman and Li Gongpu who acted as the organizational commander. Fang's agents spied heavily on the rallies in efforts to document the Communist opposition forces who were operating in the open following the Double Tenth Agreement. Fang also collaborated with Chen Lifu (zh: 陈立夫, pinyin: Chén Lìfū), Ye Xiufeng (zh: 葉秀峯, pinyin: Yè Xiùfēng) and Wang Sicheng (zh: 王思诚, pinyin: Wáng Sīchéng) to move against the Communists by mobilizing large scale anti-Soviet marches around Chungking.[30] From 16–19 January, Guo Moruo, Zhang Dongsun and other Communists were attacked. On 26 January, police raided the home of Huang Yanpei, a Democratic League agitator and CCP ally.

This series of confrontations boiled over on 10 February with the Jiaochangkou Incident which has been recorded as one of the major triggers leading to escalation in the Chinese Civil War.[31] The Communists were meeting to celebrate the People's Consultative Conference and the concentration of radical Communist elements attracted the KMT secret police who violently dispersed the crowd though no actual fatalities were recorded. Both the KMT and the Communists used the incident to push for military escalation. Mao Zedong pushed for the CCP to withdraw entirely from the unity government and to pursue a military campaign following the incident, which he argued could be taken to mean that Chiang Kai Shek was not committed to peace.[32]

People tend to forget this (Chiang's commitment to anti-Communism), especially when the situation quiets down a little. We forgot this in 1–9 February; but, we remembered this again after the Jiaochangkuo Incident... All that has happened lately proves that Jiang's anti-Soviet, anti-CCP, and anti-democratic nature will not change

— Mao Zedong

The KMT also used the incident to justify further crack downs on an increasingly active and anti-KMT CCP. Li Gongpu was assassinated by KMT agents on 11 July 1946 in Kunming. Li's funeral was also targeted on 15 July resulting in the assassination of Wen Yiduo.[33]

Shanghai

In October 1946, Fang Chih was made the party boss and chairman of the Shanghai KMT Municipal Government, replacing Wu Shao-hsu, one of his longtime rivals within the CC Clique.[34] He was also made General Secretary of the Beijing-Hangzhou Government Garrison Headquarters Standing Committee. With the cessation of all the foreign concession areas by 1946, the city, was entirely under Nationalist control.[35] During his tenure, Fang Chih collaborated with Du Yuesheng of the Green Gang to consolidate various agitation groups and to root out Communist activity.[36]

By May 1946, Fang was dealing with increasingly serious political tension between Communist and Government student groups. These tensions boiled over in June when the opposing groups staged demonstrations with the pro-government groups rallying on 21 June and the Communists on 23 June.[37]

Between 1946 and 1949 during Fang Chi's tenure in office, the population of Shanghai swelled from around 3.7 million in 1946[38] to 7.73 million in 1949[39] with Shanghai accounting for around 50 percent of all the factories in China, more than half of all Chinese shipping trade[40] and roughly 33 percent of China's total GDP.[41]

In 1947, Fang was elected to the political council of the Kwuomintang.[42] In September 1947, the Nationalist government attempted a ban on commercial dance halls as an austerity measure to be implemented due to the ongoing civil war.[43] In response to the unpopular decision, which was implemented slowly and reluctantly by the Shanghai government, 200,000 taxi dancers took to the streets and riots ensued.[44] Fang's propaganda machine attempted to ease the situation with statements saying that dancing girls should be redirecting their talents to reconstructing the country and eliminating the Communist bandits. He also made attempts to turn the selected dance halls that were actually closed into cafeterias employing the former taxi dancers.[45] In the end, the halfhearted ban served to drastically increase prostitution in the city, an issue that remained even after the government completely abandoned any further attempts to shutter the dance halls. Towards 1949, as a successful Nationalist defense of Shanghai became less likely, the problem became a useful way to lash out at the city's future management. By the time the Communists took over the city in 1949, there were around 40,000 licensed and unlicensed prostitutes operating in the city. The prostitution problem was a large obstacle for the Communists and remained an issue for them until around 1953 when prostitutes were sent en masse to labor camps.[46]

In August 1948, Fang delivered a speech to a large scale anti-Communist rally in Shanghai together with mayor K.C. Wu and Chairman of the City Council, Pan Kung-chan.[47]

In early 1949, the tide of the war was beginning to turn decidedly in favor of the Communists following the developments in the Huaihai and Pingjin Campaigns. The Nationalist army had lost around 1.5 million soldiers between 1948 and 1949.[48] On 6 January 1949, Fang made a proposal to send a delegation of Shanghai's citizens to speak with Communist officials, following a convening of Kuomintang policy makers which resulted in an agreement to attempt to sue for peace.[49] The move was seen as a response to the disobeying of Chiang Kai-shek's orders to march to the front and give battle by three Nationalist generals; Pai Chung-hsi, commander of the Hangkow Garrison holding the Yangtse River West of Nanking, Chang Chen, provincial commander of Hunan's Provincial Army whose troops were the only military force between the capital and the Communists to the north, and Chang Chien, commander of Changsha south of Hangkow. The three commanders had attempted to force Chiang's resignation by sending telegrams asking Chiang to take a "vacation" instead of giving battle to the Communists.[49]

Fang's action, which was made to stall for time, did little to hinder the opening of a new front in Anhwei by the Communists on 5 January, but it presented the quite accurate image of an increasingly desperate situation faced by the Nationalists. The situation was used as the background for Washington lobbyist William C. Bullitt who petitioned the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs for a military intervention.[49]

By April 1949, the Nationalist army was in full retreat and the Communist forces were advancing on Shanghai.[50] Earlier in the year, Fang Chi had been made Secretary General of the Beijing-Shanghai Garrison General Headquarters and was tasked with coordinating the retreat and relocation of personnel to Hong Kong and Taiwan.[2][51]

The Nationalist government did not allow most of the local population of the city to flee until the last possible moment for propaganda and psychological reasons resulting in a chaotic and disorganized retreat and a failure to effectively evacuate the city's wealth resulting not only in a devastating loss of people, property and financial assets. The excessive troop commitment to Shanghai's defense, which was a strategically unimportant city and only of political value, would go on to seriously hinder the fledgling Nationalist war effort. The KMT blunder at Shanghai, resulted in the further bleeding thin of its forces, and facilitated an easier campaign for the Communist victories at Ningbo, Wenzhou and Canton Province.

At 11:00 am on 24 May 1949, Fang gathered the foreign press at the Broadway Mansions where he announced the Nationalist plans to hold the city:[52][53]

In order to deal the fatal blow to the Communist bandits, the Government made a decision to defend Shanghai to the last. General Tang En-po, with the highest determination, the groundwork completed, with... strong defense works, huge manpower, endless reserves of wealth, and the highest morale yet seen, has determined to defend the land and the people... Shanghai’s defenders will hold out to the end... Every building in Shanghai is flying a Nationalist flag... the city will be defended street by street if necessary, even if it means the destruction of Shanghai... the Reds have lost 60,000 dead and wounded; 4,500 prisoners and 500 machine guns in besieging Shanghai. The Reds have suffered five casualties for every one sustained by the Nationalists... Being thoroughly trained and well-balanced correspondents, I would not doubt your duty to report this to the world... Shanghai will be defended like Stalingrad.

— Fang Chih, Escanaba Daily Press (1949)

On 25 May 1949, Fang Chi was forced to flee the city with the retreating Nationalist army together with Lei Chen, Ku Chen-kang, Chou Tse-jou and probably Tang Enbo, the last officials out of the city.[54] Shanghai fell to the CCP two days later on 27 May with approximately three fourths of the KMT defense forces killed or captured. Ironically, Fang's media statements threatening house to house fighting similar to the Battle of Stalingrad turned out to be disinformation as almost none of the fighting in the Battle of Shanghai took place inside the city. Some 153,000 Nationalist casualties were recorded which included the complete loss of the KMT 37th Army, the KMT 51st Army and 5 Traffic Police Divisions. Most of the survivors retreated to Taiwan via Kwangchow, Canton Province. In May, Fang Chih was installed as Secretary-General, KMT Chairman and Acting Governor of Fukien Province at Foochow.

Fukien Province and Retreat to Taiwan

Communist troops in Foochow after seizing Fukien Province in November 1949.

Mainland Fukien fell to the Communists in around November 1949 but many of its outlying islands including Qemoy (Kinmen) were successfully defended and the Republic of China retains control of them to this day. Pacification of the province by the Communist victors was not completed until February 1951. As a result of the fall of Mainland Fukien, the CCP set up Fujian Province with its capital at Fuzhou. The KMT, who retreated mainly to Taiwan, retained the province as Fukien Province and moved its capital from Foochow to Jingchen. The Battle of Guningtou proved to be the decisive battle that halted the Communist advance on many of the coastal islands still under KMT control, however many of these islands were later abandoned by the KMT or taken by force by the Communists during the First Taiwan Strait Crisis.

Later in 1949, Fang Chih was made Secretary-General of the newly founded Free China Relief Association, an organization that outwardly aimed to assist Chinese diaspora refugees displaced by the war and those still on the Mainland through relief aid. The organization was chaired by Ku Cheng-kang and its directors included Soong Mei-ling, Chen Cheng and Hu Shih amongst others.[55] In around 1954, the organization came under the umbrella of the Asian People's Anti-Communist League (APACL), a group founded jointly by Chiang Kai-shek of the ROC, Syngman Rhee of the ROK, and Elpidio Quirino of the Philippines. Ku Cheng-kang, Fang's partner at the FCRA would go on to head the APACL in Taipei and the two would continue this collaboration for the rest of their lives.[56]

In 1954, Fang Chih was involved in relief and publicity activities during the islands campaign in the final stages of the Chinese Civil War.[57]

Korean War

PVA soldiers captured by US Marines during the Battle of Hoengsong

During the Korean War, Fang Chih made several trips to the Korean peninsula where the KMT military was heavily involved in ground operations. Fang was in charge of an operation which saw the repatriation of Chinese "Volunteer" P.O.W.s to Taiwan as opposed to returning them to Mainland China. After the ceasefire which ended main phase of the Korean War , U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who negotiated the ceasefire himself, placed a provision in the agreement that Chinese prisoners of war would be allowed to choose where they would be repatriated. Contemporary Communist news sources attribute this decision to Fang Chih's "deception".[58] Of around 21,000 PVA prisoners, about 14,300 or two thirds of these prisoners held by the allies were sent to Taiwan[59] after the war due to the voluntary repatriation program.[60][61] The day of the prisoners return to Taiwan is now recognized as World Freedom Day in Taiwan and South Korea. The experiences of Chinese POWs during the Korean War have been fictionalized in Jin Xuefei's 2004 book War Trash.

Fang's role in the solicitation of mainland defectors or Anti-Communist Martyrs as they were known in Taiwan, expanded greatly during the Korean War and he later ran a program that rewarded mainland Chinese pilots with gold and other incentives if they defected to Taiwan with their warplanes.[62][63]

Golden Triangle

Following the defeat of the KMT in the Chinese Civil War, most of the Nationalist forces had retreated to Taiwan, however a significant portion of the Western army, which became known collectively as the Kuomintang 93rd Division, retreated from Yunnan Province into Burma and Thailand. Forces of the 15,000 strong KMT 13th Army under Li Mi established himself in Burma, nearly creating a Shan State and attempted to invade Yunnan Province no less than seven times.[64] The 3,000 strong KMT 3rd Army under General Ly Wen-huan established themselves in Tang Ngop, Chiang Mai Province and the 4,000 strong KMT 5th Army under General Tuan Shi-wen established themselves in Mae Salong, Chiang Rai Province.[65][66] From around 1949, Fang became heavily involved in anti-communist activities in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Burma and throughout Southeast Asia.

In late July and early August 1959, Fang was involved in FCRA operations in Laos, officially to help a group of around 8,000 displaced Chinese who had entered Laos as a result of political persecution in the mainland. On 4 August 1959, Fang reported that the group was drastically in need of supplies and had come from Yunnan Province.[67] On 27 August 1959, Fang Chi attended the foundation of the Sino-Laotian Friendship Society of which he was a trustee together with Ku Cheng-kang. The organization collaborated with the FCRA in an official capacity to bring relief aid to Chinese refugees in the Golden Triangle. The society also participated to an uncertain extent in operations with the Sananikone family's Veha Akhat and with the CAT though FCRA cooperation with the latter likely continued throughout the period.[68]

In January 1961, the Burmese military, in a secret alliance with the People's Liberation Army mounted a combined military operation against a major KMT base near the Mekong River. 5,000 Burmese troops and three divisions of the PLA attacked the fortified KMT base which was defended by an army of around 10,000 men. The operation was successful and the Burmese managed to defeat the KMT on 26 January though they retreated in good order. On 16[69] February 1961, a PB4Y-2 Privateer[69] or a B-24 Liberator[70] operating with the FCRA and carrying a payload of weaponry for the irregular troops who were retreating across the Mekong river into Laos and Thailand, was shot down by the Burmese Air Force resulting in a complaint being lodged at the United Nations. The aerial incident also involved the shooting down of a Burmese plane and the damaging of another suggesting that the mission could have been escorted by fighters. Fang accepted responsibility for the mission on behalf of the FCRA stating the private association's actions were completely separate from those of the Republic of China.[70]

Refugees and Disaster Relief

Fang Chih hands disaster relief supplies to an official from the Ministry of National Defense for distribution to the Mainland after the 1976 Tangshan earthquake.

The area of operations of the Free China Relief Association was not restricted solely to the Golden Triangle. The organization was deeply embedded in pursuing the various overseas interests of the ROC throughout Asia and in the west.

Fang was involved in refugee relief actions via the FCRA[71] and the Chinese National Committee for World Refugee Year of which he was Secretary-General. Fang represented the Republic of China together with Li Ten-ping, the Assistant Secretary-General of the International Labor Bureau, before the UNHCR in Geneva, Switzerland.[72] From 12 to 26 January 1960, the council met in Geneva, Switzerland where the executive committee, chaired by Dr. Elfan Rees discussed the year's agenda. At the conference, Fang outlined his objectives to deliver aid to refugees from Tibet together with John McCarthy, Director of the Department of Immigration at the National Catholic Welfare Council.[73] Fang also outlined goals of assisting Chinese refugees in Hong Kong.[74] In May 1960, his committee was responsible for raising around 10 million USD for Chinese refugees in Hong Kong where the FCRA had established an office since 1950[75][76] working closely with the Rennie’s Mill Camp Refugees Relief Committee.[77] Some of the money was funneled to KMT organizations in the area of Tiu Keng Leng or Rennie's Mill, known for some time as Little Taiwan, which was a major support base for the Taiwanese cause until 1996 when the Hong Kong Government cleared the land for redevelopment with an eye on the upcoming transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong.[75][78][79]

Attempts to evacuate ex soldiers living in the Rennie's Mill area of Hong Kong by the FCRA largely slowed or stopped in around 1980 when the duties of care and refugee relief in British Hong Kong were transferred from the Free China Relief Association to the Red Cross Society of China, after which no figures on evacuations to Taiwan were published.[80]

Following the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, the ROC mobilized the FCRA to organize disaster relief operations in the areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. The FCRA collaborated with the Bank of Taiwan to provide a large quantity of donated humanitarian aid and food items from the people of Taiwan and organized bulk shipments via the International Red Cross to be distributed in the mainland. Beijing refused the aid shipments and the FCRA decided to launch the aid parcels directly to the mainland using unmanned balloons in collaboration with the Ministry of National Defense. These actions apparently triggered the scrambling of MiG interceptors tasked with shooting down the balloons. ROC Ambassador to the U.S. James Shen confirmed ROC actions to provide mainland disaster relief:

...We would agree to have our help channeled through some international organization... We want to help the people. We have no quarrel with the people. They are our people. Our quarrel is with the Communist officials... (Peiping was handling the relief) in a typical Communist way, not in a typical Chinese way... They are more afraid of foreigners getting in than of their own people dying after an earthquake

— James Shen, This Month In Free China (October, 1976)

Taiwan's furious response to the mainland's refusal to accept the aid was a powerful piece of political drama at the time, serving its interests at home and abroad.[81]

Ryukyu

Portrait of the University of the Ryukyus from the 1960s.
Fang Chih meets with Dwight Eisenhower during the latter's trip to Kadena Air Force Base, 19 June 1960.

In 1958, Fang Chi founded and became the president of the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association (zh: 中琉文化经济协会) (jp: ちゅうりゅうぶんかけいざいきょうかい), an organization dedicated to maintaining cultural and economic dialogue between the people of Taiwan and Ryukyu-Okinawa.[82]

Following the Japanese surrender at the end of World War Two, the island of Okinawa was administered directly by the U.S. occupation forces from 1950 until May 1972 when the island was turned over to the Japanese government. The severance of official diplomatic relations between Japan and the Republic of China in September 1972 forced the association to effectively become the de facto embassy of the Republic of China in Okinawa. Fang's position at the Association demonstrated the importance the Republic of China placed on Okinawa / Ryukyu which hosted the largest U.S. military presence in the region. The military buildup on the island during the Cold War saw a dramatic increase in the strategic importance of the islands. Under the 1952 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the (USFJ) have maintained this large military presence.

A contemporary US Civil Administration report from 1965 described Fang as follows:[83]

...Actually he is one of the greatest brains of the Republic of China, serving as a national policy advisor to the President of the Republic of China and also as chief secretary for the Association for Relief of Compatriots in the Chinese Mainland (FCRA). The fact that he is concurrently serving as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the China-Ryukyu Cultural and Economic Relations Association shows the importance being attached by the Republic of China...

— United States Civil Administration, Office of Public Information, Ryukyu Islands (1965)

The office continues in its function under the same name[84][85] despite politically motivated attempts in 2006[86] to rename the office under the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office system.

In October 1985, Fang Chi convened the first Taipei-Naha Symposium which occurs annually alternating between Tokyo and Naha. The meetings were inaugurated after Professor Katsutaro Shimajiri (jp: 島尻勝太郎) of Okinawa University visited Taiwan in October 1983 for the purpose of a cultural exchange.[87]

Taiwan

Following the retreat to Taiwan, Fang was consistently involved in anti-Mainland propaganda until the time of his death.

In 1984, Fang wrote a column for Hong Kong magazine Cheng Ming where he attacked Mainland Chinese media censorship.[88]

In 1988, Fang was appointed the Vice-President of the Organization Conducting Relief Programs for Chinese Refugees Who Fled the Chinese Mainland For Freedom. Fang served together with Ku Cheng-kang who acted as president and C.C. Chen who served as its Secretary General.[89]

Marriage and descendants

Fang Chih married Masue Ueki (Fang Ih-chi, zh: 方益之, pinyin: Fāng Yìzhī), a Japanese woman,[1][90] and fellow student at the Tokyo Imperial University in around 1925. The couple had 11 children. Fang later married again in Taiwan and had 6 more children:

From Masue Ueki:

  • Fang Guangqi (zh: 方光琪)
  • Fang Guanglong (zh: 方光龍)
  • Fang Guanghu (zh: 方光虎)
  • Fang Guangying (zh: 方光瑛)
  • Fang Guangmei (zh: 方光𤧞)
  • Fang Guangpu (zh: 方光撲)
  • Fang Guangling (zh: 方光玲)
  • Fang Guangluo (zh: 方光珞)
  • Fang Guangan
  • Fang Guangxuan (zh: 方光璇)
  • Fang Guangpo (zh: 方光岶)

From Second Wife:

  • Fang Guanglong (zh: 方光龙)
  • Fang Guanghu (zh: 方光虎)
  • Fang Guangfu (zh: 方光福)
  • Fang Guangfu (zh: 方光富)

Three of his children, Fang Guanglong, Fang Guanghu and Fang Guangfu became notable Taiwanese scientists.[91] Fang Chih is also the maternal grandfather of American Fashion designer Anna Sui, a descendant of his first wife.[92]

Death and Legacy

The memorial to Fang Chi at Onna, Okinawa Prefecture.

Fang Chih died of natural causes on 28 March 1989 in Taipei, Taiwan Province, Republic of China at the age of 94.

A memorial and mausoleum[93] was built in his honor on Okinawa island complete with a statue bust and information on his accomplishments in Okinawa where he is remembered for his efforts to develop the post-World War II economy and for his influence in opening the island to trade with the Republic of China given the two islands' shared history of Japanese and Chinese influences. The phrases "I love China" and "I love Ryukyu" are engraved on the right and left sides of the statue respectively as a tribute to his connection with the people of the island and the people of Japan despite the turbulent political atmosphere of his times.

The tomb is located on Onna Hill facing the East China Sea on the outskirts of Onna Village in the Kunigami District of Okinawa Prefecture.[92]

Published Works

  • The following is an incomplete list of the works of Fang Chih
  • Fang, Chih (10 November 1934). Min-Tsu Wen-Hua Yu Min-Tsu Ssu-Hsiang: Wen-Hua Chien-She (National Culture and National Thought: Cultural Reconstruction).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fang, Chih (May 1936). Zhonguo jiaoyu dianying xiehui diwujie nianhui tekan 中國教育電影協會第五屆年會特刊 (Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the National Educational Cinematographic Society of China). Nanjing: National Educational Cinematographic Society of China.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fang, Chih (1967). Ryukyu is the Land of Ryukyu Islanders. 中美月刊, Volume 12, Issue 9 (Digital, 8 June 2010 ed.). New Taipei: Sino-American Cultural and Economic Association – via University of Minnesota.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fang, Chih (1969). The Content and Use of Chinese Local History. Salt Lake City: World Conference on Records and Genealogical Seminar, Area H-6, Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fang, Chih (November 1984). "Li Guangyi Released From Prison". Cheng Ming Magazine: 10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fang, Chih (May 1986). Wǒ Shēng Zhī Lǚ 我生之旅 滄海叢刊: 傳記 (My Journey) (Digital, 2 May 2007 ed.). New Taipei: 東大圖書股份有限公司 (Eastern Book Company). p. 306. ISBN 9789578539228 – via University of Michigan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Preceded by
?
KMT Chairman of Fukien Province[1]
1927–1929
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
KMT Chairman of Anhwei Province[1]
1927–1929
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
KMT Chairman of Tsingtao[1]
1927–1929
Succeeded by
Chen Tiao-yuan
Preceded by
?
Acting Minister of Information of the Republic of China[1]
1930–1937
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Commissioner of Education for Anhwei Province and Hupeh Province[1]
1938–1939
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Position created
Chairman of the Transitional National Government Committee of the Ministry of Education[1]
1940–1940
Succeeded by
Position ended
Preceded by
?
KMT Chairman of Chungking[1]
1941–1945
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Wu Shao-hsu
KMT Chairman of Shanghai[1]
1946–25 May 1949
Succeeded by
Shanghai Under Communist Control
Chen Yi
Preceded by
Zhu Shaoliang
Secretary General & Acting Governor of Fukien Province
and
KMT Chairman of Fukien Province[1]

May 1949–November 1949
Succeeded by
Hu Lien
Preceded by
Organization created
Secretary General of the Free China Relief Association[1][4][5]
1949–1972
Succeeded by
Ku Cheng-kang
Preceded by
Ku Cheng-kang
V President & Managing Director of the Free China Relief Association[1]
1972–1988
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Organization Created
President of the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association[1][6]
1958–1988
Succeeded by
David Chang Hsi-cheh[8]
Preceded by
Organization created
Founder and Trustee of the Sino-Laotian Friendship Society
27 August 1959–?
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Position created
Secretary General of the Chinese National Committee for World Refugee Year[94]
1960–1960
Succeeded by
Position ended
Preceded by
Various
National Policy Advisor to President[1]
?–1988
Succeeded by
Various
Preceded by
Position created
Vice President of the Organization Conducting Relief Programs for Chinese Refugees Who Fled the Chinese Mainland For Freedom[95]
1988–1989
Succeeded by
?

References

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  26. North, Robert Carver (1954). Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Elites. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 106–109. ISBN 0804715734.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Powell, J.W. (1935). "The China Monthly Review: Who's Who In China, Motion Picture Conference Speaker Says Film Should Be Instructive". J.W. Powell. p. 300. Retrieved 11 November 2015. A report on the work of the Film Direction and Guidance C: mittee during the past year was made by Fang Chih, Secretary of the Central Party Publicity Committee. He said that in order to supply the motion-picture companies with a central theme for their pictures, the Central Publicity Committee has decided upon using the New Life Movement as a suitable subject. The various students have been instructed to plan their pictures so that the national virtues of propriety, righteousness, honesty and honor will thereby be revived and promoted<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "美国为什么不轰炸日本皇宫". bbs1.people.com.cn. People's Daily. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015. 1938年5月19日深夜,中国空军轰炸机中队2架美制国马丁-B10(即马丁-139WC 型的外销型号)从宁波机场起飞,于次日凌晨2时许飞抵长崎,然后依次飞往福冈、久留米、佐贺、佐世保等其它九州城市,沿途投下的却并不是炸弹,而是——传单,这些传单是由中央宣传部副部长方治及其日裔夫人、军委会政治部第三厅厅长郭沫若和日本反战作家鹿地亘撰写和翻译,包括《告日本国民书》、《告日本工人书》、《告日本农民大众书》、《告日本士兵书》、《告日本全体劳动者书》、《告日本工商者书》等好几种,还有日本反战同盟编写的《反战同盟告日本士兵书》、《一桩真实事》两种,总数达百万份之多。2架轰炸机在九州上空飞行约两小时后返航,于8时45分在南昌机场降落,加油后再飞返汉口,人机均无损失。<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "古老而又年轻的会宫乡欢迎您". sina.com. Sina Weibo. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 会宫人历来重文尚读。清末,会宫老桥人曾任京师大学堂总教习,桐城文派晚期文学大师吴汝纶,专程回家乡在县城筹建桐城中学。清末民初,会宫城山人曾任云南兴义府知府的方荃,亦回家乡在会宫城山筹建“华表小学”,并亲自任校长,民国28年,方荃胞侄方治任安徽省教育厅厅长,重修华小,改华表小学为“安徽省省立第四临时小学会宫分校”。<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "较场口血案". baike.baidu.com. BaiDu. Retrieved 16 October 2015. 等19个团体发起, 定于2月10日上午在重庆较场口广场举行庆祝政协成功大会, 并邀请 李德全 为总主席, 李公朴 为总指挥, 推选李公朴, 郭沫若, 施复亮, 章乃器 等20余人组成大会主席团. 陈立夫 召集方治、, 叶秀峰 , 王思诚等人开会, 密谋破坏.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Groot, Gerry (2004). Managing Transitions: The Chinese Communist Party, United Front Work, Corporatism and Hegemony. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 1135952930. An infamous example of such GMD disruption was the Jiaochangkou incident of February 10. The PCC Promotion Association, together with representatives from the NCA, the National Salvation Association and the Sanmin zhuyi Comrades Association held a meeting in Chongqing attended by up to ten thousand people. Guomindang agents attacked many present, most notably the radicals Guo Moruo, Li Gongpu, Zhang Naiqi, and Shi Fuliang.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Sheng, Michael M. (1997). Battling Western Imperialism: Mao, Stalin, and the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691016356 – via Google Books. People tend to forget this, especially when the situation quiets down a little. We forgot this in 1–9 February; but, we remembered this again after the Jiaochangkuo Incident...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. O'Brien, Neil (2004). American Editor in Early Revolutionary China: John William Powell and the China Weekly/Monthly Review. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 1135945721 – via Google Books. In Kunming, on July 11, 1946, lower level officers assassinated Li Gongpu, a Yunnan University professor and prominent member of the Democratic League's Central Committee. Li had been shot through the abdomen as he left a theater with his wife. Immediately, newspapers began speculating that this was the start of a series of planned political assassinations...Four days later, a second important League member, Wen Yidou, a popular university literature professor and well known poet, was gunned down as he returned from a memorial service for Li Gongpu. Wen and his son had just finished listening to Li's wife deliver a eulogy for her murdered husband when they were hit by a fusillade of bullets outside the memorial building...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Jaffe, Philip J. (1947). Amerasia. Indiana University. ...Wu is a bitter rival of the ex-Commissioner, Wu Shao-hsu, who now heads the Shanghai Sai Min Chu I Youth Corps, and both these men are rivals of still another "CC" Clique leader, Fang Chih, who recently replaced Wu Shao-hsu as head of the Shanghai headquarters of the Kuomintang.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Camus, Dominique. ""Paris of the Orient" The Shanghai French Concession (1849-1946)". medicographia.com. Medicographia. Retrieved 14 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "方治其人" (PDF). jds.cass.cn. 中国社会科学院近代史研究所. 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. (1997). "The June Peace Marches". Student Protests in Twentieth-century China: The View from Shanghai (Illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. pp. 253–263. ISBN 0804731667 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Shanghai Population - October 1946 (PDF). Shanghai, ROC: Civil Affairs Department of the Shanghai Municipal Government. p. 1. 3,766,109<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Yeung, Yue-man (1996). Shanghai: Transformation and Modernization Under China's Open Policy (Illustrated ed.). Chinese University Press. p. 401. ISBN 9622016677 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Xue, Charlie Q.L. (2005). Building A Revolution: Chinese Architecture Since 1980. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9622097448 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Karatas, Muhammed (2010). Sustainable Economic Development and the Influence of Information Technologies: Dynamics of Knowledge Society Transformation: Dynamics of Knowledge Society Transformation: Advances in Electronic Government, Digital Divide, and Regional Development. IGI Global. p. 31. ISBN 1615207104.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Ambassador JL Stuart (18 April 1947). "The Ambassador in China (Stuart) to the Secretary of State, From FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 1947 VOLUME VII, THE FAR EAST: CHINA [DOCUMENT 85]". history.state.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved 14 October 2015. The standing committee of the Kuomintang CEC at the suggestion of President Chiang, approved the following list of members of the Political Council of the Kuomintang: Chang Jen-chieh, Yen Hsi-shan, Ho Ying-chin, Chen Chi-tang, Kan Nai-kwang, Tseng Yang-fu, Ku Cheng-ting, Lu Chung-lin, Li Yu-ying, Po Wen-wei, Cheng Chien, Hsu Yung-chang, Li Ching-chai, Yu Ching-tang, Fang Chih, Yuan Shou-chien, Feng Yu-hsiang, Hsiung Ke-wu, Li Tsung-jen, Chu Shao-liang, Hsu Kan, Peng Hsueh-pei, Chi Shih-ying, Cheng Yen-feng. Secretary General Chen Li-fu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Hershatter, Gail (1997). Dangerous Pleasures: Prostitution and Modernity in Twentieth-century Shanghai (illustrated, reprint ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 302. ISBN 0520204387.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Scott, Adolphe Clarence (1982). Actors are Madmen: Notebook of a Theatregoer in China (illustrated ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 71. ISBN 029908860X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. CHINA: Off with the Dance. New York: Time Magazine. 22 September 1947 – via time.com. The deadline remained unchanged. Said Fang Chih, Kuomintang leader: "I think no patriotic man or woman wants to embrace each other under soft lights... Dancing girls could be trained to acquire useful talents in reconstructing the country and wiping out bandits."<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Le Sueur, James D. (2003). The Decolonization Reader. Abingdon: Psychology Press. pp. 389–390. ISBN 0415231175.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Suppress-Reds rally in Shanghai". eresources.nlb.gov.sg/. The Singapore Free Press. 6 August 1948. Retrieved 8 January 2016. A large rebel suppression propaganda rally was held in Shanghai this week attended by many civil leaders and Government officials. Speeches were made by the Mayor, K.C. Wu, the Director of the Shanghai Kuomintang Headquarters Fang Chih, and the chairman of the City Council, Pan Kung-chan. Mr. Pan said the position of China in the community of nations had deteriorated considerable, mainly because of the Communist rebellion of the past three years. He pointed out that what the Reds had done was entirely against the national interests. The war, Mr. Pan said, was forced upon the Government because the Government wanted to preserve national independence and unity. Mr. Pan called for all-out support by the people of the Government's war effort. Mayor Wu pointed out that the Communists were plotting intrigues with the International, and urged all citizens to contribute their share either in money or in strength towards the cause of rebel suppression.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Lynch, Michael (2010). The Chinese Civil War 1945-49. Osprey Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9781841766713.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 A.A.P. Reuters (January 8, 1949). "Organized Peace Move In China". The Townsville Daily Bulletin. Brisbane. Retrieved March 9, 2016 – via National Library of Australia.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Jarman, Robert L. (1997). Taiwan: 1945-1949, Volume 8 of Taiwan: Political and Economic Reports, 1861-1960. Archive Editions. p. 510. ISBN 1852079452. ...were among the host of refugees who swarmed over to Formosa from Shanghai in the last week of April. They include Li Hsu-cheng, President of the Central Police School; Yu Hsu-ping, former Director of the Shanghai Police Bureau; Fang Chih, Chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Kuomintang Headquarters, who came to see K.C. Wu...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Jarman, Robert L. (1997). Taiwan: 1945-1949, Volume 8 of Taiwan: Political and Economic Reports, 1861-1960. Archive Editions. p. 396. ISBN 1852079452. Government, he proceeded to Pingtung and Takao on 14th April. It is understood that from Pingtung he will fly to Amoy. There has been considerable speculation over the purpose of Dr. Soong's visit. The fact that Dr. C.K. Yen had several interviews with...North China members of the Control Yuan and industrial leaders from North China have also arrived in Formosa. General Yen Hsi-shan, the Governor of Shansi Province, is expected to come to Formosa shortly for retirement, having abandoned all hope of saving his Province from the Communists. Chen Hsueh-ping, former Director of the Youth Department of Kuomintang Headquarters and Fang Chih, Chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Kuomintang Headquarters are expected here shortly. A report in the Shanghai press that General Chen Yi, the first Governor of Formosa after the Restoration, was to return to this island has been denied. On 24th April, however, a veritable invasion of Government officials, Military Officers and members of the Legislative and Control Yuan commenced, some 80 'planes arriving at Taipeh in one day. It is expected that this influx will increase as the situation in Shanghai deteriorates.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Schuman, Julian (2016). China: An Uncensored Look. New York: Open Road Media. ISBN 1504025296.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Reds Near Last Shanghai Lines". dailypress.net. The Escanaba Daily Press. 24 May 1949. Retrieved 8 January 2016. Reds Near Last Shanghai Lines; (City Tottering Point from Page One) ... The Communists smashed almost into Shanghai today. At nightfall evidence mounted that Nationalist forces were on the verge of abandoning the city. The hardest Red blows were directed at the southwestern section, where the Red drive pulled up at the famed 35 mile wooden fence, a smash that carried the Reds through Shanghai’s defenses in some spots. Vessels were sunk deliberately in the Whangpoo, Shanghai’s shipping lifeline. The channel to the Yangtze was blocked, a move likely to be made as a last resort before the Nationalists pulled out. Troops in large numbers seemed to be heading for Woosung, logical point to board outward bound ships. Wooden Fence Holds Shanghai was rife with rumors. One said the Reds were in the old French concession. But at 4 pm I visited the defenses on Hungjao road, other city entrances along the railroad and Lunghwa airfield. The whole arc was a scene of crowded confusion. But Nationalist defenses, while battered, had not broken. The The Reds definitely were not inside Shanghai. Some Nationalist troops were moving back. Most of them were supply units which move to and fro constantly. From these forward areas few units were leaving... riflemen moved up along with armored vehicles. The fact the Communists reached the wooden fence means that they got through most of Shanghai’s southwestern defenses. But at that point their attack seems to have bogged down and the Reds fell back. As a result they are still only part of the way through the hard crust of the southwestern defenses. They might be able to break through with another punch unless the Nationalists can counterattack. Shipping Blocked, Three small tankers in the Whangpoo. just off the bund, were sunk by Nationalists to block off part of the channel and a section of the docks. One of two old riverboats was sunk purposely in the same area. Every building in the city flew Nationalist flags. Garrison officials said this was a “spontaneous” celebration of the people of the “gallant” defense of Shanghai. It was believed widely that the police circulated through the city last night and ordered all to display the Nationalist colors before today’s victory parade. Fang Chih, secretary general of the garrison political council, said Shanghai’s defenders would hold out to the end. He said the city would be defended street by street if necessary, even if it meant destruction of Shanghai, a city of 5,000,000. Fang said the Reds had lost 60,000 dead and wounded; 4.500 prisoners and 500 machine guns in besieging Shanghai. The Reds have suffered five casualties for every one sustained by the Nationalists, he said. (Chinese war figures are often exaggerated). (Communist radio in Peiping broadcast that a bulletin of “great importance” will be announced tomorrow. There was no hint as to the contents of the bulletin.) The Communist radio last night said Red positions on the east bank of the Whangpoo at Shanghai were so strong that river traffic was blocked.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Consul Cabot (25 May 1949). "The Consul General at Shanghai (Cabot) to the Secretary of State, From FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1949 VOLUME VIII, THE FAR EAST: CHINA, DOCUMENT 406". history.state.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved 14 October 2015. Twenty-seven Chinese Air Force planes left Kiangwan southward this morning, including according to press General Chou Tse-jou. Presumably some of remaining Nationalist VIPs, such as Kmt C–C leaders Lei Chen, Fang Chih and Ku Chen-kang, on board.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. China Handbook 1956-57. Taipei: China Publishing Company. 1956. p. 221 – via Cornell University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Gülstorff, Torben (February 2015). "Cold War International History Project, Working Paper #75, Warming Up a Cooling War: The CIAs and Other Global Anti-Communist Networks During the Era of Detente" (PDF): 34–35. Retrieved 23 November 2015 – via Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The leaders of the APACL branches were truly well connected with politicians and members of the governments of their respective states, which granted many of their organizations a solid financial basis. Ku Cheng-Kang, former general and minister, Member of Parliament, chairman of the National Assembly, and senior leader of the KMT in Taiwan, was joined by Park Chung-hee, president of South Korea from 1961 to 1979, and Choi Doo-sun, prime minister of South Korea from 1963 to 1964, Nguyễn Tiến Hỳ, secretary general of the conservative Vietnamese party Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng, Tsai Chang, external minister on the Ryuku Islands, and Leonel Borralho, a senator in Macao, just to mention some of the organizations leaders. Consequently, governments—especially the ones in Taiwan and South Korea—were important ‘investors’ of the APACL network. Furthermore, the KMT—and indirectly the CIA as well—had been an important supporter of the network since its beginning. In the mid-1950s, CIA drug trafficking for the KMT in Burma was uncovered by media. The KMT and the CIA had sold drugs to earn money for the funding of the guerrilla war the KMT fought against the People’s Republic of China. In the aftermath of this exposure, the CIA changed the ‘technical implementation’ of the drug trafficking. In 1954, the Taiwanese organization Free China Relief Association was founded to handle future transports, putting the KMT in charge. The latter made the organization a member of the APACL, based in the same office rooms as the Taiwanese APACL organization, and redirected some of the drugtrafficking profits into the network. This direct linkage of the APACL with the unconventional warfare of the KMT, its high dependence on Taiwan and South Korea—two countries on constant red alert for a Communist attack -- caused a radicalization of the APACL anticommunism to a level, which was almost incomparable to the ones of the CIAS and the CIADC<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "11 Red Junks And Gunboats Sunk in Raids". Oshkosh Daily Northwestern. Taipeh. September 28, 1954. p. 2. Retrieved 11 November 2015. TAIPEH, Formosa U.P.)--Chinese Nationalist P47 Thunderbolts flying through heavy typhoon weather sank 11 Communist junks and gunboats and damaged scores more today in raids off the coast of Fukien Province near Amoy Island. Nationalist air force headquarters said the Reds apparently were massing their junk fleets under the cover of the typhoon. The Nationalist navy began a stepped-up patrol action off the coast in an attempt to discover other concentrations of Communist vessels. A Nationalist relief official said the Communist Shelling of Quemoy Island has caused the death of 27 Civilians and rendered 1,465 Civilians homeless. Fang Chih, Secretary<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Survey of China Mainland Press, Issues 643-660". U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong. 1953. p. 30. Retrieved 16 October 2015. Fang Chih, accompanied by the American camp commandant, visited each compound and made speeches to the P.O.W.s, openly threatening them not to demand repatriation but to go to Taiwan. The "delegation" also forcibly distributed so-called "comfort articles" to the captured Chinese People's Volunteers.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. MacLeod, Lijia (28 June 2000). "China's Korean War POWs find you can't go home again". www.japantimes.co.jp. The Japan Times. Retrieved 8 January 2016. Yet these were the patriots. Zhang and the rest of the aging chorus in Wuhan last month were among some 6,000 captured Chinese soldiers who insisted on returning home; over 14,000 fellow POWs preferred exile in Taiwan. The POW dilemma deadlocked peace negotiations that began in July 1951. The protagonists finally signed an armistice in July 1953, though a peace treaty still eludes the divided peninsula.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Halpin, Dennis P. (16 November 2015). "Could North Korea again save Taiwan?". nknews.org. NK News. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Truman’s successor, Dwight Eisenhower, went even further. Not only did he fulfill the pledge “I shall go to Korea” to help end the conflict there but his administration resisted Chinese pressure in armistice negotiations by allowing two-thirds of the 21,000 Chinese POWs to resettle in Taiwan rather than being forcibly repatriated to mainland China. A U.S. mutual defense treaty with Taiwan was signed in 1954 and Congress expressed its solidarity in defending Taiwan by passing the Formosa Resolution in 1955. After provoking a further crisis with the shelling of the offshore islands of Quemoy and Matsu which figured prominently in a Kennedy-Nixon presidential debate in 1960, Mao backed off, turning inward to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. The North Korean-provoked war had indeed saved Taiwan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. T. HARRISON, LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAM. "MILITARY ARMISTICE IN KOREA: A CASE STUDY FOR STRATEGIC LEADERS". Retrieved 17 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "Defecting Chinese Pilot Flies MIG-19 to Taiwan". nytimes.com. New York Times. 14 November 1983. Retrieved 23 November 2015. TAIPEI, Taiwan, Monday, Nov. 14— A Chinese Air Force pilot flew a MIG-19 jet fighter to Taiwan today and asked for political asylum, the Defense Ministry reported. He was the second Chinese Air Force pilot to defect this year. The Nationalist Chinese Government on Taiwan has a standing reward of gold worth millions of dollars for any pilot in the Communist Chinese Air Force who defects with his warplane. The amount depends on the type of plane. A Defense Ministry spokesman identified the pilot as Wang Xuechen, 26 years old, but did not give his military rank. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Berger, Carl (1956). An Introduction to Wartime Leaflets. Washington, D.C.: Special Operations Research Office, The American University. p. 74.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. NICK 锐立 (18 February 2013). "In Mae Salong, Home of the KMT's 'Forgotten' 93rd Division, Watching CCTV". nickandbayley.wordpress.com. Wordpress. Retrieved 24 November 2015. This is a home of the survivors and descendents of the Guomindang’s (KMT) 93rd Division, a component of General Li Mi’s 15,000-strong 13th Army of Yunnan Province that retreated to the border of British Burma in 1948-9. Initially supported by the CIA and the KMT government in Taiwan, Li proclaimed an independent Shan state after Burma’s independence, and dedicated his “Anti-Communist National Salvation Army” to the eventual overthrow of the PRC. He was able to “recruit” local chiefs and thousands of tribesmen into his force, and benefited from the fact that Burma was fighting four other insurgencies, two of them communist, at the time. During the Korean War, his army attempted to invade Yunnan no less than seven times. But as the politics of Southeast Asia became increasingly hostile to western imperialism, it became clear to the US that the KMT’s presence there was doing more harm than good for the anti-communist cause. Reluctantly, the Taiwan government repatriated General Li and 7,000 of his troops to Taiwan in 1953. But nearly 10,000 remained. They stayed, living out the rest of the decade in the jungles of eastern Shan state, receiving a dwindling stream of supplies from Taiwan, and fighting the Burmese government’s increasingly capable forces. By 1960, the gig was up: Burmese Premier U Nu and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai negotiated the delineation of their undefined border, and joined their forces in an attempt to annihilate this leftover remnant of the Chinese Civil War.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. NICK 锐立 (18 February 2013). "In Mae Salong, Home of the KMT's 'Forgotten' 93rd Division, Watching CCTV". nickandbayley.wordpress.com. Wordpress. Retrieved 24 November 2015. In the subsequent fighting, dubbed the “Chinese-Burma Border Survey Security Campaign” 中缅边境勘界警卫作战, the “lost division” escaped annihilation but were pushed out of their sanctuary. Under General Tuan Shiwen, about 4,000 of them turned south. In 1961, they arrived across the Thai border. They were given sanctuary, but on one condition: they had to help Thailand in the north fight its own growing communist insurgencies. The army was not well-supplied. Support from their former government in Taiwan had stopped, and the Thai government was wary to provide them with too much. Meanwhile, the hilltops of Mae Salong, where they settled among the native hill tribes, could not produce nearly as much food as their former home in Burma. So they did what plenty of other Chinese armies under corrupt, unsavory warlords in the 20th Century had done (including Mao’s), and started growing opium. Soon, as major players in the trade coming out of the Golden Triangle, the leaders of Mae Salong would contribute much to the boom in worldwide heroin supply (and addiction) in the 1960s and 1970s.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Gray, Dennis D. (7 June 1987). "The Remaining Veterans of China's 'Lost Army' Cling to Old Life Styles in Thailand". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Chinese Refugees Stranded In Laos". newspapers.com. Tucson Daily Citizen. 4 August 1959. Retrieved 27 January 2016. Some 8,000 Chinese refugees from Red China are now stranded in Laos, the secretary-general of the Free China Relief Assn. reported today. Fang Chih, who recently visited the refugees, said they were tribesmen from mountainous regions of Yunnan Province. He said they fled in rebellion against the Communists' commune system. He reported the refugees are living in sheds or tents in the mountains and are in dire need of food, housing, clothes, medicines, farm tool and seeds.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Scott, Peter Dale (2013). The War Conspiracy: JFK, 9/11, and the Deep Politics of War (Reprint ed.). Skyhorse Publishing. p. 448. ISBN 1628735643. On August 27, Oudone Sananikone attended the foundation in Taiwan of a Sino-Laotian friendship society, whose trustees included Ku Cheng-kang and Fang Chih.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. 69.0 69.1 Taylor, Robert H. (1973). Foreign and domestic consequences of the KMT intervention in Burma, Issue 93 of Data paper. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Dept. of Asian Studies, Cornell University. ISBN 0877270937 – via University of Michigan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. 70.0 70.1 Robbins, Christopher (2012). Air America. London: Hachette UK. ISBN 1780224494 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Macao Condemned For Repatriating M'land Refugees. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 7 January 1968 – via Taiwan Today. The Free China Relief Association (FCRA) Jan. 1 voiced its indignation at the Macao government for repatriating 12 freedom seekers to the mainland. It demanded that the free world condemn the Macao government for having violated human rights and the International Refugees Agreement to which Portugal is a signatory state. Fang Chih, spokesman and secretary general of FCRA, pointed out that the 12 youths escaped from the mainland to Macao on the eve of Christmas in the hope that the Macao government would, in the spirit of universal love, grant political asylum to them. The Macao government arrested the 12 and returned them to Red China on the ground that they were "illegal immigrants." Very probably, said Fang, these 12 youths will be persecuted by the Chinese Communists.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "SUMMARY 0F PROCEEDINGS: UNHCR Tuesday, January 12th, I96O" (PDF). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 12 January 1960: 12. Retrieved 24 November 2015. The needs of the Tibetan refugees, most of whom fled their country at the beginning of the World Refugee Year, were brought before the Conference by Mr. Fang Chih (Republic of China) and Mgr. MacCarthy NCWC). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "SUMMARY 0F PROCEEDINGS" (PDF). jdc.org. United Nations. 26 January 1960. Retrieved 27 January 2016. The needs of the Tibetan refugees, most of whom fled their country at the beginning of the World Refugee Year, were brought before the Conference by Mr. Fang Chih (Republic of China) and Mgr. MacCarthy NCWC).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "SUMMARY 0F PROCEEDINGS" (PDF). jdc.org. United Nations. 26 January 1960. Retrieved 27 January 2016. Mr. Fang Chih, Chinese National Committee, and Pastor Stumpf, Hong Kong, presented the needs of the Chinese refugees.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. 75.0 75.1 Issues & Studies, Volume 8, Issues 7-12. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, Republic of China (Zhonghua min guo guo ji guan xi yan jiu suo). 1972 – via University of California. The Free China Relief Association established an office in Hong Kong in 1950. The office actively ... It has established a refugee camp at Tiu Keng Ling. ... According to the records, well over 310,000 men were benefited by its relief and help.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Tsao, W.Y. (1 May 1960). "Free China Review, Volume 10" (Digital, 12 May 2009 ed.). Free China Review – via University of Michigan. Mr. Fang Chih, secretary-general of the Chinese National Committee for World Refugee Year, reported that the WRY Relief Committee in Geneva has appropriated US$10,000,000 for the relief of the 1,450,000 Chinese refugees in Hongkong. He expressed the hope that the money will be well spent under the joint supervision of the Chinese WRY National Committee, the Government of Hongkong and the United Nations for the relief of Chinese refugees in Hongkong.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Mark Chi-Kwan (2007). The ‘Problem of People’: British Colonials, Cold War Powers, and the Chinese Refugees in Hong Kong, 1949–62 (PDF) (Report). Royal Holloway, University of London. pp. 10–12. Retrieved March 24, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Tatlow, Didi Kirsten (29 July 1996). "Hong Kong's "Little Taiwan" - and Flags - Passing Into History". news.google.com. The Day. Retrieved 8 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. FCRA Relief Work in Hongkong and Macao. Free China Relief Association. 1965. p. 46 – via University of Michigan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Selya, Roger Mark (2004). Development and Demographic Change in Taiwan (1945 - 1995). World Scientific. p. 332. ISBN 9814483788 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "This Month In Free China". taiwanreview.nat.gov.tw. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 1 October 1976. Retrieved 24 November 2015. Fang Chih, vice president of the Free China Relief Association, turns over relief rations for mainland earthquake victims to the defense departments that arranged delivery from free floating balloons.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Ryukyuan Leader Urges More Trade With Taiwan". www.taiwantoday.com. TAIWAN JOURNAL 舊資料, Taiwan Today. 26 July 1964. Retrieved 13 October 2015. Ajitomo Ahyshi, vice president of the Ryukyuan-Chinese Cultural and Economic Association, on July 22 called on tire Chinese government and business circles in Taipei to expand trade and strengthen cultural relations with the Ryukyus. Ohyshi made the remarks at a dinner given in his honor by the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association. He called the attention of Chinese government leaders and businessmen to the fact that there is a possibility of two-way trade between free China and the Ryukyus amounting to more than US$100 million every year.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Ryukyu Islands (United States Civil Administration, 1950-1972). Office of Public Information, Ryukyu Islands (United States Civil Administration, 1950-1972). Office of Public Affairs, Ryukyu Islands (United States Civil Administration, 1950-1972). Office of the High Commissioner, Ryukyu Islands (United States Civil Administration, 1950-1972). Public Affairs Dept. Ryukyus Today. Office of Public Information, U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Island. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Wei, Yun-ling; Huang, Maia (5 June 2012). "Taiwanese woman to receive gold medal from Japanese Red Cross Society". taiwanembassy.org. Tsai Hsueh-ni, president of the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association, said Saturday that she will travel to Japan May 8 to receive the award, which will be conferred by Empress Michiko, honorary president of the association.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. "Representative Offices". @llo Expat. Retrieved 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Yu, Peter Kien-hong; Chow, Emily W; Kao, Shawn S F (2010). International Governance, Regimes, and Globalization: Case Studies from Beijing and Taipei (illustrated ed.). Lexington Books. p. 136. ISBN 0739143212. By the end of 2006, Taipei will change the Sino-Ryukyuan Cultural and Economic Association (SRCEA), its private diplomatic representation in Okinawa, into the Naha Branch of the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan. Naha is the capital of Okinawa Prefecture. Taipei said it has never denied that Okinawa belongs to Japan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. The International Society for Ryukyuan Studies (1991). "Sino-Ryukyuan Research Cooperation" ((Newsletter No. 11) :12–12. doi ed.). The Ryukyuanist: The International Society for Ryukyuan Studies. This remarkable Sino-Ryukyuan research cooperation began when a group of Ryukyuan scholars led by the late Professor Katsutaro Shimajiri of Okinawa University visited Taiwan in October 1983. A Taiwan group returned the courtesy by visiting Ryukyu in October 1985. At this meeting of the two groups, it was agreed to hold symposia in Taipei and Naha alternately every other year. The first meeting was convened by three distinguished Chinese scholars such as Fang Chih, Crren Chi-lu and Chang Hsi-che. It has produced an impressive proceedings volume of more than 600 pages containing papers presented at eight panels of the symposium |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Fang, Chih (November 1984). "Li Guangyi Released From Prison". Cheng Ming Magazine: 10. Recently there has been news of the release by Beijing of fairly many political prisoners and "speech prisoners." Not to speak of the others, Li Guangyi has already been released. Li Guangyi had been the chief editor of CAIMAO BAO; published in Beijing, and a few years ago had been sentenced to 5 years and thrown in prison. The charge was "revealing to foreigners important party and state secrets." At that time some news workers were of the opinion: "When he associated with foreigners, if they 'had a question' he "had an answer," but his answers were on matters of no importance and yet were reckoned as "revealing' something!" Some persons in political circles proposed that Li Guangyi be "reinstated in his former post" and then be promoted from his post at CAIMAO BAO to the post of chief editor of JINGJI RIBAO. The news makes us rejoice. What the result will be we do not yet know, but it is hoped that after Li Guangyi, all political prisoners, "speech prisoners, and prisoners who "revealed secrets," who have suffered an injustice, will regain their freedom. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Tʻai-wan Chih Nan (Digitized 31 Jan 2008 ed.). Taipei: China News. 1988. p. 170 – via University of California.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. 汪, 军. "我的族兄汪少伦". aqdzb.aqnews.com.cn. 民国版《中国之路》封面. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 多年前金杏村老人在世时,和我聊起桐城籍国民党官僚方治,此人曾担任过国民党中宣部代理部长,娶的老婆是日本人,两个儿子一个叫方光龙,一个叫方光虎,无论是相貌还是读书,特别优秀,给金杏村老人留下了深刻的印象。2004年我们高林汪氏开始修谱,推举我任主编,一次我翻阅资料,见有一户人家几个子女都是清一色的留美医科博士,且名字都挺欧化,非常惊讶,再一看,原来他们都是汪少伦子女。看来,身为教育家的汪少伦教子有方。不管是方治也好,汪少伦也好,章伯钧也好,桐城人教育子女确实有一套功夫。<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. "【方氏研究】桐城会宫方氏". tieba.baidu.com. Baidu. 31 May 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 方治之子方光龙、方光虎、方光福三兄弟均是台湾著名的科学家<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. 92.0 92.1 "琉球之友". ryukyushimpo.jp (in Japanese). Ryukyu Shimpo. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 恩納村の高台の木立に大きな墓苑がある。中央には東シナ海を遠く見つめる男性の胸像がありその背後の石碑には大きく琉球之友と記されている。在台湾の民間窓口である中琉文化経済協会初代理事長方治氏の墓苑である。方治氏は世界的に活躍するデザイナー「アナ・スイ」の実の祖父として知られており数年前には彼女自身が恩納村に墓参りに訪れ話題をよんだ。方治氏は台琉交流の旗頭として戦後ながきに渡り沖縄のために農業、産業、文化、人的交流、また台湾への多数の留学生の保証人としての受け入れにご尽力された。石碑には墓苑建立に携わり沖縄の戦後復興に力を注がれた偉大な方々の名前が刻まれている。琉球を熱愛し第二の故郷とした方治氏の墓苑そのものが、その当時の台湾と琉球の篤(あつ)き交流の形を今に伝える。 現在、方治氏の意志を受け継ぎ現任の理事長蔡雪泥女史(74)が台琉交流のために奔走されている。蔡女史は家政、服飾、美容等の分野で教鞭(きょうべん)をとられ成功を収めていたが44歳より児童教育事業への転身を決め、台湾で公文式教育の創始者となった。沖縄県第一号終身民間大使である蔡女史は台湾の教育、福祉におけるその豊富な経験を沖縄のために全力で注がれている。 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "沖縄の文化には、日本の文化と、中国の文化が、融合している所があります。". Mazba.com (in Japanese). Mazba. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 恩納村前兼久にある、陵墓の丘にあがってみます。陵墓の丘からは、前兼久の海が見えます。このお墓の上の方に、台湾から来た沖縄を切り開いた先駆者の銅像・顕彰碑があります。方治先生の銅像です。方治先生は、戦後の琉球の経済・教育・文化の発展に尽力した人です。この方が沖縄を開いたのです。具体的には、沖縄の特産物であるパイナップルやバナナの苗をうまく斡旋し、その生産の技術指導や台湾の留学生を受け入れ人的交流などを盛んに行いました。 沖縄と台湾の交流の窓口となった人です。周りをみるととても美しい景色です。山頂部には別荘がそびえています。こうして名を遂げて銅像・顕彰碑を作るとその後の維持・管理、 草を刈る、道をふさぐものを綺麗にするという事は、その後の子孫の仕事になります。子孫がきちんとしてくれないと、草に埋もれてしまうこともあります。 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. "A summary of important events from March 16 to April 15, 1960". Taiwan Today. Taipei. 1 May 1960. Retrieved 11 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Tʻai-wan Chih Nan (Digitized 31 Jan 2008 ed.). Taipei: China News. 1988. p. 170 – via University of California.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

es:Fang Chih