Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Hibiscus Brilliant.jpg
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Brilliant'
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species: H. rosa-sinensis
Binomial name
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Hibiscus arnottii Griff. ex Mast.
  • Hibiscus boryanus DC.
  • Hibiscus cooperi auct.
  • Hibiscus festalis Salisb.
  • Hibiscus liliiflorus Griff. ex Mast.
  • Hibiscus rosiflorus Stokes
  • Hibiscus storckii Seem.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus,[2] China rose,[2] Hawaiian hibiscus,[2] and shoeblackplant,[3] is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae, native to East Asia. It is the most widely used flower in laboratory experiments by scholars and universities to study floral characteristics.

Solid red flower
Pollen parent
Pink and white flower
Pod parent
Yellow and pink flower
One offspring
White flower
Another offspring
Example: two crosses of 'King Kalakua' and 'Mystic Pink'. The photographs demonstrate that the flowers of the offspring plants have almost no color characteristics of the parent plants, and few of the physical characteristics.

Description

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers.[4]

Vegetative characters

The root is a branched tap root. The stem is erect, green, cylindrical and branched. The leaf is simple, with alternate phyllotaxy and is petiolate. The leaf shape is ovate, the tip is acute and margin is serrated. Venation is unicostate reticulate. (Venation is branched or divergent.) Free lateral stipules are present.

Floral characters

The flower is complete (bisexual), actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, and solitary.[citation needed] It can bloom all year round. [5]

Cultivation

It is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and subtropics. As it does not tolerate temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), in temperate regions it is best grown under glass. However, plants in containers may be placed outside during the summer months or moved into shelter during the winter months.[4][6]

Numerous varieties, cultivars, and hybrids are available, with flower colors ranging from white through yellow and orange to scarlet and shades of pink, with both single and double sets of petals. The cultivar 'Cooperi' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[7]

Ecology

Despite its size and red hues, which are attractive to nectarivore birds, it is not visited regularly by hummingbirds when grown in the Neotropics. Generalist species, like the sapphire-spangled emerald, Amazilia lactea, or long-billed species, like the stripe-breasted starthroat, Heliomaster squamosus, are occasionally seen to visit it, however.[8] In the subtropical and temperate Americas, hummingbirds are regularly attracted to it.[9]

The stamens of the flower are partly fused into a cylinder that surrounds the style

Nomenclature

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was named by Carl Linnaeus. The Latin term rosa-sinensis literally means "rose of China", though it is not closely related to the true roses.[10] It is often known among the Chinese as zhū jǐn 朱槿, which literally means "vermilion hibiscus". It also has many other names in Chinese: fú sāng 扶桑, fó sāng 佛桑, chì jǐn 赤槿, sāng jǐn 桑槿, rì jí 日及, huā shàng huā 花上花, zhào diàn hóng 照殿紅, zhuàng yuán hóng 狀元紅, dà hóng huā 大紅花, and so on. It also has prominent presence in the various parts of the Indian subcontinent. It has several names in different languages:

  • Marathi - जास्वंद
  • Bangla - Jaba (জবা)
  • Tamil - sembaruthi (செம்பருத்தி)
  • Hindi - गुड़हल, गुड़हर, अड़हुल, जपा,[11] जवा कुसुम[12]
  • Malayalam - cemparatti (ചെമ്പരത്തി)
  • Oriya - Mandara
  • Sinhala - Wada Mala (වද මල) / Sapaththu mala ( සපත්තු මල)
  • Telugu - Mamdaram (మందారం)
  • Indonesian - Kembang Sepatu
  • Filipino - Gumamela
  • Myanmar - Khaung-Yann (ခေါင်ရမ်း)
  • Punjabi - Salu

National symbol

A dark pink cultivar

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia, called Bunga Raya in Malay. Introduced into the Malay Peninsula in the 12th century, it was nominated as the national flower in the year 1958 by the Ministry of Agriculture amongst a few other flowers, namely ylang ylang, jasmine, lotus, rose, magnolia, and medlar. On 28 July 1960, it was declared by the government of Malaysia that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis would be the national flower.

The word bunga in Malay means "flower", while raya in Malay means "celebratory" or "grand". The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is literally known as the "celebratory flower" in Malay. The red of the petals symbolizes the courage, life, and rapid growth of the Malaysian, and the five petals represent the five Rukun Negara of Malaysia. The flower can be found imprinted on the notes and coins of the Malaysian ringgit.

Cultural references

Uses

A white cultivar

The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are edible and are used in salads in the Pacific Islands.[citation needed] The flower is additionally used in hair care as a preparation. It is also used to shine shoes in certain parts of India. It can also be used as a pH indicator. When used, the flower turns acidic solutions to a dark pink or magenta color and basic solutions to green. It is also used for the worship of Devi, and the red variety is especially prominent, having an important part in tantra. In Indonesia, these flowers are called "kembang sepatu", which literally means "shoe flower". In several countries the flowers are dried to use in a beverage, usually tea.

Pink Hibiscus in South India

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology.[13] It may have some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.[14]

Genetics

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of many plant species with a genetic characteristic known as polyploidy, in which there are more than two complete sets of chromosomes, unlike most other species.[15] A side effect of polyploidy is a condition where the phenotype of the offspring may be quite different from the parent, or indeed any ancestor, essentially allowing possibly random expression of all (or any) of the characteristics of all the generations that have gone before. Because of this characteristic, H. rosa-sinensis has become popular with hobbyists who cross and recross varieties, creating new named varieties and holding competitions to exhibit and judge the many resulting new seedlings and often strikingly unique flowers..

Often the progeny of these crosses are sterile, but some are fertile, further increasing the complexity of variability and the possibility of a virtually unlimited number of eventual Hibiscus rosa-sinensis varieties. This further attracts the hobbyists, who have created local and international associations, societies, publications, and manuals to further this hobby, which is practiced with these tropical plants worldwide, including indoors in cold climates.

Gallery

Cultivars with flowers of many colours are used as ornamental plants:

See also

Footnotes

  1. "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 13, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". Retrieved 2 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Hibiscus rosa-sinensis - Chinese Hibiscus, Shoeblackplant, Tropical Hibiscus, Red Hibiscus - Hawaiian Plants and Tropical Flowers". wildlifeofhawaii.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Hibiscus: A Plant That Blooms All Year". aces.edu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Gast, Ross H. "The Cultural Potential of the Hibiscus to Southern California". The Arboretum - arboretum.org. Retrieved March 29, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Cooperi'".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Baza Mendonça & dos Anjos (2005)
  9. "Hibiscus rosa-sinensis". tropicalplantbook.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Hindi sabdsagara.
  12. "What does hibiscus mean?". definitions.net.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.
  14. Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane. 2011. Study on anti-solar activity of ehanolic extract of flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 4(3): 472-473.
  15. "IPCN Chromosome Reports".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

References

External links