Adolf Strauss

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Adolf Strauss
File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-037-34A, Russland, Generaloberst Adolf Strauß.jpg
Adolf Strauss (right)
Born (1879-09-06)6 September 1879
Schermcke
Died 20 March 1973(1973-03-20) (aged 93)
Lübeck
Allegiance  German Empire (to 1918)
 Weimar Republic (to 1933)
 Nazi Germany
Service/branch German Army
Years of service 1898–1945
Rank Generaloberst
Commands held II. Armeekorps
Battles/wars

World War I


World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Adolf Strauss[Note 1] (6 September 1879 – 20 March 1973) was a German Generaloberst ("Colonel General"). He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. This award was given to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.

Early life

Strauss was born in Schermcke, Saxony-Anhalt.

Career

On 15 March 1898, Strauss joined the Imperial German Army. After serving various roles throughout World War I, Strauss was retained in the Reichswehr. On 1 December 1934 he was promoted to Generalmajor.

As Commanding General of the Second Army Corps, Strauss participated in the German Invasion of Poland. On 30 May 1940, he was appointed Oberbefehlshaber (supreme commander) of the 9th Army in France.

Strauss then moved East for Operation Barbarossa with Army Group Centre. In January 1942 he was replaced in command of the 9th Army by Walter Model following the initial breakthrough of the Soviet forces during commencement of the Rzhev Battles.

For health reasons, he stepped down from command on 16 January 1943. After his recovery, he was appointed as Commandant of the Fortified Eastern area.

Later life

After the war he was held in British captivity until being released in May 1949. He died on 20 March 1973 in Lübeck.

Decorations

Wehrmachtbericht references

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
Thursday, 7 August 1941 Am Verlauf dieser gewaltigen Schlacht waren die Armeen des Generalfeldmarschalls von Kluge und der Generalobersten Strauß und Freiherr von Weichs, die Panzergruppen der Generalobersten Guderian und Hoth sowie die Luftwaffenverbände der Generale der Flieger Loerzer und Freiherr von Richthofen ruhmreich beteiligt.[2] During the course of this great battle, the armies of Field Marshal von Kluge and the Colonel General Strauß and Freiherr von Weichs, the Panzer groups of Colonel-General Guderian and Hoth, and the Luftwaffe detachments of the generals of the Air Loerzer and Freiherr von Richthofen were involved gloriously.
Saturday, 18 October 1941 (Sondermeldung) An der Durchführung dieser Operationen waren die Armeen des Generalfeldmarschalls von Kluge, der Generalobersten Freiherr von Weichs und Strauß sowie Panzerarmeen der Generalobersten Guderian, Hoth, Hoeppner und des Generals der Panzertruppen Reinhardt beteiligt.[3] (Special Bulletin) In the execution of these operations were involved, the armies of Field Marshal von Kluge, the Colonel-Generals Freiherr von Weichs and Strauss as well as tank armies of Colonel-General Guderian, Hoth, Hoeppner and General of Panzer Troops Reinhardt.
Sunday, 19 October 1941 An der Durchführung dieser Operationen waren die Armeen des Generalfeldmarschalls von Kluge, der Generalobersten Freiherr von Weichs und Strauß sowie Panzerarmeen der Generalobersten Guderian, Hoth, Hoeppner und des Generals der Panzertruppen Reinhardt beteiligt.[4] In the execution of these operations were involved, the armies of Field Marshal von Kluge, the Colonel-Generals Freiherr von Weichs and Strauss as well as tank armies of Colonel-General Guderian, Hoth, Hoeppner and General of Panzer Troops Reinhardt.

Notes

  1. Or Adolf Strauß in German, with a "sharp S"; see ß.

References

Citations

  1. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 414.
  2. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 639.
  3. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, pp. 701–702.
  4. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 702.

Bibliography

  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Mitcham, SW (2010) : Men of Barbarossa ISBN 978-1-935149-15-6
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, 1 September 1939 to 31 December 1941] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
none
Commander of 22. Infanterie-Division
15 October 1935 – 10 November 1938
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Hans Graf von Sponeck
Preceded by
none
Commander of II. Armeekorps
September 1939 – 30 April 1940
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel
Preceded by
Johannes Blaskowitz
Commander of 9. Armee
30 May 1940 – 14 January 1942
Succeeded by
Walter Model