|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||100,000|
|Predominantly Moroccan Arabic, Berber dialects|
|Predominantly Islam (Sunni, Nondenominational Muslims, Sufi); minority Judaism, Christianity|
In addition to the 33 million Moroccans in Morocco, there are large migrant populations of Moroccan origins in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and smaller groups in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Arabian Peninsula and in other Arab states.
- 1 Berber genetic identity
- 2 Physical anthropology of Moroccans
- 3 Y-DNA of Arabs
- 4 Physical differences between Berbers and Arabs of Morocco
- 5 Culture
- 6 Languages
- 7 Ethnic group
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Berber genetic identity
Moroccans primarily descend from Berbers, Arabized Berbers and Haratin/Gnawa, like other neighboring Maghrebans. As such, Berbers are descendants of the prehistoric populations of Morocco via the Iberomaurusians and Capsians.
The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the Mesolithic period, perhaps in the context of the Capsian culture. By 5000 BC, the populations of Morocco were an amalgamation of Ibero-Maurisian and a minority of Capsian stock blended with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution. Out of these populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late Paleolithic era.
Physical anthropology of Moroccans
In traditional physical anthropology, the indigenous Berbers of Morocco and elsewhere in the Maghreb are among the various Hamitic inhabitants of Africa, representing the westernmost branch. As such, the principal morphological element in the local population is the Mediterranean type (Atlanto-Mediterranean and Basic Mediterranean).
The skin of some Moroccans darkens readily under the influence of sunlight, and many of them become quite dark in the exposed parts of the body, which is typically a Mediterranean characteristic. Riffians and other Berbers of Atlas mountains of Morocco show a high percentage of blondism, higher than the other Berber groups in North Africa and some parts in Southern Europe, with about two thirds of Riffians being pinkish-white skinned with mixed or light eyes (reaching ⅘ or 80% in central Rif); the rest are of Mediterranean (mainly of classic Mediterranean or Berberid type, but many Moroccan Berbers show some blending with Classic Mediterraneans).
Nordics are ancient in Northern Africa as the Egyptian monuments of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2000 B.C.), and perhaps older. They survive today mostly in the mountains of the Rif, in Atlas Mountains of Morocco and the Canary Islands. Moroccans in general are the most Lighted haired people in Africa . blondism is more common in the Rif, and less common in the Middle Atlas and the Atlantic seacoast; >45% of Berber Moroccan population has blond or light brown hair, in the rest of Morocco is just less than 25% of the Population are blond. Moroccan Berbers of the Rif Mountains and Middle Atlas mayhave the highest percentages of Light Eyes in Continental Africa. In the Rif, dark eyes are found among 30% of the men, mixed eyes 45%, and light eyes in 25%; and the mixed eyes have green or blue elements rather than gray
The first anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in North Africa are the makers of the Aterian, a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool culture. The earliest Aterian lithic assemblages date to around 145,000 years ago, and were discovered at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco. This industry was followed by the Iberomaurusian culture, a backed bladelet industry found throughout the Maghreb. It was originally described in 1909 at the site of Abri Mouillah. Other names for this Cro-Magnon-associated culture include Mouillian and Oranian. The Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusian makers were centered in prehistoric sites, such as Taforalt and Mechta-Afalou. They were succeeded by the Capsians. The Capsian culture is often thought to have arrived in Africa from the Near East, although it is also suggested that the Iberomaurusians may have been the progenitors of the Capsians.
Y-DNA of Arabs
Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Arab tribes expelled of Arabia for their turbulence, Banu Hilal and Sulaym, whose presence was very painful for farmers in the Nile Valley because the Arabs often came plunder.
|Arabs (Morocco)||AA (Semitic)||49||—||75.5||—||0.0||20.4||—||—||0.0||3.8||—||Semino2004|
|Berbers (Marrakesh)||AA (Berber)||29||—||92.9||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||Semino et al. 2000|
|Berbers (Middle Atlas)||AA (Berber)||69||—||87.1||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||Cruciani et al. 2004|
|Shilha (Southern Morocco)||AA (Berber)||40||2.5||85||—||0||2.5||0||0||—||—||0||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Berbers (North central Morocco)||AA (Berber)||40||0||93.8||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Alvarez et al. 2009|
|Riffians (North Morocco)||AA (Berber)||54||0||95.9||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
|Beni Snassen (Northern Morocco)||AA (Berber) & (Semitic)||67||0||95.1||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
Physical differences between Berbers and Arabs of Morocco
This section may stray from the topic of the article. (January 2014)
It is easier to tell a Berber from an Arab by dress and behavior than by external physical characteristics, but there are statistical differences, particularly between the tribal Arabs and the mountain Berbers.
The highest frequencies of L-mtDNA in Moroccan cities is reported for the Moroccan Arabs of the surrounding area of El Jadida at 46%. Harich et al 2010
Frequencies (> 1%) of L-mtDNA
|Country||Ethnic Group||Number tested||Reference||L-mtDNA%|
|Morocco||Moroccan (Arabs)||81||Harich et al. (2010)||46%|
|Morocco||Moroccan Arabs||56||Turchi et al. (2009)||30.00%|
Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences (Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries, particularly Algeria and Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain.
Morocco influenced modern day Europe, in several fields, from architecture to agriculture, and the introduction of Moroccan numbers, widely used now in the world.
Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly known as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha (بلغه). These are soft leather slippers with no heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often with silver or gold tinsel.
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish architecture; it has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These piercings provide light and ventilation.
Moroccan cuisine primarily consists of a blend of Berber, Moorish and Arab influences. It is known for dishes like couscous and pastilla, among others. Spices such as cinnamon are also used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other confections. Cuisines from neighbouring areas have also influenced the country's culinary traditions.
Additionally, Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery-making, pottery, leather-work and woodwork.
The music of Morocco ranges and differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi (الشعبي) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa is a form of music that is mystical. It was gradually brought to Morocco by the Gnawa and later became part of the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy.
The majority of the population speaks Moroccan Arabic. More than 12 million Moroccans speak Berber varieties either as a first language or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic. Three different Berber dialects are spoken: Riff, Shilha and Central Atlas Tamazight.
Hassaniya Arabic is spoken in the southern part of the country. Morocco has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms.
Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as a foreign language. Meanwhile, English is increasingly becoming more popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields.
The main ethnic groups are:
- "World Factbook - Morocco". CIA. Retrieved 15 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Répartition des étrangers par nationalité". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Être né en France d'un parent immigré". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fiches thématiques - Population immigrée - Immigrés - Insee Références - Édition 2012, Insee 2012
- "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2009 - No. 60 Subject 2 - Table NO.24". Israeli government. Retrieved 12 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Qatar´s population by nationality". bq magazine.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011)
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3
- Abdallah Laroui, The History of the Maghrib (Paris 1970; Princeton 1977) at 17, 60 (re S.W.Asians, referencing the earlier work of Gsell).
- Camps, Gabriel (1996), Les Berbères, Edisud, pp. 11–14, 65<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- J. Desanges, "The proto-Berbers" 236-245, at 237, in General History of Africa, v.II Ancient Civilizations of Africa (UNESCO 1990).
- Mário Curtis Giordani, História da África. Anterior aos descobrimentos (Petrópolis, Brasil: Editora Vozes 1985) at 42-43, 77-78. Giordani references Bousquet, Les Berbères (Paris 1961).
- The Encyclopedia Americana: C, Volume 6. Grolier Incorporated. 2001. p. 85. ISBN 0717201341. Retrieved 20 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Coon, Carleton Stevens (1939). "The Mediterranean World". The Races of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 480–482. OCLC 575541610. Retrieved 16 June 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Coon, Carleton Stevens (1939). "The Mediterranean World". The Races of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. Plate 30. OCLC 575541610. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
A Riffian from the coastal village of Ajdir, in the tribe of Beni Uriaghel. In pigment, in measurements, and morphologically this Riffian is as perfect a Nordic as one could find in northern Europe. Nordics are ancient in Northern Africa as the Egyptian monuments of the Middle Kingdom, and perhaps older. They survive today mostly in the mountains of the Rif, Atlas mountains, Soussi of Souss valley, the Canary Islands and the Chleuhs.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Genetic Atlas". thegeneticatlas.com. Retrieved 2015-10-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Genetic Atlas - E1b1b Meditid mutative history". www.thegeneticatlas.com. Retrieved 2015-10-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Genetic Atlas - E1b1b Meditid mutative history". thegeneticatlas.com. Retrieved 2015-10-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Ibn Khaldun, laudateur et contempteur des Arabes - persee.fr". Persee.fr. Retrieved 2015-10-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Semino, O; Magri, C; Benuzzi, G; Lin, AA; Al-Zahery, N; Battaglia, V; MacCioni, L; Triantaphyllidis, C; et al. (2004). "Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; Kouvatsi, A (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; et al. (May 2004). "Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74: 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509. Explicit use of et al. in:
- "Bosch et al. 2001" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Alvarez, Luis; Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Caeiro, Blazquez; Baali, Abdellatif; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Aluja, Maria Pilar (2009). "Y-chromosome variation in South Iberia: Insights into the North African contribution". American Journal of Human Biology. 21 (3): 407–409. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20888. PMID 19213004.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Berbers: Linguistic and genetic diversity
- Hoppenstand, Gary (2007). The Greenwood encyclopedia of world popular culture, Volume 4. Greenwood Press. p. 112. ISBN 0313332746. Retrieved 18 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>