North Korean cult of personality

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
The former version of the Mansudae Grand Monument in Pyongyang with Kim Il-sung (left) and Kim Jong-il. The current structure has Kim Jong-il wearing a different jacket.

The North Korean cult of personality surrounding North Korea's ruling family, the Kims,[1] has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture.[2] Although it is not officially recognized by the North Korean government, there are often stiff penalties for those who criticize or do not show "proper" respect for the regime.[3][4] The personality cult began soon after Kim Il-sung took power in 1948, and was greatly expanded after his death in 1994.

While other countries have had cults of personality to various degrees (such as Joseph Stalin's in the Soviet Union), the pervasiveness and extreme nature of North Korea's personality cult surpasses that of Stalin or Mao Zedong.[5] The cult is also marked by the intensity of the people's feelings for and devotion to their leaders,[6]:25 and the key role played by a Confucianized ideology of familism both in maintaining the cult and thereby in sustaining the regime itself.


The cult of personality surrounding the Kim family requires total loyalty and subjugation to the Kim family and establishes the country as a one-man dictatorship through successive generations.[7] The 1972 constitution of the DPRK incorporates the ideas of Kim Il-sung as the only guiding principle of the state and his activities as the only cultural heritage of the people.[8] According to New Focus International, the cult of personality, particularly surrounding Kim Il-sung, has been crucial for legitimizing the family's hereditary succession,[9] and Yong-soo Park noted in the Australian Journal of International Affairs that the "prestige of the Suryong [supreme leader] has been given the highest priority over everything else in North Korea".[10]

Kim Il-sung developed the political ideology of the Juche Idea, generally understood as self-reliance, and further developed it between the 1950s and the 1970s. Juche became the main guide of all forms of thought, education, culture and life throughout the nation[11] until Kim Jong-il introduced the Songun (military-first) policy, which augments the Juche philosophy[12] and has a great impact on national economic policies.[13]

At the 4th Party Conference held in April 2012, Kim Jong-un further defined Juche as the comprehensive thought of Kim Il-sung, developed and deepened by Kim Jong-il, therefore terming it as "Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism" and that it was "the only guiding idea of the party" and nation.[14][15][16]

North Korean authorities have co-opted portions of Christianity and Buddhism,[17] and adapted them to their own uses, while greatly restricting all religions in general as they are seen as a threat to the regime.[18][19] An example of this can be seen in the description of Kim Il-sung as a god,[20] and Kim Jong-il as the son of a god or "Sun of the Nation",[21] evoking the father-son imagery of Christianity.[20] According to author Victor Cha, during the first part of Kim Il-sung's rule, the state destroyed over 2,000 Buddhist temples and Christian churches which might detract from fidelity to Kim.[22]:73 There is even widespread belief that Kim Il-sung "created the world" and that Kim Jong-il controlled the weather.[23] Korean society, traditionally Confucian, places a strong emphasis on paternal hierarchy and loyalty. The Kims have taken these deeply held traditions and removed their spiritual component, replacing them with loyalty to the state and the ruling family in order to control the population.[24] Despite the suppression of traditional religions, however, some have described Juche, sociologically, as the religion of the entire population of North Korea.[25]

According to a 2013 report by New Focus International, the two major North Korean news publications (Rodong Sinmun and the Korean Central News Agency) publish around 300 articles per month relating to the "cult of Kim".[26] The report goes further and suggests that with the death of Kim Jong-il, the average North Korean citizen is growing weary of the vast amount of propaganda surrounding the Kims.[26] DailyNK likewise published in 2015 that the younger generation is more interested in the outside world and that the government is finding it difficult to secure the loyalty of the "jangmadang" (marketplace) generation and promoting the idolization of Kim Jong-un.[27]

The DPRK government claims there is no cult of personality, but rather genuine hero worship.[28]

Kim Il-sung

A mural of Kim Il-sung giving a speech in Pyongyang.

The personality cult surrounding Kim Il-sung is by far the most widespread among the people.[29] While there is genuine affection for Kim Il-sung, it has been manipulated by the government for political purposes.[30]

The cult had its beginnings as early as 1949, with the appearance of the first statues of Kim Il-sung.[31] The veneration of Kim Il-sung came into full effect following a mass purge in 1953.[32] In 1967, Kim Jong-il was appointed to the state propaganda and information department, where he began to focus his energy on developing the veneration of his father.[33]:39 It was around this time that the title Suryong (Great Leader or Supreme Leader) came into habitual usage.[34]:40 However, Kim Il-sung had begun calling himself "Great Leader" as early as 1949.[31]

Hwang Jang-yop, the highest level North Korean defector, has noted that the country is completely ruled by the sole ideology of the "Great Leader". He further said that during the De-Stalinization period in the USSR, when Stalin's personality cult was criticized in 1956, some North Korean students studying in the Soviet Union also began to criticize Kim Il-sung's growing personality cult and when they returned home they "were subject to intensive interrogation that lasted for months" and "[t]hose found the least bit suspicious were killed in secret".[35]

According to official biographies, Kim Il-sung came from a long lineage of leaders and official North Korean modern history focuses on his life and activities.[32] He is credited with almost single-handedly defeating the Japanese at the end of the occupation of Korea (ignoring Soviet and American efforts)[36] and with rebuilding the nation after the Korean War. Over the course of his life he was granted many titles of esteem such as "Sun", "Great Chairman", "Heavenly Leader" and others, as well as awards like the "Double Hero Gold Medal".[32][37][38] These titles and awards were often self-given and the practice would be repeated by his son.[38] The Korean Central News Agency (the official government news agency) continually reported on the titles and perceived affection granted to Kim Il-sung by world leaders including Mao Zedong of China, Fidel Castro of Cuba and Jimmy Carter of the United States.[37]

Large portraits on the wall of the Grand People's Study House, facing Kim Il-sung Square in Pyongyang, North Korea.

All major publications (newspapers, textbooks etc.) were to include "words of instruction" from Kim Il-sung.[32] Additionally, his name must be written as a single word in one line, it may not be split into two parts if there is a page break or the line of text runs out of room (example: Kim Il-sung, not Kim Il-...sung).[39]

North Korean children were taught in school that they were fed, clothed and nurtured in all aspects by the "grace of the Chairman".[32] The larger elementary schools in the country have a room set aside for lectures that deal specifically with Kim Il-sung (known as the Kim Il-sung Research Institute). These rooms are well taken care of, are built of high quality materials, and have a model of his birthplace in Mangyongdae-guyok.[40] The size of the images of him which adorned public buildings are regulated to be in proportion to the size of the building on which they hang.[41] His place of birth has also become a place of pilgrimage.[32]

Kang Chol-hwan wrote of his childhood in North Korea:

To my childish eyes and to those of all my friends, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il were perfect beings, untarnished by any base human function. I was convinced, as we all were, that neither of them urinated or defecated. Who could imagine such things of gods?[42]

In his memoir, Kim Il-sung tells an anecdote involving his father and grandfather that gives the rationale for this sanitized presentation of North Korean leaders to their followers. The memoir says that as a young pupil, Kim Il-sung's father was often sent to fetch wine for one of his teachers, who drank frequently, until one day his father saw the drunken teacher fall face-first into a ditch. This led to a confrontation in which the young pupil shamed the embarrassed teacher into giving up wine altogether. Kim Il-sung's grandfather draws the moral of this story:

My grandfather's opinion was this: If pupils peep into their teacher's private life frequently, they lose their awe of him; the teacher must give his pupils the firm belief that their teacher neither eats nor urinates; only then can he maintain his authority at school; so a teacher should set up a screen and live behind it.[43]

Biographer Dae-Sook Suh notes:

[t]he magnitude of adulation often borders on fanaticism. His photograph is displayed ahead of the national flag and national emblem; the song of Marshal Kim Il-sung is played ahead of the national anthem; the best institution of higher learning is named after him; the highest party school is also named after him; and there are songs, poems, essays, stories, and even a flower named after him.[44]

The Kimilsungia is an orchid named after Kim Il-sung by Indonesian former president Sukarno.[45] It was named after him in 1965 during a visit to the Bogor Botanical Gardens. According to a 2005 speech by Kim Jong-il, Sukarno and the garden's director wanted to name the flower after Kim Il-sung, Kim Il-sung declined, yet Sukarno insisted saying: "No. You have rendered enormous services to mankind, so you deserve a high honour."[46] Domestically, the flowers (and the Kimjongilia, described below) are used in idolizing the leadership.[47]

When Kim Il-sung died in 1994, Kim Jong-il declared a national mourning period for three years.[48] Those who were found violating the mourning rules (such as drinking) were met with punishment.[49] After his death he was referred to as the "Eternal President". In 1998 the national constitution was changed to reflect this.[50] When his father died, Kim Jong-il greatly expanded the nation's cult of personality.[51]

In 1997, the Juche Era dating system, which begins with the birth of Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912) as year 1, was introduced and replaced the Gregorian calendar.[52][53] The year 2014 would thus correspond to Juche 103 (there is no year 0).

July 8, 2014 marked the 20th anniversary of Kim Il-sung's death. North Korean authorities declared a ten-day mourning period which ran from July 1 to July 10.[54] The anniversary involved lectures, study sessions, local choirs, etc., with children and workers being mobilized to take part in the various events. According to a resident of Hyesan, "Nowadays people are having a hard time... as events related to the passing of the Suryeong are going on every single day in the Democratic Women's Union and workplaces alike". Nevertheless, the resident said, "Nobody is complaining about it, maybe because ever since the purge of Jang Song-taek last year, if you picked a fight they'd just drag you away".[54]

Kim Jong-il

File:Kim Jong-il painting.jpg
Kim Jong-il visiting Mount Paektu, his alleged birthplace

In keeping with the modern mythologies that pervade North Korea's version of history, which is seen as crucial to the cult of personality and political control,[55] it is alleged that Kim Jong-il was born on Mount Paektu at his father's secret base in 1942 (his actual birth was in 1941 in the Soviet Union) and that his birth was heralded by a swallow, caused winter to change to spring, a star to illuminate the sky, and a double rainbow spontaneously appeared.[56]

These claims, like those surrounding his father, are apocryphal and continued throughout his life.[51][57]

Starting in the early 1970s Kim Il-sung began to contemplate the succession question, albeit surreptitiously at first, but by 1975 Kim Jong-il was referred to as the "party center", or in connection with his father with references to "our great suryong (supreme leader) and the party center". In 1977, the first confirmation of Kim Jong-il's succession by name was published in a booklet which designated the younger Kim as the only heir to Kim Il-sung, that he was a loyal servant of his father and had inherited his father's virtues, and that all party members were to pledge their loyalty to Kim Jong-il. They were also urged to support his absolute authority and to obey him unconditionally.[58]

Prior to 1996, Kim Jong-il forbade the erection of statues of himself and discouraged portraits.[59] However, in 1996, schools were required to build a separate room for lectures dealing specifically with Kim Jong-il known as the Kim Jong-il Research Institute. They include a model of his birthplace.[40] There are approximately 40,000 "research institutes" (total includes both Kim Il-Sung's and Kim Jong-il's) throughout the country.[60]

Between 1973 and 2012, Jong-il accumulated no fewer than 54 titles, most of which had little to do or nothing at all with real political or military accomplishments since he never had any military training.[21][61]

Over the course of his life, the government issued numerous propaganda reports of the great accomplishments achieved by Kim Jong-il, such as that he could walk and talk before the age of six months.[62] The North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, reported that an "unidentified French fashion expert" said of Kim's fashion, "Kim Jong-il mode, which is now spreading expeditiously worldwide, is something unprecedented in the world's history";[63] and that he could control the weather based on his mood.[62] The Korean Central News Agency has also reported, among other things, that according to eye witness accounts "nature and the sky unfolded such mysterious ecstasy in celebration of the birthday of Kim Jong Il."[64]

To commemorate Kim Jong-il's 46th birthday, Japanese botanist Kamo Mototeru cultivated a new perennial begonia named "Kimjongilia" (literally, "flower of Kim Jong-il").[65]

After death

File:Pyongyang Metro Tour (14928222244).jpg
Rodong Sinmun carrying articles on Kim Jong-il's revolutionary exploits

After his death on December 17, 2011, the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) said that layers of ice ruptured with an unprecedentedly loud crack at Chon Lake on Mount Paektu and a snowstorm with strong winds hit the area.[66] A political paper by his son, Kim Jong-un, sought to solidify his father as the "Eternal General Secretary of our Party."[67] Many had been seen weeping during the 100-day mourning period, which is typical of Korean Confucian society, and an analyst at South Korea's Korea Institute for National Unification determined that much of the public grief evidenced during the mourning period was a genuine expression of sorrow.[68] Yet, there has been some doubt as the genuine nature and depth of the displays of grief.[69]

Similar to the mourning period of Kim Il-sung, individuals who did not follow the 100-day mourning period regulations[70] or were thought to be insincere in their grief[71] were subject to punishment and in some cases may have been executed.[72] A notable example of this was the alleged death of Kim Chol and other high-ranking officials.[73] However, in the case of Chol, doubts have been raised as to the credibility of the original account with Foreign Policy stating that stories about violent deaths of North Korean elites tend to be "exaggerated" and observing the version of events disseminated by South Korean media was likely based on "gossip".[74]

Several large-scale bronze statues have been erected alongside statues of Kim Il-sung. They include a 5.7-meter (19-foot) statue of Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung each riding a horse (the first large monument built after Kim Jong-il's death)[75] and a 23-meter (75-foot) tall statue at Mansudae, Pyongyang.[76] The government has also been replacing statues of Kim Il-sung with updated versions along with new statues of Kim Jong-il beside the ones of his father in each of the provincial capitals and other sites.[77]

Following his death, numerous commemorative stamps and coins were made and slogans have been carved on the sides of mountains in honor of his 70th birthday anniversary.[75]

Kim Jong-un

File:Mural with names of all 3 leaders (10170508054).jpg
An inscription with names of all three leaders

Kim Jong-un, the grandson of North Korea's founder, was largely absent from the public and government service until the mid-2000s. In 2010 he began being referred to as the "Young General" and by late 2011 as "Respected General".[78] Like his father, he lacks any formal military training or service. With the death of his father, state media began to refer to him as the "Great Successor."[79] Although he is still a new ruler, the development of his own personality cult is well underway, with large numbers of posters, signs, and other propaganda being placed all over the country.[80][81] Some commentators have noted that his striking likeness in appearance to Kim Il-sung has helped solidify him as the undisputed ruler in the minds of the people.[78]

Kim Jong-un marks the third generation of Kim family dynastic leadership. According to Daily NK, people who criticized the succession were sent to re-education camps or otherwise punished and, after the mourning period of Kim Jong-il, government authorities began to increase their efforts on building the idolization of Kim Jong-un.[71]

After Kim Jong-il's death the president of the Presidium announced that "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country’s supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il's ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage."[82]

Shortly after the new leader came to power, a 560 metres (1,840 ft)-long propaganda sign was erected in his honor near a lake in Ryanggang Province. The sign, supposedly visible from space, reads "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!"[83]

In 2013, the Workers' Party of Korea amended the Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System, which in practice serves as the primary legal authority and framework of the country,[84][85] to demand "absolute obedience" to Kim Jong-un.[86]

Kim Jong-un's uncle, Jang Sung-taek, was executed on December 12, 2013. His death was attributed, in part, to undermining the Kim family personality cult.[87] His death has also been seen as a move by Kim Jong-un to consolidate his own cult.[88]

In 2015, at the end of the formal three-year mourning period for the death of Kim Jong-il, Kim Jong-un ordered the construction of new monuments to be built in every county of North Korea. Extensive renovations to the Kumsusan Memorial Palace have also been ordered. According to The Daily Telegraph, analysts "say the order to erect more statues to the Kim family will be a heavy financial burden on an economy that is already struggling due to years of chronic mismanagement and international sanctions".[89]


The personality cult extends to other members of the Kim family,[5][8] although to a lesser degree.

Kim Un-Gu

According to the official North Korean history, Kim Un-Gu, Kim Il-Sung’s paternal great-grandfather, fought against the Americans USS General Sherman Incident in 1866 and he was also an anti-Japanese activist. However, these claims remain unsubstantiated and many historians outside of North Korea doubt their legitimacy.[90]

Kang Pan-sok

Kang Pan-sok, the mother of Kim Il-sung, was a Presbyterian deaconess and daughter of a church elder,[91] which may explain the Christian influences in Kim Il-Sung’s personality cult. Kang was the first member of the Kim family to have a cult of personality of her own to supplement that of her son, from the late 1960s onwards.[92] In addition to a museum and statue in Chilgol, her birthplace, she has been given the title "Mother of Korea" and has had songs and articles written in praise of her.[34]:40

Kim Hyong-jik

Kim Hyong-jik, the father of Kim Il-sung, is venerated by official North Korean historiographies for having been a prominent leader of the anti-colonial Korean independence movement.[93][94] In fact, official sources claim that Kim not only led the March 1st Uprising of 1919, but also that it took place in Pyongyang—both blatant fabrications. While in reality Kim was at one point briefly detained for anti-Japanese activities,[95] most outside scholars do not support claims of anything further.[96]:727 In fact, according to biographer Dae-Sook Suh, efforts to describe Kim Hyong-jik as playing a major role in the anti-Japanese struggle "seem to be directed more toward upgrading the attributes of Kim [Il-sung] as a pious son."[97] This attribution became important as Kim Il-sung used these stories to aid his ascent to power.[94]

Kim Hyong-jik currently has a museum and statue dedicated to him in his hometown of Bonghwari.

Kim Hyong-gwon

Kim Hyong-gwon, paternal uncle of Kim Il-Sung and brother of Kim Hyong-jik, is honored in North Korea as an anti-Japanese activist because he skirmished with local police, for which he was arrested and later died on January 12, 1936 during internment in Seoul. There is a statue in his honor in Hongwon, the site of the skirmish.[90]

Kim Jong-suk

File:Kim Jong-il in North Korean propaganda (6075332268).jpg
Kim Jong-suk, the mother of Kim Jong-il embracing him

Kim Jong-suk (Kim Jong-il's mother) is described as "a revolutionary immortal" and "an anti-Japanese war hero [who] upheld the original idea and policy of Kim Il Sung and performed distinguished feats in the development of the movement for the women's emancipation in Korea."[98] She is typified as a model revolutionary, wife, and maternal figure, and North Korean society looks to stories of her as examples of how to live life.[99]

Although she was first lady of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the first year of its founding in 1948, she died in 1949, and starting in 1974, in conjunction with her son Kim Jong-il's rise to position as the heir apparent, she was increasingly praised and her accomplishments memorialized throughout the nation. A museum and statue was built in her home town in her honor and she was called an "indomitable Communist revolutionary" by Kim Sung-ae who was Kim Il-sung's then present wife, despite being largely ignored until this point.[100] Thus, originally she was honored as a guerrilla, but not necessarily as a mother or wife.[90] It was not until 1980 that she was given the title of "Mother of Korea" to share with Kim Il-Sung’s own mother, Kang Pan-sok.[91] In the 1990s, Kim Jong-suk’s portrait was even added to those of Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il, which were displayed in every household and building and treated as sacred objects of veneration and worship.[95] Furthermore, when referring to the "three Great Generals of Paekdu Mountain," a sacred dormant volcano on North Korea's northern border with China, North Koreans understand this to mean Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Suk, and their son Kim Jong Il.[95]

There is a wax replica of her in the International Friendship Exhibition.[101]

Familism in the personality cult

Familism is a type of collectivism in which the one is expected to prioritize the needs of the greater society or family over the needs of the individual. This plays out on a large scale in North Korea, where the Great Leader Kim Il-Sung is Father and the Communist Party is Mother. Thus, not only are the people expected to cherish their birth parents and treat them with all the respect demanded of traditional Confucian filial piety, but they must cherish and adore the ruling Kim family and the Mother Party even more so.

Familism in North Korea stems from a combination of the traditional East Asian Confucian value of filial piety, the communist system of collectivism, and the Kim cult of personality. As a traditional East Asian and Confucian value, the importance of family has come to resonate through all aspects of North Korean life, from politics to the economy to education and even to interpersonal relationships between friends and enemies.

When the Soviet Union first entered North Korea in 1945 to start its occupation, it had to start almost from scratch in establishing a communist base in the capital region of Pyongyang.[102] In fact, the Soviets' ideologies of communism and socialism were likely as foreign to the Koreans of Pyongyang as the Soviets themselves. However, by emphasizing family and a father-child relationship between the Soviet Union and Korea, and later between Kim Il-Sung and the North Korean people, Kim not only managed to apply Western Marxism to an Asian state, but also to secure his own personality cult, thereby constructing a sense of unquestioning loyalty toward him amongst the North Korean people when North Korea was at its most vulnerable to unwelcome western influences.

However, in the late 1960s after the establishment of Juche as official North Korean ideology, through the cult of personality North Korea began to prominently focus the family ideology more on the North Korean nation itself, with Kim Il-Sung himself as the new pater familias.[103] In combination with the North Korean system of collectivism and the Confucian virtue of filial piety, this translated into participation in the collective not necessarily out of political duty, but because of love for the people's collective father, the Great Leader, and a desire to learn more about and emulate him. North Korea was no longer simply a nation-state, but a family state with Kim Il-Sung as its father, looking out for the good of all his devoted children.

The cults of personality also promote the idea of the ruling Kims as a model family. In grief over the death of his second son, Kim Pyong-Il in 1947, Kim Il-Sung returned to the very same spot a decade later with a Korean shaman to perform rituals to "assuage his loss and pain."[104] There was particular stress on the Confucian filial love of the son for his parents. After their deaths Kim dedicated monuments to his father and mother, respectively.

However, biographer Dae-Sook Suh doubts the sincerity of Kim’s displays of reverence of his parents. In considering Kim’s relatively independent childhood, Suh does not believe that Kim held any special love for his parents that would necessitate separate museums and statues for each. Instead, Suh says that "his purpose, rather, seems to be more self-serving: an effort to build his own image as a pious Korean son from a revolutionary family."[90] By publicly portraying himself as a loyal son who loved his mother and father, Kim positioned himself to demand the same filial loyalty from his subjects.

Likewise, in celebration of his father's 60th birthday, Kim Jong-Il produced three operas for him,[91] built three monuments, including North Korea's Arche de Triomphe, for his 70th birthday in 1982,[105] and upon Kim Il-Sung’s death in 1994, Kim Jong-Il declared three years of mourning before fully claiming leadership of North Korea. In this way, Charles Armstrong writes that "Kim Jong-Il literally embodied continuity in the North Korean system. He was the biological son of the Great Leader, and beneath his revolutionary and quasi-socialist rhetoric, what was most evident in Kim Jong Il's words and deeds was the time-honored Korean value of filial piety."[91]

Veneration for female family members and the mother party

Another factor that makes North Korea unique is its notable emphasis also on the maternal aspect of leadership.[103] In a political decision distinct from other socialist regimes, starting around the 1960s, North Korea gradually abandoned the idea of leadership as paternal—such as with Stalin in the Soviet Union or Mao in China—and increasingly referred to their leaders in maternal terms, despite the fact that nearly all of the leading family and party are, in fact, male.

Thus, starting in the 1960s, articles began to increasingly refer to Kim Il-Sung himself in gentler terms, calling him the "oboi", a word used to mean both father and mother. It was at this time, also, that his mother, Kang Pan-sok, became "Mother of Korea," earning monuments and articles in her praise. Then in the 1980s, with the official announcement of Kim Jong-Il as successor, the Korean Workers’ Party became the "Mother Party" (omonidang) and Kim Jong-Il, long closely associated with the party, took on epithets such as "Beloved" and "Dear" Leader. Consequently, Kim Jong-suk, first wife of Kim Il-Sung and mother of Kim Jong-Il, was promoted to share the title of "Mother of Korea" with her mother-in-law, thereby earning monuments and praises in her own name as well.[91]

By associating their leadership with motherhood, the Kim family became not the stern, Confucian father demanding obedience and respect, but rather the tender and loving mother who inspires spontaneous love.[91] While children may often expect their father to do what is right by him, they always know their mother will do what is best for her children. In this sense, Charles Armstrong suggests that "the nation was a family, Kim Il Sung was the father, the party was the mother, and all foreigners were outside the boundaries of understanding and intimacy."[91] Thus, the regime and the people cemented the bonds of their exclusive family nation, further enforcing the idea of North Korea as distinct from—and in many ways, superior to—the rest of the world, communist or capitalist.

Monuments, images and cost

One of the many Towers of Eternal Life

By 1992, there had been nearly 40,000 statues of Kim Il-sung erected throughout the country,[22] and with his death in 1994 the government began erecting 3,200 obelisks, called Towers of Eternal Life, in every town and city.[106] These obelisks espouse the virtues of the "Great Marshal" and, like the other monuments, citizens (and tourists) are required to present flowers and other tokens of respect to the statues during certain holidays and when they visit them.[107][108] There are legal requirements associated with photographing statues of the Kims including one that states visitors must photograph the entire statue, not the head or any other individual part.[39]

After the death of Kim Jong-il the government began to inscribe his name on each of the obelisks and build new statues in his image.[76]

File:Mangyongdae Children's Palace 09.JPG
Portraits on the Mangyongdae Children's Palace
File:North Korea-Pyongyang-Sunan International Airport-Staff's clothing-01.jpg
Lapel pins that feature the images of Kim Il-sung and/or Kim Jong-il are a required accessory for adult North Koreans.

Images of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il are prominent in places associated with public transportation, hanging at every North Korean train station and airport.[61][109] Every North Korean household is required to have a picture of both Kims hanging on a wall. Nothing else may hang on that wall and they are given special cloths to clean the images daily.[110] Party members in neighborhoods are assigned to inspect houses for dusty portraits. If dust is found, a fine has to be paid, its amount depending on the thickness of the layer. The portraits have to be hung high up, so that people in the room may not stand higher than them.[111] Party cadres and military officials must keep three portraits, that of the two deceased leaders and one of Kim Il-sung's wife, Kim Jong-suk.[61] The images are only allowed to be made by government approved artists at specific Mansudae workshops.[61] Images found within newspapers or other publications are to be respected and one must not throw away, deface or otherwise misuse a page that contains an image.[39] They are to be collected and returned. Adult North Koreans are also required to wear a lapel pin that features their image on the left side, above their heart.[110]

There have been sporadic stories of people risking their lives to save the portraits from various disasters but few accounts have been verified.[112][113] In 2012, a 14-year-old girl drowned while trying to save the images from her family's home during a flash-flood. The North Korean government bestowed upon her the posthumous "Kim Jong-Il Youth Honor Award" and her school will be renamed after her.[114][115]

The Kumsusan Palace of the Sun was built as the official residence of Kim Il-sung in 1976. After his death it was converted into his mausoleum (and then that of his son's).[116] It is reported to have cost between $100–900 million.[117][118] Kumsusan is the largest mausoleum dedicated to a Communist leader.[119]

The overall estimated cost of maintaining the personality cult varies greatly between published sources. A white paper by the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy placed the cost at 38.5% of North Korea's budget in 2004, up from 19% in 1990.[60][120] However, other sources such as South Korea's Chosun Ilbo and the United Kingdom's Daily Telegraph estimate the cost in 2012 at between $40 million[76] and $100 million respectively.[121] Large scale construction projects for the Kim family has been blamed for the country's economic downturn in the 1980s.[122]


Further information: Public holidays in North Korea

In 2013, a new holiday was announced to be celebrated on February 14, which commemorates the date that Kim Jong-il assumed the title "Generalissimo of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea".[123] Unlike celebrations surrounding other important figures throughout the world, the celebrations are mandatory, with numerous events planned (such as dances, sporting events and parades),[124][125] and citizens will place gifts of flowers at the foot of monuments.[126][127] Birthday celebrations for the Kims also involve state media broadcasts of films about the lives and accomplishments of the leaders the night before the actual holiday.[128] People are not allowed to talk or fall asleep until the broadcasts are over.[128]


Between 60,000 and 220,000 gifts to Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il from foreign leaders, businesspersons and others are housed in the International Friendship Exhibition.[129] The museum is a source of pride for the North Korean government and is used as evidence of the greatness and popularity of their leaders.[130][131] The North Korean government places a large emphasis on international recognition in order to legitimize their rule in the minds of the population.[132] Tours are arranged to the Exhibition Hall whereupon entering and leaving visitors must bow before images of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.[131][133]

Historical significance

Over the past half-century, the North Korean system has promoted an image of not only Kim Il-Sung, but also his family, as a nationalist cult. A North Korean soldiers’ textbook on politics from the Korean War even delineates all the great and heroic exploits of Kim Il-Sung and his ancestors in the everlasting fight against the "imperialist Americans".[103] (see Other) Thus, Kim Il-Sung staked his claim as uniquely deserving and qualified to the exclusion of all other potential claimants to leadership by promoting the myth of an impressive family lineage. Kim was the perfect patriotic and revolutionary leader because, as the textbook says, the family that raised him was thoroughly patriotic and revolutionary. Kim Il-Sung was not only descended and born of revolutionary leaders, but he married a revolutionary leader (Kim Jong-suk) and fathered a revolutionary leader (Kim Jong-il). This in turn would help justify the succession of Kim Jong-Il and then Kim Jong-Un in replacing their fathers. The idea is that as long as his bloodline continues to rule, Kim Il-Sung’s righteous and godlike spirit lives on in the North Korean leadership.[103]

See also


  1. Lucy Williamson (December 27, 2011). "Delving into North Korea's mystical cult of personality". BBC News. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  2. Choe, Yong-ho., Lee, Peter H., and de Barry, Wm. Theodore., eds. Sources of Korean Tradition, Chichester, NY: Columbia University Press, p. 419, 2000.
  3. Ben Forer (January 12, 2012). "North Korea Reportedly Punishing Insincere Mourners". ABC News. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  4. "DPRK, Criminal Penalties". US State Dept. December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Armstrong 2013, p. 222
  6. Hunter, Helen-Louise (1999). Kim Il-song's North Korea. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 262. ISBN 9780275962968. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  7. Suh 1988, p. 314
  8. 8.0 8.1 Suh 1988, p. 315
  9. Staff (December 27, 2013). "We have just witnessed a coup in North Korea". New Focus International. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  10. Park, Yong-Soo (2009). "The political economy of economic reform in North Korea" (PDF). Australian Journal of International Affairs. Australian Institute of International Affairs. 63 (4): 542. doi:10.1080/10357710903312587. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  11. Cumings, Bruce (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: a Modern History. United States of America: W. W. Norton. pp. 414–446. ISBN 0393327027. 
  12. "Juche". Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  13. Han S Park (September 2007). "Military-First Politics (Songun)". Korea Economic Institute/Academic Paper Series. p. 6. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  14. Rüdiger 2013, p. 45.
  15. Alton & Chidley 2013, p. 109.
  16. Kim Jong-un (2012). "Let us brilliantly accomplish the revolutionary cause of Juche". Naenara. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  17. "North Korea: The Korean War and the Cult of Kim". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  18. Chico Harlan (June 6, 2014). "North Korea says it is holding American tourist for unspecified violations". Washington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  19. Hyung-Jin Kim (June 7, 2014). "Jeffrey Edward Fowle: Third American detained by North Korea". Christian Science Monitor/AP. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Nina Tompkin (2009). "North Korea - Administration". Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 전, 영선 (2006). 다시 고쳐 쓴 북한의 사회와 문화 [A New View of North Korean Society and Culture]. 역락. ISBN 89-5556-491-0. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Cha, Victor (2013). The Impossible State: North Korea Past and Future. New York City, USA: ECCO, Harper Collins. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-06-199851-5. 
  23. Veronica DeVore (December 19, 2011). "North Korean Leader Kim Jong-Il Has Died". PBS. Retrieved June 14, 2013. According to some reports, many North Koreans believe that Kim Il-Sung created the world and that Kim Jong-Il controlled the weather. 
  24. Greg Richter and Kathleen Walter (April 9, 2013). "Psychoanalyst Heath King: Kim Jong Un Logical, Not Irrational". Newsmax. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  25. "Juche". April 23, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2013. [...] from a sociological viewpoint Juche is clearly a religion, and in many ways is even more overtly religious than Soviet-era Communism or Chinese Maoism. [...] Belke's book reports 23 million Juche adherents, essentially the entire population of North Korea, but the author and international news services agree that the population of the country has decreased to about 19 million during the current famine. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 "North Koreans Losing Interest In Cult Of Kim?". New Focus International. May 20, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  27. Lee Sang Yong (December 29, 2015). "'Jangmadang Generation' eschews regime idolization, pursues outside info". DailyNK. Retrieved December 29, 2015. 
  28. Jason LaBouyer "When friends become enemies — Understanding left-wing hostility to the DPRK" Lodestar. May/June 2005: pp. 7–9. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
  29. Dean Nelson (December 23, 2011). "The stage management of the grief for Kim Jong-il". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  30. Portal, Jane (2005). Art Under Control in North Korea. United Kingdom: Reaktion Books. p. 98. ISBN 9781861898388. Retrieved January 27, 2013. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Becker, Jasper (2005). Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517044-3. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 "Kim Il-sung (1912~1994)". KBS World Radio. Retrieved March 15, 2013. 
  33. Cha, John (2012). Exit Emperor Kim Jong-il. United States: Abbott Press. ISBN 978-1-4582-0216-1. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Lim, Jae-Cheon (2008). Kim Jong-il's Leadership of North Korea. Routledge. ISBN 9780203884720. 
  35. Hwang Jang-yop (2006). "The Problems of Human Rights in North Korea". Columbia Law School. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  36. Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. United States: W W Norton & Co. p. 160. ISBN 0-393-04011-9. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 "Humankind Awards Many Titles to Kim Il Sung". Korean Central News Agency. April 3, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2013. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Suh 1988, p. 320
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 "The Bewildering Cult of Kim". New Focus International. May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Demick 2009, pp. 120–123
  41. Barbara Demick. "Nothing to Envy Excerpt". Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  42. Chol-hwan Kang and Pierre Rigoulot (2005). The Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag, Basic Books, p. 3. ISBN 0-465-01104-7.
  43. With the Century, Kim Il-sung, 1992, Chapter 3.2. accessed 27 August 2014. Note that the version of With the Century available at the official North Korean Government web site ( includes the anecdote and the grandfather's moral, but omits the detail about the necessity of screening eating/urinating from pupils.
  44. Suh 1988, p. 316
  45. Jill Reilly (April 18, 2012). "Here's us with the Kims: North Koreans flock in their thousands to celebrate 100th anniversary of founding father's birth... with a happy snap in front of massive portrait". Daily Mail. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 
  46. David R Arnott (April 6, 2011). "Flowers and North Korea". NBC News. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 
  47. Angélil, Marc; Hehl, Rainer (2013). Collectivize: Essays on the Political Economy of Territory, Vol. 2. Berlin: Ruby Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-3-944074-03-0. 
  48. "Kim Jong Il publicly mourned by thousandsg". CBS News. December 21, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  49. Martin 2006, p. 508
  50. Constitution of North Korea (1988 amended) Wikisource
  51. 51.0 51.1 David McNeill (December 20, 2011). "Kim Jong-Il: Leader of North Korea who deepened the cult of personality in his country following the death of his father". The Independent. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  52. Ben Piven (April 10, 2012). "North Korea celebrates 'Juche 101'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  53. Lee, Hy-Sang (2001). North Korea: A Strange Socialist Fortress. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN 9780275969172. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 Kang Mi Jin (July 5, 2014). "Kim's Death Sees Songs and Ten Days of Mourning". DailyNK. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  55. Jaeyeon Woo and Alastair Gale (December 23, 2011). "Pyongyang Myth-Builders Step It Up". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  56. Becker, Jasper (2005). Rogue Regime : Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780198038108. Retrieved December 19, 2014. 
  57. Suh 1988, p. 284
  58. Suh 1988, pp. 276–280
  59. Demick 2009, p. 123
  60. 60.0 60.1 Robert Marquand (January 3, 2007). "N. Korea escalates 'cult of Kim' to counter West's influence". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Lanʹkov, Andreĭ N. (2007). North of the DMZ: Essays on Daily Life in North Korea. United States of America: McFarland and Company. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-7864-2839-2. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 Julian Ryall (January 31, 2011). "The Incredible Kim Jong-il". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  63. "N.Korea leader sets world fashion trend: Pyongyang". FRANCE 24. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  64. "Unprecedented Natural Phenomena on Jong Il Peak". KCNA. February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  65. Melissa Bell (December 20, 2011). "Kimjongilia: the flower of a fallen dictator". Washington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  66. "Mother nature mourns Kim Jong-il death". The Telegraph. December 22, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  67. Kim Jong-un (2012). "Let us brilliantly accomplish the revolutionary cause of Juche". Naenara. p. 1. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  68. Choe Sang-hun, Norimitsu Onishi (December 20, 2011). "North Korea’s Tears: A Blend of Cult, Culture and Coercion". New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  69. Tom Geoghegan (December 20, 2011). "How genuine are the tears in North Korea?". BBC News. Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  70. Julian Ryall (January 26, 2012). "North Korea threatens to punish mobile-phone users as 'war criminals'". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 1, 2013. 
  71. 71.0 71.1 Choi Song Min (January 11, 2012). "Harsh Punishments for Poor Mourning". Daily NK. Retrieved September 1, 2013. 
  72. "North Korean Official Executed With A Mortar Shell". Huffington Post UK. October 25, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  73. "N. Korean leader dismissed, purged 31 ranking officials after appointment as heir: lawmaker". Yonhap News. October 23, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2013. 
  74. "Was a North Korean General Really Executed by Mortar Fire?". Foreign Policy. October 31, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2013. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 "Kim Jong-il statue unveiled in North Korea". The Telegraph. February 14, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2013. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 "Kim Jong-il Personality Cult 'Cost $40 Million'". The Chosun Ilbo. August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2013. 
  77. Anna Fifield (August 25, 2012). "In North Korea, there’s a new growth industry: Statues of Kim Jong Il". Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  78. 78.0 78.1 The Associated Press (January 7, 2013). "THROWBACK/ Shades of North Korea's founder in its young new leader". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  79. David Chance, Jack Kim (December 19, 2011). "North Korea mourns dead leader, son is Great Successor". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  80. "Slogan Hailing Kim Jong-un Carved into Hillside". The Chosun Ilbo. November 22, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  81. Austin Ramzy (July 18, 2012). "Propaganda Campaign Grows in North Korea as Kim Jong Un Consolidates Power". Time Magazine. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  82. "Kim Jong Un Named N. Korea 'Supreme Leader'". December 29, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  83. Staff (November 23, 2012). "Half-kilometre long Kim Jong-un propaganda message visible from space". National Post. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  84. "Ten Principles for the Establishment of the One-Ideology System". Columbia Law School. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  85. Kang Mi Jin (August 9, 2013). "NK Adds Kim Jong Il to 'Ten Principles'". Daily NK. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  86. "N.Korean Regime Consolidating Personality Cult". The Chosun Ilbo. October 10, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  87. Alexandre Mansourov (December 13, 2013). "North Korea: What Jang’s Execution Means for the Future". 38 North. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  88. Ankit Panda (December 13, 2013). "What Jang Song-Thaek's Purge Tells Us About Kim Jong-Un's Ambitions". The Diplomat. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  89. Julian Ryall (January 9, 2015). "Kim Jong-un orders new statues to strengthen family cult". Retrieved January 20, 2015. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 Suh, D.-S. (1988). Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader. New York: Columbia University Press.
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 91.3 91.4 91.5 91.6 Armstrong, Charles K. "The Rise of Kim Jong Il." Tyranny of the Weak: North Korea and the World, 1950-1992. Ithaca: Cornell U, 2013. 208-18. Print.
  92. Jae-Cheon Lim (24 March 2015). Leader Symbols and Personality Cult in North Korea: The Leader State. Routledge. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-317-56741-7. 
  93. "Kim Il-sung Condensed Biography". Association for the Study of Songun Politics UK. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  94. 94.0 94.1 Martin 2004, p. 18
  95. 95.0 95.1 95.2 Lankov, A. N. "North Korea in 1945-8." From Stalin to Kim Il Sung: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2002. 1-48. Print.
  96. Martin, Bradley (2004). Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader. United States of America: St. Martin's Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-312-32322-0. 
  97. Suh 1988, p. 5
  98. "National Meeting on International Women's Day Held". KCNA. March 8, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  99. Choi Jin I (February 25, 2005). "Unrevealed Story of Kim Jong Suk, Mother of Kim Jong Il". Daily NK. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  100. Suh 1988, p. 279
  101. "Wax Replica of Kim Jong Suk Displayed". KCNA. April 26, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  102. Hwang, Kyung Moon. "Early North Korea." A History of Korea: An Episodic Narrative. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. 213-24. Print.
  103. 103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 Armstrong, C. K. (2006). Familism, Socialism and Political Religion in North Korea. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 12.
  104. Cumings, B. (2004). North Korea: Another Country. New York: The New Press.
  105. McCormack, Gavan, Target North Korea: Pushing North Korea to the Brink of Nuclear Catastrophe. Nation Books, 2004. 59.
  106. Demick 2009, pp. 99–100
  107. Adrian Brown (2011). "Satellites uncover North Korea". BBC News. Retrieved 01/09/2013 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  108. Robert L, Worden (2009). North Korea: A Country Study. United States of America: Government Printing Office. p. 76. ISBN 9780160814228. 
  109. Andrei Lankov (May 3, 2012). "Potent portraits in North Korea". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 01/09/13.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  110. 110.0 110.1 Demick 2009, p. 316
  111. Oliver Hotham (4 September 2015). "Portraits to inspire and intimidate: North Korea's omnipresent leaders". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  112. Simon Jeffery (April 28, 2004). "Train blast victims died saving leaders' portraits". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  113. John M. Glionna (January 23, 2010). "North Korea honors seamen who tried to save Kim portraits". LA Times. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  114. "DPRK honors schoolgirl who died saving Kim portraits". People's Daily Online. June 28, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  115. Adam Taylor (June 27, 2012). "A 14-year-old girl died trying to save a portrait of Kim Jong Il and now she's being called a hero". Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  116. Burdick 2010, p. 100
  117. Hassig 2009, p. 53
  118. Kim 2001, p. 20
  119. Mark Johanson (January 23, 2013). "Kim Jong-il’s Mausoleum, As Described By Its First Western Visitors". International Business Times. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  120. "Pyongyang: budget to deify Kim Jong-il increasing". AsiaNews C.F. January 10, 2007. Retrieved October 13, 2013. 
  121. Mike Firn (December 5, 2012). "Kim Jong-il personality cult costs North Korea £62m". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 13, 2013. 
  122. Martin 2006, p. 322-223
  123. Cho Jong Ik (December 25, 2013). "2014 Calendar Reveals Few Surprises". DailyNK. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  124. Eric Talmadge (April 16, 2013). "N Korea, Marking Leader's Birthday, Shows More Ir". Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 
  125. "North Korea marks Kim Jong-il's birthday with parade and flowers". The Guardian. February 16, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 
  126. "North Koreans mark major national holiday amid missile launch fears". Fox News. April 15, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 
  127. Calum MacLeod (April 15, 2013). "North Korea celebrates dictator's birth with flowers, no missiles". USA Today. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 
  128. 128.0 128.1 Martin 2006, p. 328
  129. Reuters (December 26, 2006). "North Korean museum shows off leaders' gifts". Retrieved January 8, 2013. 
  130. Kim, Byoung-lo Philo (1992). Two Koreas in development: a comparative study of principles and strategies of capitalist and communist Third World development. Transaction Publishers. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-88738-437-0. 
  131. 131.0 131.1 Vines, Stephen (August 14, 1997). "The Great Leader rules from beyond the grave". The Independent. Retrieved August 25, 2013. 
  132. "Chosun: North Korea’s Love-Hate Relationship with History". "New Focus International". May 31, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  133. Holly Williams (December 19, 2011). "Inside North Korea: Cult Of The Kim Family". Sky News. Retrieved August 25, 2013. 


  • Armstrong, Charles (2013), The North Korean Revolution, 1945–1950, Cornell University Press, ISBN 9780801468797 
  • Burdick, Eddie (2010), Three Days in the Hermit Kingdom: An American Visits North Korea, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-4898-2 
  • Alton, David; Chidley, Rob (2013). Building Bridges: Is There Hope for North Korea?. Lion Books. ISBN 9780745955988. 
  • Demick, Barbara (2010), Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea, Random House LLC, ISBN 978-0-385-52391-2 
  • Hassig, Ralph (2009), The Hidden People of North Korea: Everyday Life in the Hermit Kingdom, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7425-6718-4 
  • Kim, Samuel S (2001), The North Korean System in the Post-Cold War Era, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-312-23974-9 
  • Martin, Bradley (2006), Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty, St. Martin's Griffin, ISBN 0-312-32322-0 
  • Suh, Dae-Sook (1988), Kim Il-Sung: The North Korean Leader, Columbia University Press, ISBN 9780231065733 

External links