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Pāsārgād (Persian)
CyrustheGreatTomb 22059.jpg
Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
Pasargadae is located in Iran
Shown within Iran
Location Fars Province, Iran
Coordinates Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Type Settlement
Founded 6th century BCE
Periods Achaemenid Empire
Cultures Persian
Site notes
Archaeologists Ali Sami, David Stronach, Ernst Herzfeld,
Condition In ruins
Official name Pasargadae
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Designated 2004 (28th session)
Reference no. 1106
State Party  Iran
Region Asia-Pacific
"I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid." in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadae

Pasargadae (from Ancient Greek: Πασαργάδαι from Persian: Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb. It was a city in ancient Persia, located near the city of Shiraz (in Pasargad County), and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[1]


Cyrus the Great began building the capital in 546 BC or later; it was unfinished when he died in battle, in 530 or 529 BC. The remains of the tomb of Cyrus' son and successor Cambyses II have been found in Pasargadae, near the fortress of Toll-e Takht, and identified in 2006.[2]

Pasargadae remained the capital of the Achaemenid empire until Cambyses II moved it to Susa; later, Darius founded another in Persepolis. The archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure commonly believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus, the fortress of Toll-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill, and the remains of two royal palaces and gardens. Pasargadae Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or fourfold garden design (see Persian Gardens).

Tomb of Cyrus the Great

The most important monument in Pasargadae is the tomb of Cyrus the Great. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulchre, the chamber of which measures 3.17 m long by 2.11 m wide by 2.11 m high and has a low and narrow entrance. Though there is no firm evidence identifying the tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians tell that Alexander believed it was. When Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis, he paid a visit to the tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century AD, recorded that Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription on the tomb. No trace of any such inscription survives, and there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text. Strabo reports that it read:

Passer-by, I am Cyrus, who gave the Persians an empire, and was king of Asia.
Grudge me not therefore this monument.

Another variation, as documented in Persia: The Immortal Kingdom, is:

O man, whoever thou art, from wheresoever thou cometh, for I know you shall come, I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians.
Grudge me not, therefore, this little earth that covers my body.

The design of Cyrus' tomb is credited to Mesopotamian or Elamite ziggurats, but the cella is usually attributed to Urartu tombs of an earlier period.[3] In particular, the tomb at Pasargadae has almost exactly the same dimensions as the tomb of Alyattes II, father of the Lydian King Croesus; however, some have refused the claim (according to Herodotus, Croesus was spared by Cyrus during the conquest of Lydia, and became a member of Cyrus' court). The main decoration on the tomb is a rosette design over the door within the gable.[4] In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam, Babylon, Assyria, and ancient Egypt, with the addition of some Anatolian influences.


Dovetail Staples from Pasargadae

The first capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Pasargadae lies in ruins 43 kilometers from Persepolis, in present-day Fars province of Iran.[5]

Pasargadae was first archaeologically explored by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in 1905, and in one excavation season in 1928, together with his assistant de (Friedrich Krefter).[6] Since 1946, the original documents, notebooks, photographs, fragments of wall paintings and pottery from the early excavations are preserved in the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. After Herzfeld, Sir Aurel Stein completed a site plan for Pasargadae in 1934.[7] In 1935, Erich F. Schmidt produced a series of aerial photographs of the entire complex.[8]

From 1949 to 1955, an Iranian team led by Ali Sami worked there.[9] A British Institute of Persian Studies team led by David Stronach resumed excavation from 1961 to 1963.[10][11][12] It was during the 1960s that a pot-hoard known as the Pasargadae Treasure was excavated near the foundations of 'Pavilion B' at the site. Dating to the 5th-4th centuries BC, the treasure consists of ornate Achaemenid jewellery made from gold and precious gems and is now housed in the National Museum of Iran and the British Museum.[13] After a gap, work was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization and the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée of the University of Lyon in 2000.[14]

Sivand Dam controversy

There has been growing concern regarding the proposed Sivand Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand. Despite planning that has stretched over 10 years, Iran's own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broader areas of flooding during much of this time.

Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is not obvious because the sites sit above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the most threatened. Experts agree that planning of future dam projects in Iran merit earlier examination of the risks to cultural resource properties.[15]

Of broadly shared concern to archaeologists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake.[16] All agree that humidity created by it will speed up the destruction of Pasargadae, yet experts from the Ministry of Energy believe it could be partially compensated by controlling the water level of the reservoir.

Construction of the dam began April 19, 2007.

In culture

In 1930, the Brazilian poet Manuel Bandeira published a poem called "Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada" ("I'm off to Pasargadae" in Portuguese), in a book entitled Libertinagem.[17] It tells the story of a man who wants to go to Pasargadae, described in the poem as a utopian city. This poem has become one of the Portuguese language's classics.

The following is an extract, in the original then in a translation:


See also


  1. Ancient Pasargadae threatened by construction of dam, Mehr News Agency, 28 August 2004, retrieved Sep 15, 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  2. Discovered Stone Slab Proved to be Gate of Cambyses’ Tomb, CHN<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  3. Hogan, C Michael (Jan 19, 2008), "Tomb of Cyrus", in Burnham, A (ed.), [The entire design is old persian as they did in Chogazanbil for more than 1200 years earlier. Mesapotamian and babylonian have to prove if the remains of ziggurats are in fact theirs. The Megalithic Portal] Check |url= value (help) line feed character in |url= at position 94 (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  4. Ferrier, Ronald W (1989), The Arts of Persia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03987-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  5. Lendering, Jona, Pasargadae, Livius<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  6. Herzfeld, E (1929), Bericht über die Ausgrabungen von Pasargadae 1928 (in German), 1, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, pp. 4–16CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>,
  7. Stein, A (1936), An Archaeological Tour in Ancient Persis, Iraq, 3, pp. 217–20<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  8. Schmidt, Erich F (1940), Flights Over Ancient Cities of Iran (PDF), University of Chicago Oriental Institute, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-918986-96-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  9. Ali-Sami (1971) [March 1956], Pasargadae. The Oldest Imperial. Capital of Iran, 4, Rev. RN Sharp transl (2nd ed.), Shiraz: Learned Society of Pars; Musavi Print. Office<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  10. Stronach, David (1963), "First Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 1, pp. 19–42<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  11. ———————— (1964), "Second Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 2, pp. 21–39<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  12. ———————— (1965), "Third Preliminary Report", Excavations at Pasargadae, Iran, 3, pp. 9–40<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  13. British Museum Collection
  14. Boucharlat, Rémy (2002), Pasargadae, Iran, 40, pp. 279–82<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  15. Sivand Dam Waits for Excavations to be Finished, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 26 February 2006, retrieved Sep 15, 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  16. Date of Sivand Dam Inundation Not Yet Agreed Upon, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 May 2006, retrieved Sep 15, 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  17. Bandeira, Manuel (2009). "Libertinagem". In Seffrin, André (organizer) (ed.). Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro [(City) "River of January"], RJ [(State) "River of January"], Brasil [Brazil]: Editora Nova Aguilar [New Aguilar Press]. pp. XXIII, 118–119. Unknown parameter |trans_chapter= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • Sivand Dam’s Inundation Postponed for 6 Months, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 29 November 2005, retrieved Sep 15, 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Fathi, Nazila (November 27, 2005), "A Rush to Excavate Ancient Iranian Sites", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>; fully accessible at Fathi, Nazila (27 November 2005), "SF Gate", The San Francisco Chronicle<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Ali Mousavi (September 16, 2005), "Cyrus can rest in peace: Pasargadae and rumors about the dangers of Sivand Dam", History, Iranian<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.[dead link]
  • Pasargadae Will Never Drown, Cultural Heritage News Agency, 12 September 2005, retrieved Sep 15, 2006<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Matheson, Sylvia A, Persia: An Archaeological Guide<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Seffrin, André (2009), Manuel Bandeira: poesia completa e prosa, volume único, Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Aguilar, ISBN 978-85-210-0108-9 Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Stronach, David (1978), Pasargadae: A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1961–63, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-813190-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

External links

  • Media related to Pasargadae at Wikimedia Commons
  • "Pasargadae Excavation Documentation and Fragments of Wall Paintings from Pasargadae", Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • "Records of Pasargadae", Ernst Herzfeld Papers, 5: Drawings and Maps, Washington, DC: Collections Search Center, S.I.R.I.S., Smithsonian Institution<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Tall_e Takht (pictures)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • World Heritage Center, Unesco<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • "Pasargadae", History, Iran Chamber Society<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • "European languages", Save Pasargadae From Destruction<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "Pasargad", Land of Aryan, ATSpace<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Pasargad (virtual reconstruction of Pasargadae), Persepolis3D<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Persepolis & Pasargad (photo gallery) (in German), M Heße, 2009CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Pasargadae, Ancient History Encyclopedia<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Pasargadae, Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>