People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
File:PETA logo 2013.png
Founded March 1980; 44 years ago (1980-03)
Founder Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco
Type 501(c)(3)
Focus Animal rights
3,000,000 (including supporters)[1]
$43 million in 2014[2]
Slogan "Animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way."

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA (/ˈptɑː/); stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president. A nonprofit corporation with 300 employees, it claims that it has 3 million members and supporters and is the largest animal rights group in the world. Its slogan is "animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way."[3]

Founded in March 1980, by Newkirk and fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco, the organization first caught the public's attention in the summer of 1981 during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, a widely publicized dispute about experiments conducted on 17 macaque monkeys inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland. The case lasted ten years, involved the only police raid on an animal laboratory in the United States, triggered an amendment in 1985, to that country's Animal Welfare Act, and established PETA as an internationally known organization.[4] Today it focuses on four core issues—opposition to factory farming, fur farming, animal testing, and animals in entertainment. It also campaigns against eating meat, fishing, the killing of animals regarded as pests, the keeping of chained backyard dogs, cock fighting, dog fighting, and bullfighting.[5]

The group has been the focus of controversy, both inside and outside the animal rights movement. Newkirk and, formerly, Pacheco are seen as the leading exporters of animal rights to the more traditional animal-protection groups in the United States, but sections of the movement nonetheless say that PETA is not radical enough—law professor Gary Francione lists the group among what he calls "the new welfarists", arguing that its work with industries to achieve reform, which continues in the tradition of Henry Spira, makes it an animal welfare group, not an animal rights group.[6] Newkirk told Salon in 2001 that PETA works toward the ideal but tries in the meantime to provide carrot-and-stick incentives.[7] There has also been criticism from feminists within the movement about the use of scantily clad women in PETA's anti-fur campaigns and others, but as Norm Phelps notes, "Newkirk has been consistent in her response. No one, she says, is being exploited. Everyone ... is an uncoerced volunteer. Sexual attraction is a fact of life, and if it can advance the animals' cause, she makes no apologies for using it." Also, Phelps notes that some activists believe that the group's media stunts trivialize animal rights, but he qualifies this by saying, "it's hard to argue with success and PETA is far and away the most successful cutting-edge animal rights organization in the world." Newkirk's view is that PETA has a duty to be "press sluts". She argues, "It is our obligation. We would be worthless if we were just polite and didn't make any waves."[8]


Ingrid Newkirk

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Newkirk talking about herself and her legacy (11:27)
Ingrid Newkirk

Newkirk was born in England in 1949, and raised in Hertfordshire and later New Delhi, India, where her father—a navigational engineer—was stationed. Newkirk, now an atheist, was educated in a convent, the only British girl there. She moved to the United States as a teenager, first studying to become a stockbroker but after taking some abandoned kittens to an animal shelter in 1969, and being appalled by the conditions that she found there, chose a career in animal protection instead.[9] She became an animal-protection officer for Montgomery County and then the District of Columbia's first woman poundmaster. By 1976, she was head of the animal-disease-control division of D.C.'s Commission on Public Health and in 1980, was among those named as "Washingtonians of the Year."[10] She told Michael Specter of The New Yorker that working for the shelters left her shocked at the way the animals were treated:

I went to the front office all the time, and I would say, "John is kicking the dogs and putting them into freezers." Or I would say, "They are stepping on the animals, crushing them like grapes, and they don't care." In the end, I would go to work early, before anyone got there, and I would just kill the animals myself. Because I couldn't stand to let them go through that. I must have killed a thousand of them, sometimes dozens every day. Some of those people would take pleasure in making them suffer. Driving home every night, I would cry just thinking about it. And I just felt, to my bones, this cannot be right.[11]

In 1980, she divorced Steve Newkirk, whom she had married when she was 19, and the same year met Alex Pacheco, a political major at George Washington University. Pacheco had studied for the priesthood, then worked as a crew member of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society's first ship.[12] He volunteered at the shelter where she worked, and they fell in love and began living together, although as Kathy Snow Guillermo writes, they were very different—Newkirk was older and more practical, whereas Pacheco could barely look after himself.[13] He introduced Newkirk to Peter Singer's influential book, Animal Liberation (1975), and in March 1980, she persuaded him to join her in forming People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, at that point just "five people in a basement", as Newkirk described it. They were mostly students and members of the local vegetarian society, but the group included a friend of Pacheco's from the UK, Kim Stallwood, a British activist who went on to become the national organizer of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Pacheco was reluctant at first. "It just didn't sound great to me", he told The Los Angeles Times in 1992. "I had been active in Europe ... and I thought there were just too many formalities. I thought we should just do things ourselves. But she made a convincing case that Washington needed a vehicle for animals because the current organizations were too conservative."[14]

Silver Spring monkeys

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

PETA distributed images of the monkeys with the caption, "This is vivisection. Don't let anyone tell you different."[15]

The group first came to public attention in 1981 during the Silver Spring monkeys case, a dispute about experiments conducted by researcher Edward Taub on 17 macaque monkeys inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland. The case led to the first police raid in the United States on an animal laboratory, triggered an amendment in 1985 to the United States Animal Welfare Act, and became the first animal-testing case to be appealed to the United States Supreme Court,[4] which upheld a Louisiana State Court ruling that denied PETA's request for custody of the monkeys.[16]

Pacheco had taken a job in May 1981 inside a primate research laboratory at the Institute, intending to gain firsthand experience of working inside an animal laboratory.[17] Taub had been cutting sensory ganglia that supplied nerves to the monkeys' fingers, hands, arms, and legs—a process called "deafferentation"—so that the monkeys could not feel them; some of the monkeys had had their entire spinal columns deafferented. He then used restraint, electric shock, and withholding of food and water to force the monkeys to use the deafferented parts of their bodies. The research led in part to the discovery of neuroplasticity and a new therapy for stroke victims called constraint-induced movement therapy.[18]

Pacheco went to the laboratory at night, taking photographs that showed the monkeys living in what the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research's ILAR Journal called filthy conditions.[19] He passed his photographs to the police, who raided the lab and arrested Taub. Taub was convicted of six counts of animal cruelty, the first such conviction in the United States of an animal researcher; the conviction was overturned on appeal.[20] Norm Phelps writes that the case followed the highly publicized campaign of Henry Spira in 1976 against experiments on cats being performed at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and Spira's subsequent campaign in April 1980 against the Draize test. These and the Silver Spring monkey case jointly put animal rights on the agenda in the United States.[21]

The ten-year battle for custody of the monkeys—described by The Washington Post as a vicious mud fight, during which both sides accused the other of lies and distortion— transformed PETA into a national, then international, movement. By February 1991, it claimed over 350,000 members, a paid staff of over 100, and an annual budget of over $7 million.[22]


PETA was based in Rockville, Maryland, until 1996, when it moved to Norfolk, Virginia.[23] It opened a Los Angeles division in 2006[23] and also has offices in Washington, D.C., and Oakland, California.[24] In addition, PETA has international affiliates in the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, India, Australia, and the Asia-Pacific region.[25]

Philosophy and activism


<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Along with Newkirk, Dan Mathews (above) is one of PETA's key players.[11]

PETA is an animal rights organization and, as such, it rejects speciesism and also opposes the use and abuse of animals in any way, as food, clothing, entertainment, or research subjects.[26] One oft-cited quote of Newkirk's is: "When it comes to feelings like hunger, pain, and thirst, a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy."[11] PETA lobbies government agencies to impose fines and/or confiscate animals when animal-welfare legislation has been violated, promotes a vegan lifestyle, tries to reform practices on factory farms and in slaughterhouses, sends undercover investigators into animal-research laboratories, farms, and circuses, initiates media campaigns against particular companies or practices, helps to find sanctuaries for animals formerly used by circuses and zoos, and initiates lawsuits against companies that refuse to change their practices.[27] The group has been criticized by a few animal rights advocates for its willingness to work with industries that use animals for the purpose of effecting gradual change. Newkirk rejects this criticism and has said the group exists to hold the radical line.[28]

The group has 3 million members and supporters, it received donations of over $50 million for the year ending July 31, 2014, and its website was receiving 4 million hits a month as of November 2008. Over 88 percent of its operating budget was spent on its programs in 2013-2014, 10 percent on membership development, and 1 percent on management and general operations. Ten percent of its staff earned under $30,000 and 43 percent over $40,000, and Newkirk made just over $40,000.[29]

Pacheco left the group in 1999. Its current leadership, in addition to Newkirk, includes Executive Vice President Tracy Reiman, Senior Vice President of Laboratory Investigations Kathy Guillermo, Senior Vice President of Communications Lisa Lange, Senior Vice President of Media Campaigns Dan Mathews, and Senior Vice President of Cruelty Investigations Daphna Nachminovitch.[30] Its honorary directors include Pamela Anderson, James Cromwell, Chrissie Hynde, Bill Maher, and, until his death in 2015, Sam Simon.[31]

Campaigns and consumer boycotts

PETA's trademark "Lettuce ladies" in Columbus, Ohio

The organization is known for its aggressive media campaigns, combined with a solid base of celebrity support—in addition to its honorary directors, Paul McCartney, Alicia Silverstone, Eva Mendes, Charlize Theron, Ellen DeGeneres, and many, many others have appeared in PETA ads.[32] Every week, Newkirk holds what The New Yorker calls a war council, with two dozen of her top strategists gathered at a square table in the PETA conference room, with no suggestion considered too outrageous.[11] PETA also gives an annual prize, called the Proggy Award (for "progress"), to individuals or organizations dedicated to animal welfare or who distinguish themselves through their efforts within the area of animal welfare.[33]

Many of the campaigns have focused on large corporations. Fast food companies such as KFC, Wendy's, and Burger King have been targeted. In the animal-testing industry, PETA's consumer boycotts have focused on Avon, Benetton, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, Chesebrough-Pond's, Dow Chemical, General Motors, and others. The group's modus operandi includes buying shares in target companies such as McDonald's and Kraft Foods in order to exert influence.[34] The campaigns have delivered results for PETA. McDonald's and Wendy's introduced vegetarian options after PETA targeted them; Petco stopped selling some exotic pets; and Polo Ralph Lauren said it would no longer use fur.[35] Avon, Estée Lauder, Benetton, and Tonka Toy Co. all stopped testing products on animals, the Pentagon stopped shooting pigs and goats in wounds tests, and a slaughterhouse in Texas was closed down.[12]

File:Steve-O for PETA.jpg
Steve-O during PETA's "I'd rather go naked than wear fur" campaign

As part of its anti-fur action, PETA members have infiltrated hundreds of fashion shows in the U.S. and Europe and one in China, throwing red paint on the catwalks and unfurling banners. Celebrities and supermodels have posed naked for the group's "I'd Rather Go Naked than Wear Fur" campaign—some men, but mostly women—triggering criticism from feminist animal rights advocates.[36] The New Yorker writes that PETA activists have crawled through the streets of Paris wearing leg-hold traps and thrown around money soaked in fake blood at the International Fur Fair.[11] They sometimes engage in pie-throwing—in January 2010, Canadian MP Gerry Byrne compared them to terrorists for throwing a tofu cream pie at Canada's fishery minister Gail Shea in protest of the seal slaughter, a comment Newkirk called a silly chest-beating exercise.[37] "The thing is, we make them gawk," she told Satya magazine, "maybe like a traffic accident that you have to look at."[38]

PETA has also objected to the practice of mulesing (removing strips of wool-bearing skin from around the buttocks of a sheep).[39] In October 2004, PETA launched a boycott against the Australian wool industry, leading some clothing retailers to ban products using Australian wool from their stores.[40] In response, the Australian wool industry sued PETA, arguing among other things that mulesing prevents flystrike, a very painful disease that can affect sheep. A settlement was reached, and PETA agreed to stop the boycott, while the wool industry agreed to seek alternatives to mulesing.[41]

In 2011, PETA named five orcas as plaintiffs and sued SeaWorld over the animals' enslavement, seeking their protection under the Thirteenth Amendment.[42] A federal judge heard the case and dismissed it in early 2012.[43] In August 2014, SeaWorld announced it was building new orca tanks that would almost double the size of the existing ones to provide more space for its whales. PETA responded that a "larger prison is still a prison."[44]

Patricia de Leon worked with PETA in 2011 to reduce support for bullfighting among Hispanic people.[45][46][47]

Some campaigns have been particularly controversial. Newkirk was criticized in 2003 for sending a letter to PLO leader Yasser Arafat asking him to keep animals out of the conflict, after a donkey was blown up during an attack in Jerusalem. The group's 2003 "Holocaust on your Plate" exhibition—eight 60-square-foot (5.6 m2) panels juxtaposing images of Holocaust victims with animal carcasses and animals being transported to slaughter—was criticized by the Anti-Defamation League, which said, "the effort by Peta to compare the deliberate systematic murder of millions of Jews to the issue of animal rights is abhorrent" and "[r]ather than deepen our revulsion against what the Nazis did to the Jews, the project will undermine the struggle to understand the Holocaust and to find a way to make sure such catastrophes never happen again." In July 2010, the German Federal Constitutional Court ruled that PETA's campaign was not protected by free speech laws and banned it within Germany as an offense against human dignity.[48] The exhibit, however, had been funded by an anonymous Jewish philanthropist[49] and created by Matt Prescott, who lost several relatives in the Holocaust. Prescott said: "The very same mindset that made the Holocaust possible—that we can do anything we want to those we decide are 'different or inferior'—is what allows us to commit atrocities against animals every single day. ... The fact is, all animals feel pain, fear and loneliness. We're asking people to recognize that what Jews and others went through in the Holocaust is what animals go through every day in factory farms."[49] And analogies between animal rights and the Holocaust had been initiated by the prominent Jewish author Isaac Bashevis Singer.[50] In 2005, the NAACP criticized the "Are Animals the New Slaves?" exhibit, which showed images of African-American slaves, Native Americans, child laborers, and women, alongside chained elephants and slaughtered cows.[51]

File:Peta Comic Book.gif
PETA has been criticized for aiming its message at children.

PETA's "It's still going on" campaign features newspaper ads comparing widely publicized murder-cannibalization cases to the deaths of animals in slaughterhouses. The campaign has attracted significant media attention, controversy and generated angry responses from the victims' family members. Ads were released in 1991 describing the deaths of the victims of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, in 2002 describing the deaths of the victims of serial killer Robert William Pickton,[52] and in 2008 describing the murder of Tim McLean.[53] In several cases, newspapers have refused to run the ads.

The group has also been criticized for aiming its message at young people. "Your Mommy Kills Animals" features a cartoon of a woman attacking a rabbit with a knife.[54] To reduce milk consumption, it created the "Got Beer?" campaign, a parody of the dairy industry's series of Got Milk? ads, which featured celebrities with milk "mustaches" on their upper lips. When the mayor of New York, Rudy Giuliani, was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2000, PETA ran a photograph of him with a white mustache and the words "Got prostate cancer?" to illustrate their claim that dairy products contribute to cancer, an ad that caused an outcry in the United States.[55] After PETA placed ads in school newspapers linking milk to acne, obesity, heart disease, cancer, and strokes, Mothers Against Drunk Driving and college officials complained it encouraged underage drinking; the British Advertising Standards Authority asked that the ads be discontinued after complaints from interest groups such as The National Farmers' Unions.[56]

In August 2011, it was announced that PETA will be launching a soft pornography website in the .xxx domain. PETA spokesperson Lindsay Rajt told the Huffington Post, "We try to use absolutely every outlet to stick up for animals," adding that "We are careful about what we do and wouldn't use nudity or some of our flashier tactics if we didn't know they worked." PETA also used nudity in its "Veggie Love" ad which it prepared for the Super Bowl only to have it banned by the network. PETA's work has drawn the ire of some feminists who argue that the organization sacrifices women's rights to press its agenda. Lindsay Beyerstein criticized PETA saying "They're the ones drawing disturbing analogies between pornography, misogyny and animal cruelty."[57]

Other campaigns are less confrontational and more humorous. In 2008, it launched the "Save the Sea Kittens" campaign to change the name of fish to "sea kittens" to give them a positive image, and it regularly asks towns to adopt a new name. It campaigned in 1996 for a new name for Fishkill, New York, and in April 2003 offered free veggie burgers to Hamburg, New York, if it would call itself Veggieburg.[58]

PETA sometimes issues isolated statements or press releases, commenting on current events. After Lady Gaga wore a dress made of meat in 2010, PETA issued a statement objecting to the dress.[59] After a fisherman in Florida was bitten by a shark in 2011, PETA proposed an advertisement showing a shark biting a human, with the caption "Payback Is Hell, Go Vegan". The proposed ad drew criticism from relatives of the injured fisherman.[60] After Minnesota dentist Walter Palmer admitted that he had killed Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe in 2015, PETA's president, Newkirk, issued a statement on behalf of PETA in which she said: "Hunting is a coward's pastime. If, as has been reported, this dentist and his guides lured Cecil out of the park with food so as to shoot him on private property, because shooting him in the park would have been illegal, he needs to be extradited, charged, and, preferably, hanged."[61]

Undercover work

PETA sends its staff undercover into research laboratories, factory farms, and circuses to document the treatment of animals. Investigators may spend many months as employees of a facility, making copies of documents and wearing hidden cameras.[12] By 2007, it had conducted 75 such investigations.[62] It has also produced videos based on material collected during ALF raids. Some undercover efforts have led to lawsuits or government action against companies and universities. PETA itself faced legal action in April 2007 after the owners of a chinchilla ranch in Michigan complained about an undercover inquiry there, but the judge ruled in PETA's favor that undercover investigations can be legitimate.[63]

One notable case led to a 26-minute film that PETA produced in 1984, Unnecessary Fuss.[64] The film was based on 60 hours of researchers' footage obtained by the ALF during a raid on the University of Pennsylvania's head injury clinic. The footage showed researchers laughing at baboons as they inflicted brain damage on them with a hydraulic device intended to simulate whiplash. Laboratory animal veterinarian Larry Carbone writes that the researchers openly discussed how one baboon was awake before the head injury, despite protocols being in place for anesthesia.[65] The ensuing publicity led to the suspension of funds from the university, the firing of its chief veterinarian, the closure of the lab, and a period of probation for the university.[66]

In 1990, two PETA activists posed as employees of Carolina Biological, where they took pictures and video footage inside the company, alleging that cats were being mistreated.[67] Following the release of PETA's tapes, the USDA conducted its own inspection and subsequently charged the company with seven violations of the Animal Welfare Act.[68] Four years later, an administrative judge ruled that Carolina Biological had not committed any violations.[69]

PETA filmed HLS staff in the UK beating dogs, broadcast in 1997 by Channel 4 in the UK as It's a dog's life.[70]

In 1990, Bobby Berosini, a Las Vegas entertainer, lost his wildlife license as well as (on appeal) a later lawsuit against PETA, after the group broadcast an undercover film of him slapping and punching orangutans in 1989.[71] In 1997, a PETA investigation inside Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a contract animal-testing company, produced film of staff in the UK beating dogs, and what appeared to be abuse of monkeys in the company's New Jersey facility. After the video footage aired on British television in 1999, a group of activists set up Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty to close HLS down, a campaign that continues.[72]

In 1999, a North Carolina grand jury handed down indictments against pig-farm workers on Belcross Farm in Camden County, the first indictments for animal cruelty on a factory farm in the United States, after a three-month PETA investigation produced film of the workers beating the animals.[73] In 2004, PETA published the results of an eight-month undercover investigation in a West Virginia Pilgrim's Pride slaughterhouse that supplies chickens to KFC. The New York Times reported the investigation as showing workers stomping on live chickens, throwing dozens against a wall, tearing the head off a chicken to write graffiti, strangling one with a latex glove, and squeezing birds until they exploded. Yum Brands, owner of KFC, called the video appalling and threatened to stop purchasing from Pilgrim's Pride if no changes were made. Pilgrim's Pride subsequently fired 11 employees and introduced an anti-cruelty pledge for workers to sign.[74]

File:Monkey restraint tube Covance.jpg
A monkey in a restraint tube filmed by PETA inside Covance, Vienna, Virginia, 2004–2005[75]

In 2004 and 2005, PETA shot footage inside Covance, an animal-testing company in the U.S. and Europe, that appeared to show monkeys being mistreated in the company's facility in Vienna, Virginia. According to The Washington Post, PETA said an employee of the group filmed primates there being choked, hit, and denied medical attention when badly injured.[76] After PETA sent the video and a 253-page complaint to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Covance was fined $8,720 for 16 citations, three of which involved lab monkeys; the other citations involved administrative issues and equipment. The company said none of the issues were pervasive or endemic and that it had taken corrective action.[77] In 2005, Covance initiated a lawsuit charging PETA with fraud, violation of employee contract, and conspiracy to harm the company's business but did not proceed with it.[76]

PETA also goes undercover into circuses. In 2006, it filmed trainers at Carson & Barnes Circus—including Tim Frisco, the animal-care director—striking elephants while shouting at them. The Washington Post writes that the video shows Frisco shouting, "Make 'em scream!". A company spokesperson dismissed PETA's concerns as "Utopian philosophical ideology" but said the circus would no longer use electric prods.[78]

PETA investigated angora rabbit farms in China in 2013. As CBS News reported of the resulting video footage, "In the video, the rabbits' high-pitched screams can be heard as farmers rip out their wool until the animal is bald. The rabbits are then thrown back into their cage and appear to be stunned and in shock." PETA claimed that 90 percent of the world's angora comes from China, and retailers that carry angora did not initially comment to CBS.[79] Over the next two years, though, because of the investigation, more than 70 retailers, including H&M, Topshop, and Inditex (the world's largest retailer), discontinued their use of angora.[80] Inditex donated its angora products, valued at $878,000, to Syrian refugees.[81]

Between 2012 and 2014, PETA investigated sheep shearing sheds used by the wool industry in Australia and the U.S., uncovering "evidence of widespread animal abuse." In Australia, the group "sent three undercover investigators to 19 different sheep shearing sheds run by nine different contractors in three states." As NBC News reported, "PETA charges that in Australia, workers for seven contractors kicked, stomped or stood on animals' heads necks and hind limbs, while workers for eight contractors punched or struck sheep with clippers. One worker allegedly beat a lamb over the head with a hammer. Workers for five contractors allegedly threw sheep and or slammed their heads and bodies against floors." PETA also sent an investigator to "25 ranches in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Nebraska" and subsequently "asked local authorities in two Colorado counties to file criminal charges against a specific shearer because of alleged acts of abuse witnessed at two ranches." Moffat County Sheriff Tim Jantz called the video evidence "highly concerning" and launched an investigation.[82]

In 2014, PETA conducted an undercover investigation of the horse-racing industry, filming seven hours of footage that, as The New York Times reported, "showed mistreatment of the horses to be widespread and cavalier." Noted trainer Steve Asmussen and his top assistant trainer, Scott Blasi, were accused "of subjecting their horses to cruel and injurious treatments, administering drugs to them for nontherapeutic purposes, and having one of their jockeys use an electrical device to shock horses into running faster." The newspaper noted that this investigation "was PETA's first significant step into advocacy in the horse racing world."[83] In November 2015, as a result of PETA's investigation, Asmussen was fined $10,000 by the New York State Gaming Commission. Robert Williams, executive director of the commission, said, "We recognize PETA for playing a role in bringing about changes necessary to make thoroughbred racing safer and fairer for all." By contrast, the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission, which also received PETA's allegations, found that Asmussen did not violate any of its rules. Asmussen remains under investigation by the U.S. Department of Labor for allegedly violating the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.[84]

Also in 2014, PETA investigated China's dog leather trade in the province of Jiangsu. As the Daily Mirror reported, "PETA has obtained footage showing workers grabbing terrified dogs with a metal noose, clubbing them then slitting their throats. ... The video footage is too graphic to be shown here and is very distressing to watch." The newspaper also noted that "this is the first time that the production of Chinese dog leather has been captured on camera."[85] PETA claimed that "[p]roducts made from dog leather are exported throughout the world to be sold to unsuspecting customers."[86]

In 2015, as The Washington Post reported, PETA investigated Sweet Stem Farm, a pig farm that supplies meat to Whole Foods. The resulting video footage "featured images of pigs, some allegedly sick and not given appropriate care, crowded into hot pens and roughly handled by employees," contradicting both the farm's own video self-portrait and Whole Foods' claims about "humane meat" (a term that PETA maintains is an oxymoron). The Post notes that "[i]n the wake of the PETA investigation, Whole Foods has removed the Sweet Stem video from its Web site."[87] PETA has subsequently filed a class-action lawsuit against Whole Foods, "alleging that the chain's claims about animal welfare amount to a 'sham.'"[88]

Other recent PETA investigations have focused on crocodile and alligator farms in Texas and Zimbabwe,[89] a monkey breeding facility in Florida,[90] pigeon racing in Taiwan,[91] and a dairy farm in North Carolina, where cows were "wading knee deep through thousands of gallons of their own manure."[92]

Ag-gag laws

Various states, including Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, and Utah, have passed so-called "ag-gag" laws in order to prevent PETA and other groups from conducting undercover investigations of operations that use animals. A new such law in North Carolina is supposed to go into effect in January 2016. But PETA and a coalition of animal-welfare groups brought a lawsuit, "citing First Amendment protections for free speech," against Idaho that overturned the state's "ag-gag" law in August 2015, setting a precedent that may help overturn these laws in other states. PETA and ALDF are also currently suing the state of Utah.[93] "Ag-gag" laws have been heavily promoted by the conservative think tank the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).[94]

Video games

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

PETA has also produced various Flash games showcasing its campaigns, including parodies of Cooking Mama,[95] Super Mario Bros.,[96] Super Meat Boy,[97] and Pokémon,[98] in order to spread its message on animal welfare, vegetarianism and veganism.

One of the group's first notable satirical games, called Super Chick Sisters, parodying Super Mario Bros, was released on December 2007,[99] in order to spread its idea of Kentucky Fried Cruelty.[99][clarification needed] Within the game, KFC and especially Colonel Sanders is portrayed as evil and self-serving.[99] The sequel, New Super Chick Sisters, featuring McDonalds and Ronald McDonald as the villain, was released on December 2009,[100][101][102] in criticism of how McDonald's McNuggets were made.[103] PETA claims that McDonald's chickens have been treated poorly and said, "There is a less cruel method of slaughter available today that would eliminate these abuses, yet McDonald's refuses to require its U.S. and Canadian suppliers to switch to it."[103]

In November 2011, another satirical game was released featuring a skinned tanuki chasing Mario to reclaim its fur from him. This was widely criticized as "absurd and unresearched" by the gaming community, prompting PETA to explain that it was a tongue-in-cheek effort to draw attention to the real-life issue of tanuki being skinned alive.[104][105][106]

Not all critical response to the games has been unfavorable. Fahey opined that New Super Chick Sisters "manages to be a rather capable little platformer despite its heavy-handed message."[107] Nikole Zivalich of G4TV called Super Tofu Boy "actually a pretty good time waster" and, as she is a vegetarian, claimed to be "on Team Tofu."[108] Overall, Mike Splechta from GameZone stated that "some are a little less flattering than others, but they do tend to get their point across." He also called Cage Fight "kickass", praising its gameplay and chiptune soundtrack, and encouraged readers to play it.[109]

In some cases, the creators of the original games have responded to PETA's parodies. Such responses included Super Meat Boy developer Team Meat to add Tofu Boy as a playable character in a Super Meat Boy update,[108] Majesco responding to Cooking Mama: Mama Kills Animals about the false information about the game characters' behaviour,[110] and Nintendo criticizing abuse of its intellectual property with PETA's Pokémon Black & Blue game.[111]

Euthanizing shelter animals

PETA opposes the no-kill movement,[112] and, according to its most recent filling with The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS), euthanized 81 percent of the animals that ended up at its shelter.[113] According to VDACS, PETA took 3,017 animals into its shelters in 2014, of which 2,455 were euthanized, 162 were adopted, 353 were released to other shelters, and 6 were reclaimed by their original owners.[114] The group justifies its euthanasia policies toward animals who are not adopted by saying that it takes in feral cat colonies with diseases such as feline AIDS and leukemia, stray dogs, litters of parvo-infected puppies, and backyard dogs and says that it would be unrealistic to follow a no-kill policy in such instances.[115] PETA offers free euthanasia services to counties that kill unwanted animals via gassing or shooting—the group recommends the use of an intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital if administered by a trained professional and for severely ill or dying animals when euthanasia at a veterinarian is unaffordable.[116] The group recommends not breeding pit bulls and supports euthanasia in certain situations for animals in shelters: for example, for those living for long periods in cramped cages.[117]

PETA's operation of an animal shelter has drawn criticism. In 2008, the Center for Consumer Freedom (CCF), an industry front group, formally petitioned VDACS, requesting official reclassification of PETA as a slaughterhouse. The CCF said in a press release that "(a)n official report filed by PETA itself shows that the animal rights group put to death nearly every dog, cat, and other pet it took in for adoption in 2006."[118] A spokesperson for the VDACS said that it had considered changing PETA's status from "shelter" to "euthanasia clinic", citing PETA's willingness to handle animals that other shelters would not.[119]

In another case, two PETA employees were acquitted in 2007 of animal cruelty after at least 80 euthanized animals were left in dumpsters in a shopping center in Ahoskie over the course of a month in 2005; the two employees were seen leaving behind 18 dead animals, and 13 more were found inside their van. The animals had been euthanized after being removed from shelters in Northampton and Bertie counties. A Bertie County Deputy Sheriff stated the two employees assured the Bertie Animal Shelter "they were picking up the dogs to take them back to Norfolk where they would find them good homes".[120][121] During the trial, Daphna Nachminovitch, the supervisor of PETA's Community Animal Project, said PETA began euthanizing animals in some rural North Carolina shelters after it found the shelters killing animals in ways PETA considers inhumane, including by shooting them. She also stated that the dumping of animals did not follow PETA policy.[122][123]

PETA has promoted legal initiatives to enforce existing euthanasia laws. In 1990, Georgia's Humane Euthanasia Act became one of the first laws in the nation to mandate intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital as the prescribed method for euthanizing cats and dogs in Georgia animal shelters. Prior to that time, gas chambers and other means were commonly employed. Georgia Agriculture Commissioner Tommy Irvin was tasked with licensing the shelters and enforcing the new law, through the Department's Animal Protection Division. However, Commissioner Irvin failed to abide by the terms of the law,[124][125] and instead continued to license gas chambers. PETA contacted the author of the original legislation, and in March 2007, the Georgia Department of Agriculture and Commissioner Irvin were sued by former State Representative Chesley V. Morton.[126] The Fulton County Superior Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs,[127] validating the terms of the Humane Euthanasia Act, with an injunction prohibiting the Department from issuing licenses to shelters using gas chambers in violation of the Act. When the Department continued to license a gas chamber in Cobb County, a second court action was brought, which resulted in the Department being held in contempt.[128][129]

Person of the year

Each year, PETA selects a "Person of the Year" who has helped advance the cause of animal rights. In 2015, as Time magazine reported, the group selected Pope Francis, who took his name from the patron saint of animals, St. Francis of Assisi. Ingrid Newkirk noted, "With more than a billion Catholics worldwide, Pope Francis' animal-friendly teachings have a massive audience." Previous PETA persons of the year include Bill Clinton, Oprah Winfrey, Russell Simmons, and Ricky Gervais.[130]


Direct action and the ALF

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Newkirk is outspoken in her support of direct action, writing that no movement for social change has ever succeeded without what she calls the militarism component: "Thinkers may prepare revolutions," she wrote of the ALF in 2004, "but bandits must carry them out."[131]

In 2004 The Observer described what it called a network of relationships between apparently unconnected animal rights groups on both sides of the Atlantic, writing that, with assets of $6.5 million, and with the PETA Foundation holding further assets of $15 million, PETA funds a number of activists and groups—some with links to militant groups, including the ALF, which the FBI has named as a domestic terrorist threat. American writer Don Liddick writes that PETA gave $1,500 to the Earth Liberation Front in 2001—Newkirk said the donation was a mistake, and that the money had been intended for public education about destruction of habitat, but Liddick writes that it went to the legal defense of Craig Rosebraugh, an ELF spokesman. That same year, according to The Observer, PETA gave a $5,000 grant to American animal rights activist Josh Harper, an advocate of arson.[132]

According to Liddick, PETA has substantial links with Native American ALF activist Rod Coronado. He alleges that two Federal Express packages were sent to an address in Bethesda, Maryland, before and after a 1992 fire at Michigan State University that Coronado was convicted of setting, reportedly as part of "Operation Bite Back", a series of ALF attacks on American animal testing facilities in the 1990s. The first package was picked up by a PETA employee, Maria Blanton, and the second intercepted by the authorities, who identified the handwriting as Coronado's. Liddick writes that the package contained documents removed from the university and a videotape of one of the perpetrators. When they searched Blanton's home, police found some of the paraphernalia of animal liberation raids, including code names for Coronado and Alex Pacheco—PETA's co-founder—burglary tools, two-way radios, and fake identification. Liddick also writes that PETA gave Coronado $45,000 for his legal bills and another $25,000 to his father.[133]

Newkirk is a strong supporter of direct action that removes animals from laboratories and other facilities—she told The Los Angeles Times in 1992 that when she hears of anyone walking into a lab and walking out with animals, her heart sings.[12] Newkirk commented to the Chronicle of Higher Education in 1999, "When you see the resistance to basic humane treatment and to the acknowledgment of animals' social needs, I find it small wonder that the laboratories aren't all burning to the ground. If I had more guts, I'd light a match."[134]

In an interview for Wikinews in 2007, she said she had been asked by other animal protection groups to condemn illegal acts. "And I won't do it, because if it were my animal I'd be happy." But she added that she does not support arson. "I would rather that these buildings weren't standing, and so I think at some level I understand. I just don't like the idea of that, but maybe that's wishy-washy of me, because I don't want those buildings standing if they hurt anyone ... Why would you preserve [a building] just so someone can make a profit by continuing to hurt and kill individuals who feel every bit as much as we do?"[135]

Neutering, backyard dogs, working animals, and pets

In 2013, PETA provided 340 doghouses and 1,000 bales of straw for chained backyard dogs.[136]

PETA runs several programs though its Community Animal Project for cats and dogs in poorer areas of Virginia, near its headquarters.[137] In 2014 the group sterilized 10,950 cats and dogs, including 851 pit bulls and 584 feral cats, at a discounted rate or free of charge.[138] PETA also shelters neglected dogs and cats who are ill and injured, pursues cruelty cases, and sets up doghouses with straw bedding for dogs chained outside all winter. It supplied 340 doghouses, 1,000 bales of straw, and 2,500 dog toys in 2013.[136] The group urges population control through neutering and adoption from shelters and campaigns against organizations such as the American Kennel Club that promote the selection of purebred breeds.[139]

PETA takes the following position on dogs and cats:

In a perfect world, animals would be free to live their lives to the fullest, raising their young and following their natural instincts in their native environments. Domesticated dogs and cats, however, cannot live 'free' in our concrete jungles, so we are responsible for their care. People with the time, money, love, and patience to make a lifetime commitment to an animal can make an enormous difference by adopting an animal from a shelter or rescuing an animal from a perilous life on the streets."[140]

Newkirk has stated that she doesn't use the word "pet," preferring the term "companion animal," and described PETA's vision:

For one thing, we would no longer allow breeding. People could not create different breeds. There would be no pet shops. If people had companion animals in their homes, those animals would have to be refugees from the animal shelters and the streets. You would have a protective relationship with them just as you would with an orphaned child. But as the surplus of cats and dogs (artificially engineered by centuries of forced breeding) declined, eventually companion animals would be phased out, and we would return to a more symbiotic relationship — enjoyment at a distance.[141]

PETA writes that millions of dogs spend their lives chained outside in all weather conditions or locked up in chain-link pens and wire cages in puppy mills, and that even in good homes animals are often not well cared for. They would like to see the population of dogs and cats reduced through spaying and neutering, and for people never to purchase animals from pet shops or breeders, but to adopt them from shelters instead.[142] PETA supports hearing dog programs where animals are taken from shelters and placed in appropriate homes, but does not endorse seeing-eye-dog programs because, according to one of their Vice Presidents, "the dogs are bred as if there are no equally intelligent dogs literally dying for homes in shelters."[143] PETA also opposes the keeping of fish in aquarium tanks, suggesting that people view computer videos of fish instead.[144]

In November 2014 a resident of Accomack County, Virginia produced video evidence that two intruders in a van marked with a PETA logo had entered his property and stolen his dog, which was then killed. He reported the theft and killing to the police, who identified and charged two PETA workers, but the charges were later dropped by the commonwealth attorney on the grounds that it was not possible to prove criminal intent.[145]

Animal testing

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

PETA opposes animal testing—whether toxicity testing, basic or applied research, or for education and training—on both moral and practical grounds. Newkirk told Vogue magazine in 1989 that even if it resulted in a cure for AIDS, PETA would oppose it.[146] The group also believes that it is wasteful, unreliable, and irrelevant to human health, because artificially induced diseases in animals are not identical to human diseases. They say that animal experiments are frequently redundant and lack accountability, oversight, and regulation. They promote alternatives, including embryonic stem cell research and in vitro cell research.[147] PETA employees have themselves volunteered for human testing of vaccines; Scott Van Valkenburg, the group's Director of Major Gifts, said in 1999 that he had volunteered for human testing of HIV vaccines.[148]


PETA opposes the use of animals for producing clothing made with fur, leather, wool, or silk.[149] It also opposes the use of down from birds and the use of silk from silkworms or spiders.[150] The group notes on its website: "Every year, millions of animals are killed for the clothing industry—all in the name of fashion. Whether the clothes come from Chinese fur farms, Indian slaughterhouses, or the Australian outback, an immeasurable amount of suffering goes into every fur-trimmed jacket, leather belt, and wool sweater."[151] The group's ongoing campaigns against the use of animals for clothing include "Ink, Not Mink," which highlights images of celebrities with tattoos, including Brandon Flowers of the San Diego Chargers and many others.[152]

Autism and dairy products controversy

According to, PETA has "a history of (as the old saying goes) using science as a drunk uses a lamppost – for support rather than illumination. In that way they are typical of ideological groups. They have an agenda, they are very open about their beliefs, and they marshal whatever arguments they can in order to promote their point of view."[153]

PETA claims on its website that "scientific studies have shown that many autistic kids improve dramatically when put on a diet free of dairy foods."[154]

Studies such as these have been around for decades and are mainly centered around the concept that behavioral differences between people with autism and neurotypicals may be observed through a gluten-free diet.[153] According to

Behavior in children, especially those with the challenge of autism, can be unpredictable. Unpredictable and variable symptoms lend themselves to confirmation bias, with a strong tendency to lead to the anecdotal experience that whatever is being looked for is real. For example, many parents believe that sugar makes their children hyperactive, when this is simply not true. [...] The evidence for any effect on behavior is weak and likely not real. There is also no credible evidence to suggest that casein plays a causal role in autism. The evidence is overwhelming that autism is a genetic disorder. [...] This is clearly, in my opinion, a campaign of fear mongering based upon a gross distortion of the scientific evidence. The purpose is to advocate for a vegan diet, which fits their ideological agenda. They are likely aware that it is easier to spread fears than to reassure with a careful analysis of the scientific evidence.[153]

Even though the website cites studies, these studies are outdated, vague, relied on a very small sample size of children, were single-blind tests (which can be heavily influenced by an experimenter's bias), and conflated correlation with causation. The billboards put up by PETA promoting this research have also been considered offensive by many autistic individuals.[155]

Wildlife conservation personalities

PETA argues that conservation personalities, such as Steve Irwin, place animals under stress.[156]

PETA is critical of television personalities they call self-professed wildlife warriors, arguing that while a conservationist message is getting across, some of the actions are harmful to animals, such as invading animals' homes, netting them, subjecting them to stressful environments, and wrestling with them—often involving young animals the group says should be with their mothers.[157] In 2006 when Steve Irwin died, PETA's vice-president Dan Mathews said Irwin had made a career out of antagonizing frightened wild animals.[156] Australian Member of Parliament Bruce Scott said PETA should apologize to Irwin's family and the rest of Australia.[158]

PETA Asia-Pacific

PETA Asia-Pacific was founded by Ingrid Newkirk in Hong Kong in 2005 to support animal rights programs and campaigns in Asia. Jason Baker, a former staff member of PETA who was involved in setting up PETA India and PETA Australia, is PETA Asia Pacific's first director. Its offices are in Hong Kong and Manila. It works through public education, animal cruelty investigations, research, animal rescue, legislation, special events, celebrity involvement, and protest campaigns. Its campaigns cover countries including China, Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea.[159]

Vegetarian/vegan/factory farming

Lettuce Ladies in Guangzhou, China

PETA Asia-Pacific promotes vegetarian and vegan diets through three specific campaigns: education about the benefits of a vegetarian diet,[160] demonstrations and celebrity involvement against fast food outlets,[161] and undercover investigations of animals used for live transport and traditional religious slaughter. The organization has also used the PETA Lettuce Ladies in local demonstrations.[162] PETA Asia-Pacific regularly demonstrates against KFC outlets to promote better treatment of chickens used by the company.[163]


PETA AsiaPacific "naked" demo during Hong Kong fashion week

PETA Asia-Pacific supports the PETA campaign "I'd Rather Go Naked Than Wear Fur", in which celebrities appear nude to express their opposition to wearing fur.[164] The group also stages anti-fur events to publicize their opposition to fur.[165] PETA Asia-Pacific has been involved in several undercover investigations of fur farms in China.[166]

Animals used for entertainment

PETA AsiaPacific anti-zoo demonstration

The group regularly protests the use of animals in entertainment, including circuses. These demonstrations are specific to the area, including anti-bull riding,[167] not keeping wild animals in chains,[168] and stopping human–animal wrestling matches.[169]

Other campaigns

PETA Asia Pacific also coordinates protests against other uses of animals which it believes are abusive, such as improving the treatment of rats,[170] and it advocates for improvements for companion animals.[171]

Other international affiliates

PETA also has affiliates in the U.K., France, Germany, the Netherlands, India, and Australia.[172]

PETA India

PETA India, based in Mumbai, was founded in January 2000. According to the group's website, it focuses principally on "investigative work, public education efforts, research, animal rescues, legislative work, special events, celebrity involvement and national media coverage."[173]

The group has launched investigations of jallikattu events,[174] circuses that use animals in performances,[175] and filthy horse stables in Mumbai,[176] among others.

In 2015, with support from celebrities such as Paul McCartney and Pamela Anderson, PETA India rescued a 14-year-old male elephant named Sunder, who had been kept captive in chains "at a temple in the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra for seven years." Sunder was transferred to Bannerghatta Biological Park, a forested sanctuary, where he can roam freely in the company of other elephants.[177]

Indian celebrities who have collaborated with PETA India include Shahid Kapoor, Hema Malini, and Raveena Tandon, among many others.[178]

Domain name disputes

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

In February 1995, a parody website calling itself "People Eating Tasty Animals" registered the domain name "". PETA sued, claiming trademark violation, and won the suit in 2001.[179] While still engaged in legal proceedings over "", PETA themselves registered the domains "" and "", using the sites to accuse Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus and Vogue of animal cruelty. PETA later surrendered the domains under threat of similar legal action over trademark infringement.[180][181]

Position within the animal rights movement

<templatestyles src="Module:Hatnote/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Model Christy Turlington posing for PETA. The series of ads triggered criticism from feminist animal rights advocates.[182]
Newkirk on clashes with other animal rights organizations and her feelings about the Animal Liberation Front (3:31)

Robert Garner of the University of Leicester writes that Newkirk and Pacheco are the leading exporters of animal rights to the more moderate groups in the United States—both members of an animal rights elite that he argues has shaken up the animal rights movement, setting up new groups and radicalizing old ones.[183]

Philanthropedia says of the group: "A very controversial organization, PETA is known for bringing into public view the plight of animals of many different kinds. They have brought many issues to the front of people's consciousness about inhumane treatment of animals even though many experts find their marketing and communication tactics a bit extreme at times." The site's summary of expert opinion on the organization's strengths is as follows: "PETA is highly visible, consistent, and well organized. According to experts, they are very tightly focused on their mission and they are able to generate media attention to the cause."[184]

Specific experts consulted by Philanthropedia, including academics and senior staff members of other nonprofits, made the following observations about the group's position within the animal rights movement:

  • "PETA is not afraid to tackle ANY kind of animal abuse issue. They often start working on something well in advance of other organizations, take the 'heat' for others for years while educating people about the thing they're exposing. Then eventually, once a critical mass understands about the issue, it becomes 'mainstream'. I've seen this happen on a number of issues over the years, including fur, vegetarianism, animal research, wool, leather, etc."
  • "Students name PETA more than any other organization concerning which group influenced them to make positive personal changes and also be activists."
  • "PETA regularly convinces companies to replace their animal testing with non-animal alternatives as well as helping animals who are found living in cruel conditions in the pet and other industries. Their high profile campaigns result in many people becoming vegetarian and vegan."
  • "They have brought many issues to the front of people's consciousness about inhumane treatment of animals even though sometimes the way it is done is a little overboard. They have moved the bar from what was considered unthinkable 25 years ago (e.g., humane treatment of laboratory animals) to being considered normal and expected."
  • "I don't think one can talk about the animal movement without mentioning PETA. They put the issue ON the map. Whether agreeing or disagreeing with their tactics, [there] is no denying that they are probably one of, if not the, most-well known animal group. And if taken outside the animal movement, that they are a well-known 'brand' in general. That is an amazing impact for a so-called 'fringe' issue."
  • "Without PETA, the number of people who have even HEARD of animal rights/welfare/protection would be reduced by at least half, in my best guestimate."[185]

Despite the group's successes, there has been criticism of PETA from both the conservative and radical ends of the animal rights movement. Michael Specter writes that it provides for groups such as the Humane Society of the United States the same dynamic that Malcolm X provided for Martin Luther King, or Andrea Dworkin for Gloria Steinem—someone radical to alienate the mainstream and make moderate voices more appealing.[11] The failure to condemn the Animal Liberation Front triggers complaints from the conservatives, while the more radical activists say the group has lost touch with its grassroots, is soft on the idea of animal rights, and that it should stop the media stunts, the pie-throwing, and the used of nudity. "It's hard enough trying to get people to take animal rights seriously without PETA out there acting like a bunch of jerks," one activist told writer Norm Phelps. However, Phelps continued: "But it's hard to argue with success, and PETA is far and away the most successful cutting-edge animal rights organization in the world, in terms of both membership and spreading the animal rights message to the public at large."[186]

The ads featuring barely clad or naked women have been criticized by some feminist animal rights advocates. When Ronald Reagan's daughter Patti Davis posed naked for Playboy, donating half her $100,000 fee to PETA, the group issued a press release saying Davis "turns the other cheek in an eye-opening spread," then announced she had been photographed naked with Hugh Hefner's dog for an anti-fur ad. In 1995, PETA formed a partnership with Playboy to promote human organ donation, with the caption "Some People Need You Inside Them" on a photograph of Hefner's wife.[187] The long-standing campaign, "I'd rather go naked than wear fur," in which celebrities and supermodels strip for the camera, generated particular concern.[188]

Newkirk has replied to the criticism that no one is being exploited, the women taking part are volunteers, and if sexual attraction advances the cause of animals, she is unapologetic.[186] Asked in 2007 how she feels when criticized from within the movement, she said: "Somebody has to push the envelope. If you say something that someone already agrees with, then what's the point, and so we make some more conservative animal protection organizations uncomfortable; they don't want to be associated with us because it will be embarrassing for them, and I understand that. Our own members write to us sometimes and say, 'Oh why did you do this? I don't want anyone to know I'm a PETA member.'"[135]

Gary Francione, professor of law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark, argues that PETA is not an animal rights group—and further that there is no animal rights movement in the United States—because of their willingness to work with industries that use animals to achieve incremental change. This makes them an animal welfare group, in Francione's view: what he calls the new welfarists. A proponent of abolitionism, Francione argues that PETA is trivializing the movement with what he calls the "Three Stooges" theory of animal rights, making the public think progress is underway when the changes are only cosmetic.[190]

However, like Francione, PETA describes itself as abolitionist.[11] Newkirk told an animal rights conference in 2002 that PETA's goal remains animal liberation: "Reforms move a society very importantly from A to B, from B to C, from C to D. It's very hard to take a nation or a world that is built on seeing animals as nothing more than hamburgers, handbags, cheap burglar alarms, tools for research, and move them from A to Z ..."[189]

Francione has also criticized PETA for having caused grassroots animal rights groups to close, groups that he argues were essential for the survival of the animal rights movement, which rejects the centrality of corporate animal charities. Francione writes that PETA initially set up independent chapters around the United States, but closed them in favor of a top-down, centralized organization, which not only consolidated decision-making power, but centralized donations too. Now, local animal rights donations go to PETA, rather than to a local group.[191] Some members of the animal-rights movement have responded that Francione's position with respect to groups engaged in actual fieldwork is unnecessarily divisive and hurts animal advocacy.[192]

Celebrities who support PETA

The following is a list of celebrities who are supporters of PETA:[193]

<templatestyles src="Div col/styles.css"/>

See also


  1. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  2. Charity Navigator|accessed November 4, 2015.
  3. For its focus and claim to be the largest AR group in the world, see "PETA's mission statement", PETA, accessed May 1, 2013
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schwartz, Jeffrey M. and Begley, Sharon. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Regan Books, 2002, p. 161ff.
    • Pacheco, Alex and Francione, Anna. The Silver Spring Monkeys, in Peter Singer (ed.) In Defense of Animals, Basil Blackwell 1985, pp. 135–147.
  5. "PETA's mission statement", PETA, accessed July 3, 2010.
  6. For Newkirk and Pacheco being the leading exporters of AR, see Garner, Robert. Animals, politics, and morality. Manchester University Press, 1993; this edition 2004, p. 70.
    • For Francione's criticism, see Francione, Gary. Rain without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement. Temple University Press, 1996, pp. 67–77.
  7. Brandt, Peter. "PETA's Ingrid Newkirk", Salon, April 30, 2001. The full quote:

    "What I say to myself all the time is that we have our heads in the clouds looking for Utopia, but we have our feet firmly planted on the ground dealing with reality. We make no bones about the fact that we want an end to all cruelty to animals. But I think the meat industry and the leather industry and the experimenters understand, especially if we're fighting them, that we will back off if they move society and their industry a step forward. We're not going to stop everything overnight, so while we work for the ideal we certainly wish to provide the carrot-and-stick incentives to move along toward that goal.

    "Animals are going to die by the millions today in all sorts of ugly ways for all sorts of ridiculous, insupportable reasons. If one animal who is lying in a battery egg farm cage could have the extra room to stretch her wing today because of something you've done, I think she would choose to have that happen."
  8. For the feminist criticism, see Adams, Carole J. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1995, pp. 135, 228. Also see Garner, Robert. The political theory of animal rights. Manchester University Press, 2005, p. 144.
  9. Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA". Lantern Books, 2007, p. 227.
  10. For her education in a convent and her career details, see Specter, Michael. "The Extremist: The woman behind the most successful radical group in America", The New Yorker, April 4, 2003.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Specter, Michael. "The Extremist: The woman behind the most successful radical group in America", The New Yorker, April 4, 2003.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Rosenberg, Howard. "Fighting tooth and claw", The Los Angeles Times, March 22, 1992.
  13. Guillermo, Kathy Snow. Monkey Business. National Press Books, 1993, p. 18.
  14. For the Pacheco quote and for Pacheco introducing her to Peter Singer's book, see Rosenberg, Howard. "Fighting tooth and claw", The Los Angeles Times, March 22, 1992.
    • For the "five people in a basement" quote, see Schwartz, Jeffrey and Begley, Sharon. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. HarperCollins, 2002, p. 161.
    • For the early membership of PETA, and Pacheco's background, see Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA". Lantern Books, 2007, p. 229.
    • For Kim Stallwood's involvement, see Liddick, Don. Eco-Terrorism. Greenwood Publishing Company, 2006, p. 53.
  15. Carbone, Larry (2004). '"What Animal Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, p. 149, see figure 4.2.
  16. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  17. Pacheco, Alex. "Testimony on the Silver Spring monkeys case, U.S. House Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology, PETA, accessed June 26, 2010.
  18. Doidge, Norman. The Brain That Changes Itself. Viking Penguin, 2007, p. 141.
  19. Sideris, Lisa et al. "Roots of Concern with Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Ethics" at the Wayback Machine (archived September 1, 2006), Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, ILAR Journal V40(1), 1999.
  20. Schwartz, Jeffrey M. and Begley, Sharon. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Regan Books, 2002, p. 161.
  21. Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA". Lantern Books, 2007, p. 233.
  22. Carlson, Peter. "The Great Silver Spring Monkey Debate", The Washington Post, February 24, 1991.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  24. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  25. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.NonProfitPRO.
  26. "Animal rights", Encyclopædia Britannica, first accessed July 10, 2006, and again June 26, 2010.
  27. "PETA annual review 2004" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 15, 2005), PETA, accessed June 22, 2015.
  28. Pesce, Carolyn. "Holding the 'radical line'", USA Today, September 3, 1991.
  29. Financial Statement, PETA, accessed June 22, 2015.
    • For the outdated number of website hits, see Glass, Suzanne. "The Peta principal", The Financial Times, November 7, 2008.
  30. Meet PETA's Leadership, accessed 22 June 2015.
  31. Sam Simon Named As Honorary Director Of PETA, accessed 22 June 2015.
  32. "Pictures: PETA's Famous Faces," Chicago Tribune, accessed 22 June 2015.
  33. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  34. For example, as shareholders of YUM! Brands, which owns KFC, PETA submitted a shareholders' resolution asking for more humane treatment of the animals KFC processes.
  35. For McDonald's, see "McDonald's eyes PETA-friendly option", CNN, December 29, 2004.
  36. "Fashion and Dress," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 2006.
  37. "Pie hit should earn PETA 'terrorist' label: MP", CBC News, January 26, 2010; Pie tossing is terrorism, MP says", The Toronto Star, January 26, 2010.
  38. "The Satya Interview With Ingrid Newkirk: Part II: Activism and Controversy" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 15, 2001), Satya, January 2001, accessed June 27, 2010.
  39. "Mulesing by the Wool Industry" on PETA web site
    According to PETA: "Australian ranchers perform a barbaric procedure called "mulesing," in which they force live sheep onto their backs, restrain their legs between metal bars, and, often without any painkillers whatsoever, carve huge chunks of skin away from the animals' backsides or attach vise-like clamps to their flesh until it dies and sloughs off. Both procedures are terribly painful."
  40. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  41. Smith, Wesley, A Rat Is a Pig Is a Dog Is a Boy: The Human Cost of the Animal Rights Movement, Encounter Books, 2010, pp 94–8.
  42. Emily Feldman, "PETA Sues SeaWorld Over Killer Whale Enslavement," NBC10 7 February 2012.
  43. "California: Suit That Called Whales Slaves Is Dismissed," Associated Press 8 February 2012.
  44. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  45. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  46. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  47. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  48. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Teather, David. "'Holocaust on a plate' angers US Jews", The Guardian, March 3, 2003.
  50. Patterson, Charles. Eternal Treblinka, Lantern Books, 2002.
  51. For the letter to Arafat, see PETA's letter to Yasser Arafat, February 3, 2003; Dougherty, Kerry "Arafat gets ass-inine plea from PETA on intifada", Jewish World Review, February 10, 2003.
  52. "Animal rights campaign compares murdered women to meat" CBC News (13 November 2002).
  53. "PETA ad compares Greyhound bus attack to slaughtering animals", CBC, 6 August 2008.
  54. PETA Tells Kids to Run From Daddy, Fox News, November 25, 2005.
  55. Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA". Lantern Books, 2007, p. 241.
  56. For the Mothers Against Drunk Driving complaint, see Johnson, Mike and Spice, Linda. "Saving face?; PETA's new anti-milk ad campaign, aimed at teens, angers AG department," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 20, 2000.
  57. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  58. For sea kittens and other name changes, see Pluck You - Hmm. Would you rather live in Commerce City or, Westword, March 22, 2007; Save the Sea Kittens, PETA, accessed June 27, 2010.
  59. Lady Gaga's Meat Dress, 13 September 2010, Ingrid Newkirk
  60. Mother of Shark Attack Victim Says PETA Campaign Is 'Over the Top', Joshua Rhett Miller, Fox News, September 29, 2011
  61. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  62. Galkin, Matthew. "I Am an Animal: The Story of Ingrid Newkirk and PETA", HBO, 2007.
  63. Rood, Justin. "Undercover Cameras OK, Judge Rules", ABC News, April 13, 2007.
  64. Unnecessary Fuss, The film can be downloaded from *Unnecessary Fuss Part 1 *Part 2 *Part 3 *Part 4 *Part 5 (video).
  65. Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy". Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 90.
  66. For descriptions of the experiments and the PETA investigation, see Blum, Deborah. Monkey Wars. Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 118.
  67. Sarah Avery, "Beleaguered Supplier Denies Animal Cruelty," Greensboro News & Record 29 October 1990.
  68. Associated Press, "Hearing Begins for Carolina Biological," 9 March 1993.
  69. David A. Hall, "Company Cleared of Animal Cruelty Charges by Judge," Greensboro News and Record 19 May 1994.
  70. "A controversial laboratory", BBC News, January 18, 2001.
  71. Hearne, Vicki. Can an ape tell a joke?, Harpers, November 1, 1993.
  72. For PETA's involvement in the HLS investigation, see Doward, Jamie, and Townsend, Mark. "Beauty and the beasts", The Observer, August 1, 2004. Also see "A controversial laboratory", BBC News, January 18, 2001.
  73. Associated Press. PETA probe spurs indictment of three for cruelty to pigs, July 9, 1999.
  74. McNeil, Donald G. "The Nation: Gaining Ground; At Last, a Company Takes PETA Seriously", The New York Times, July 25, 2004.
  75. Covance photo gallery, PETA, accessed June 26, 2010.
  76. 76.0 76.1 Buske, Jennifer. "PETA Urges Withdrawal Of Support for Drug-Test Lab", The Washington Post, August 3, 2008.
  77. *Benz, Kathy and McManus, Michael. PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty, CNN, May 17, 2005.
  78. Miroff, Nick. "Rights Group Targets Circus", The Washington Post, September 21, 2006.
  79. Kanso, Heba. "PETA releases video of angora rabbit investigation in China", CBS News, November 20, 2013.
  80. Kanso, Heba. "World's largest clothing retailer drops angora wool after talks with PETA", CBS News, February 11, 2015.
  81. Elejalde-Ruiz, Alexia. "Zara parent bans sales of Angora wool, donates fur to Syrian refugees", Chicago Tribune, September 30, 2015.
  82. Schecter, Anna. "PETA: There's No Such Thing as Humane Wool", NBC News, July 8, 2014.
  83. Drape, Joe. "PETA Accuses Two Trainers of Cruelty to Horses", The New York Times, March 19, 2014.
  84. Drape, Joe. "Steve Asmussen Fined for Violating Horse Racing’s Drug Rules", The New York Times, November 23, 2015.
  85. Coyle, Haley. "Skinned alive and clubbed to death - the sick secrets of China's dog leather trade", The Daily Mirror, December 20, 2014.
  86. "Undercover Investigation: Dogs Bludgeoned and Killed in Leather Industry",, accessed October 6, 2015.
  87. Moyer, Justin Wm. "Another Whole Foods mess: Abuse alleged at pig farm linked to chain", The Washington Post, September 21, 2015.
  88. Mitchell, Dan. "Whole Foods hit with another lawsuit", Fortune, September 23, 2015.
  89. Gibson, Kate. "The price of luxury? Storied brand tied to animal abuse", CBS News, June 24, 2015.
  90. Luscombe, Richard. "'Monkeygate' scandal hits Florida as breeding farms face abuse investigation", The Guardian, July 6, 2015.
  91. AFP. "Taiwan charges pigeon owners over flutter on races", Bangkok Post, September 27, 2015.
  92. Miller, Daniel. "Investigation launched into North Carolina dairy farm as cows are filmed wading through their own manure", The Daily Mail, August 18, 2014.
  93. Runyon, Luke. "Judge Strikes Down Idaho 'Ag-Gag' Law, Raising Questions For Other States", NPR, August 4, 2015.
  94. Valentine, Katie. "How ALEC Has Undermined Food Safety by Pushing 'Ag Gag' Laws Across The Country", ThinkProgress, March 19, 2013.
  95. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  96. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  97. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  98. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  100. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  101. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  102. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  103. 103.0 103.1 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  104. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  105. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  106. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  107. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  108. 108.0 108.1 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  109. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  110. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  111. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  112. Interlandi, Jeneen. "PETA and Euthanasia: Even among animal lovers, killing unwanted pets is a divisive issue." Newsweek, April 28, 2008.
  113. VDACS Online Animal Reporting, "[1]," accessed 26 Feb 2015.
  114. VDACS Online Animal Reporting, "[2]," accessed 12 Feb 2015.
  115. "Animal Rights Uncompromised: 'No-Kill' Shelters", PETA, accessed June 26, 2010; "A reply from PETA to a letter inquiring about its euthanization decisions" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 10, 2004),, accessed June 26, 2010.
  116. "Euthanasia: The Compassionate Option", PETA, accessed June 27, 2010.
  117. Newkirk, Ingrid. "Controlling an animal as deadly as a weapon", San Francisco Chronicle, June 8, 2005.
  118. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  119. Janice Lloyd, "PETA Says 'Exploiters Raise Euthanasia Issue," USA Today 4 March 2012.
  120. PETA Employees Face 31 Felony Animal-Cruelty Charges for Killing, Dumping Dogs at the Wayback Machine (archived March 8, 2007), Lincoln Tribune.
  121. King, Lauren. "PETA Workers Cleared of Animal Cruelty, Guilty of Littering," The Virginian-Pilot, February 3, 2007
  122. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  123. "The Dilemma of the Unwanted", San Francisco Chronicle, June 30, 2005.
  124. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  125. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  127. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  128. [3][dead link]
  129. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  130. White, Daniel. "Pope Francis Is PETA’s Person of the Year", TIME
  131. 131.0 131.1 Newkirk, Ingrid. "The ALF: Who, Why, and What?", Terrorists or Freedom Fighters? Reflections on the Liberation of Animals. Best, Steven & Nocella, Anthony J (eds). Lantern 2004, p. 341./
  132. For the material about PETA's assets, the ALF, and the grant to Josh Harper, see Doward, Jamie. "Beauty and the beasts", The Observer, August 1, 2004.
  133. For details of the Federal Express packages, the other evidence, and the payment to Coronado, see Liddick, Don. Eco-Terrorism. Greenwood Publishing Company, 2006, pp. 50, 52.
  134. Schneider, Alison. "As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm", The Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov. 12, 1999.
  135. 135.0 135.1 Shankbone, David. "Interview with Ingrid Newkirk", Wikinews, November 13, 2007. Also see Shankbone, David. "Ingrid Newkirk, co-founder of PETA, on animal rights and the film about her life", Wikinews, November 20, 2007.
  136. 136.0 136.1 "How a House Can Change a Life—PETA's Doghouse Program in Action",, accessed October 5, 2015.
  137. "Join PETA's Community Animal Project", PETA, accessed June 26, 2010.
  138. "PETA's Spay-Neuter Clinics: Miracles Performed Daily",, accessed October 5, 2015.
  139. "Helping Animals in Our Region", PETA's Community Animal Project; Doing What's Best for Our Companion Animals,, accessed October 6, 2015. "PETA dresses in KKK garb outside Westminster Dog Show", USA Today, February 10, 2009.
  140. "Helping Animals in Our Region", PETA's Community Animal Project; Doing What's Best for Our Companion Animals,, accessed October 6, 2015.
  141. "The Rights Of Animals", St. Petersburg Times, Sept. 4, 1988.
  142. Animal Rights Uncompromised: PETA on 'Pets', PETA, accessed June 27, 2010.
  143. Lindsay Barnett, "PETA's Vice President: We Don't Want To Take Your Dog Away", Los Angeles Times 10 January 2009.
  144. Fish in Tanks: No, Thanks!, PETA, accessed March 29, 2009.
  145. Deanna leBlanc (12 November 2014) Man claims PETA stole, killed family pet, retrieved 26 February 2015.
  146. Vogue magazine, September 1989.
  147. Animal Experiments: Overview, PETA, accessed June 30, 2010. Also see Rosenberg, Howard. "Fighting tooth and claw", The Los Angeles Times, March 22, 1992.
  148. Van Valkenburg, Scott. "Letters: White-coat welfare", Seattle Weekly, July 7, 1999; see Scott Van Valkenburg, PETA, accessed June 30, 2010.
  149. Animals Used for Clothing position statement.
  150. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  151. Animals Used for Clothing, accessed 1 December 2015.
  152. Chargers' Flowers Makes Ad for PETA: 'Ink, Not Mink', Times of San Diego, 10 December 2014.
  153. 153.0 153.1 153.2 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  154. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  155. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  156. 156.0 156.1 Walls, Jeannette (2006). "PETA sheds no crocodile tears for Steve Irwin", MSNBC, September 11, 2006.
  157. "Steve Irwin: Not a True 'Wildlife Warrior'", PETA, accessed June 27, 2010.
  158. PETA renews attack on Irwin,, accessed September 15, 2006.
  159. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  160. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  161. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  162. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  163. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  164. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  165. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  166. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  167. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  168. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  169. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  170. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  171. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  172. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  173. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  174. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  175. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  176. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  177. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  178. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  179. The site contained links to other sites advocating the consumption of meat, the use of leather and animal furs, and promoting the benefits of animal experimentation in medical research. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
    • Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
    • A PETA spokesperson said that "the people who are doing this are the lowest of the low. We can't help but be amused that we are so threatening to people like this that they would go to so much trouble as to steal away our name." Krigel, Beth Lipton. "Circus in domain trademark flap", CNET, April 24, 1998.
  180. Richtel, Matt. "You Can't Always Judge a Domain by Its Name", New York Times, May 28, 1998.
  181. "Not in Vogue", Legal Technology Insider, March 23, 1999.
  182. I'd Rather Go Naked Than Wear Fur, accessed June 26, 2010.
  183. Garner, Robert. Animals, politics, and morality. Manchester University Press, 1993; this edition 2004, p. 70.
  184. Philanthropedia: Expert Reviews of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), "Expert Reviews" tab, accessed October 20, 2015.
  185. Philanthropedia: Expert Comments: Evidence of Impact, "Expert Reviews" tab, accessed October 20, 2015.
  186. 186.0 186.1 Phelps, Norm. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA". Lantern Books, 2007, p. 242.
  187. For feminist criticism of the Patti Davis ad, see "PETA and a Pornographic Culture" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 31, 2007), Feminists for Animal Rights newsletter, vol 8, no 3–4, 1994.
  188. Adams, Carole J. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1995, p. 228. Also see p. 135 for more on the anti-fur ads.
    • For a general discussion of the issues, see Adams, Carole J. and Donovan, Josephine. Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations. Duke University Press, 1995.
  189. 189.0 189.1 Newkirk, Ingrid. "PETA president speaks up for animals", at 25:44 mins, Animal rights convention, June 30, 2002, accessed June 28, 2010.
  190. For the Three Stooges point, see Rosenberg, Howard. "Fighting tooth and claw", The Los Angeles Times, March 22, 1992.
    • For the argument that the changes are cosmetic, see Francione, Gary. Rain without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement. Temple University Press, pp. 67–77.
  191. Francione, Gary. Rain without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement. Temple University Press, pp. 67–77.
  192. Bockman, Jon. "Welfarists or Abolitionists? Division Hurts Animal Advocacy", Animal Charity Evaluators, March 17, 2015.
  193. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. Look to the Stars: The World of Celebrity Giving

Further reading

External links