Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, parachutes, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal; then a largest step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized with the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world.
The F-35 Lightning II
, called in development the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), is a military fighter aircraft
designed by the United States
and the United Kingdom
. It is intended to replace the current generation of strike fighters, particularly the vertical take off and landing
(VTOL) Harrier jump jets: the AV-8 Harrier II
(US), Harrier GR7/9
(UK), and the Sea Harrier
, along with the conventional A-10 Thunderbolt II
, F/A-18 Hornet
and the F-16 Fighting Falcon
. It will be a multi-role strike fighter
(a plane with a strong emphasis on close air support
and tactical bombing as well as being capable of air-to-air combat), and will make considerable use of stealth technology
in that it will be almost undetectable (stealthy) to X-band radars
(tracking radars, often short range) in the forward hemisphere but not particularly stealthy in the rear hemisphere and not stealthy to L band
(search radars, often long range) in either hemisphere. It is in production with Lockheed Martin
, along with partners Northrop Grumman
, and BAE Systems
Template:/box-header ...that the Fairey Seafox was a Second World War reconnaissance floatplane of the Fleet Air Arm?
...that the Zagreb mid-air collision over Croatia in 1976 was one of the deadliest mid-air collisions?
... that Jimmy Doolittle commanded a 22 plane demonstration celebrating the opening of Henderson, Kentucky's Audubon Memorial Bridge in 1932? Template:/box-footer
The Convair B-36
was a strategic bomber
built by Convair
for the United States Air Force
, the first to have truly intercontinental range. Unofficially nicknamed the "Peacemaker"
, the B-36 was the first thermonuclear weapon
delivery vehicle, the largest piston aircraft ever to be mass-produced, and the largest warplane of any kind.
The B-36 was the only American aircraft with the range and payload to carry such bombs from airfields on American soil to targets in the USSR, as storing nuclear weapons in foreign countries was diplomatically delicate. The nuclear deterrent the B-36 afforded may have kept the Soviet Army from fighting alongside the North Korean and Chinese armies during the Korean War. Convair touted the B-36 as an "aluminum overcast," a "long rifle" to give SAC a global reach. When General Curtis LeMay headed SAC (1949-57) and turned it into an effective nuclear delivery force, the B-36 formed the heart of his command. Its maximum payload was more than four times that of the B-29, even exceeding that of the B-52.
- Span: 230 ft 0 in (70.10 m)
- Length: 162 ft 1 in (49.40 m)
- Height: 46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
- Engines: 6× Pratt & Whitney R-4360-53 "Wasp Major" radials, 3,800 hp (2,500 kW) each
- Cruising Speed: 230 mph (200 kn, 380 km/h) with jets off
- Range: 6,795 mi (5,905 nmi, 10,945 km) with 10,000 lb (4,535 kg) payload
- First Flight: 8 August 1946
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO
(3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British
officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force
. He has been described as the Father of the Royal Air Force
During his formative years Trenchard struggled academically, failing many examinations and only just succeeding in meeting the minimum standard for commissioned service in the British Army. As a young infantry officer, Trenchard served in India and in South Africa. During the Boer War, Trenchard was critically wounded and as a result of his injury, he lost a lung, was partially paralysed and returned to Great Britain. While convalescing in Switzerland he took up bobsleighing and after a heavy crash, Trenchard found that his paralysis was gone and that he could walk unaided. Some months later, Trenchard returned to South Africa before volunteering for service in Nigeria. During his time in Nigeria, Trenchard commanded the Southern Nigeria Regiment for several years and was involved in efforts to bring the interior under settled British rule and quell inter-tribal violence.
In 1912, Trenchard learned to fly and was subsequently appointed as second in command of the Central Flying School. He held several senior positions in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I, serving as the commander of Royal Flying Corps in France from 1915 to 1917. In 1918, he briefly served as the first Chief of the Air Staff before taking up command of the Independent Air Force in France. Returning as Chief of the Air Staff under Winston Churchill in 1919, Trenchard spent the following decade securing the future of the Royal Air Force. He was Metropolitan Police Commissioner in the 1930s and a defender of the RAF in his later years.
Wikinews Aviation portal
Template:/box-header October 21
- 2009 – Northwest Airlines Flight 188, an Airbus A320-212 with 149 people on board, lands in Minneapolis, Minnesota, an hour late after its pilots overshoot Minneapolis when they become distracted by a discussion of their schedules.
- 2009 – Agreement announced for sale of London Gatwick Airport from BAA Limited to Global Infrastructure Partners, to comply with Competition Commission requirements.
- 2009 – Azza Transport Flight 2241, a Boeing 707-330C, crashes on take off from Sharjah International Airport, United Arab Emirates; all 6 crew members are killed.
- 1989 – Tan-Sahsa Flight 414, a Boeing 727, crashes into a mountain known as Cerro de Hula near Tegucigalpa, Honduras due to pilot error; 127 of 146 on board die.
- 1982 – A Swiss Air Force Sud Alouette III crashed near Urnasch, six killed.
- 1978 – A man named Frederich Valentich mysteriously disappears while flying a Cessna 182L over the Bass Strait in Australia, after encountered an unidentified flying object. During six minutes after first asking air traffic control about other aircraft in the area, he continued to describe a craft of some sort that did not resemble an airplane and was moving all around him as he flew. His transmission ultimately ended with 17 seconds of metallic scraping sounds before cutting. No trace of him or his aircraft were ever found.
- 1970 – An explosion in the lavatory blows the tail off of Philippine Airlines Flight 215, a Hawker Siddeley HS 748-209 Series 2, while it is flying over the Philippine Islands at 10,500 feet (3,200 m) during a flight from Cauayan City to Manila; the aircraft crashes, killing all 40 people on board. A bomb is suspected.
- 1970 – Caledonian Airways takes over British United Airways.
- 1967 – During a Laughlin AFB, Texas, airshow, USAF Thunderbirds No. 6, a North American F-100D-20-NA Super Sabre, 55-3520, piloted by Capt. Merrill A. "Tony" McPeak, crashes, but he succeeds in ejecting as the plane breaks up. As McPeak pulls up to begin a series of vertical rolls, the wing center box fails at ~6.5 Gs, and the engine catches fire as the center fuel tank ruptures, dumping fuel into the engine bay. The pilot ejects and lands near to the crowd. This crash limited flying on all USAF Super Sabres to 4G. This was the first Thunderbird crash during a performance.
- 1961 – Vought F8U-1 Crusader, BuNo 145357, 'AB 12', of VF-11, arrestor hook and right landing gear broke during heavy landing on USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, with aircraft catching alight and going over port side. A series of nine photographs taken by Photographer's Mate L.J. Cera showed the crash sequence with pilot Lt. J.G Kryway ejecting in Martin-Baker Mk. F-5 seat just as the fighter leaves the deck. These images were widely distributed in the Navy to assure pilots that the seat could save them. Kryway escapes with minor injuries, being picked up by helicopter ten minutes later. Joe Baugher notes that date of 21 August 1961 has also been reported.
- 1954 – XA546, a Royal Air Force Gloster Javelin FAW.1 on a pre-delivery test flight, crashes into the Bristol Channel.
- 1944 – A Japanese plane carrying a 200-pound (91 kg) bomb crashes into HMAS Australia off the coast of the Philippines.
- 1942 – A Boeing B-17D Flying Fortress, 40-3089, of the 5th Bomb Group/11th Bomb Group, with Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker, America's top-scoring World War I ace (26 kills), aboard on a secret mission, is lost at sea in the central Pacific Ocean when the bomber goes off-course. After 24 days afloat, he and surviving crew are rescued by the U.S. Navy after having been given up for lost, discovered by OS2U Kingfisher crew.
- 1941 – First prototype Saro Lerwick, L7248, on strength with the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment, crashes into hill at Faslane, probably as a result of engine failure, with seven crew killed.
- 1937 – Nationalist aircraft sink the Republican destroyer Ciscar at Gijón.
- 1936 – Pan American World Airways initiates six-day-a-week passenger service between San Francisco, California, and Manila in the Philippine Islands via Honolulu, Hawaii.
- 1929 – The Colonial Flying Service and Scully Walton Ambulance Company organize the United States' first civilian air ambulance service.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Mauro, Stephen, "e-volo Takes Lindbergh Prize," Aviation History, November 2012, p. 10.
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