Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, parachutes, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal; then a largest step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized with the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world.
American Airlines Flight 11
was a scheduled U.S.
domestic passenger flight from Logan International Airport
in Boston, Massachusetts
, to Los Angeles International Airport
. It was hijacked by five men and deliberately crashed into the North Tower
of the World Trade Center
in New York City
as part of the September 11, 2001, attacks
. Fifteen minutes into the flight, the hijackers injured at least three people, forcefully breached the cockpit, and overpowered the pilot and first officer. Mohamed Atta
, who was a known member of al-Qaeda
, and trained as a pilot, took over the controls. Air traffic controllers noticed the flight was in distress when the crew stopped responding to them. They realized the flight had been hijacked when Atta mistakenly transmitted announcements to air traffic control. On board, two flight attendants contacted American Airlines
, and provided information about the hijackers and injuries to passengers and crew.
The aircraft crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 08:46 local time; the impact killed all 92 people aboard, including the hijackers. Many people in the streets witnessed the collision, and Jules Naudet captured the impact on video. News agencies began to report on the incident soon after and speculated that the crash had been an accident. The impact and subsequent fire caused the North Tower to collapse, which resulted in thousands of additional casualties. During the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified dozens of remains from Flight 11 victims, but many other body fragments could not be identified.
Template:/box-header ...that the Soviet spotter aircraft Sukhoi Su-12, though approved, was never produced due to lack of manufacturing capacity in the USSR?
...that the Cessna 165 aircraft was instrumental in the recovery of the Cessna Aircraft Company in the years following the Great Depression?
... that in the middle of building Fagernes Airport, Leirin, the authorities changed their minds and gave the airport more than twice the runway length? Template:/box-footer
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s, and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made.
The DC-3 was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond and first flew on December 17, 1935 (the 32nd. anniversary of the Wright Brothers flight at Kitty Hawk). The plane was the result of a marathon phone call from American Airlines CEO C.R. Smith demanding improvements in the design of the DC-2. The amenities of the DC-3 (including sleeping berths on early models and an in-flight kitchen) popularized air travel in the United States. With just one refuelling stop, transcontinental flights across America became possible. Before the DC-3, such a trip would entail short hops in commuter aircraft during the day coupled with train travel overnight.
During World War II, many civilian DC-3s were drafted for the war effort and thousands of military versions of the DC-3 were built under the designations C-47, C-53, R4D, and Dakota. The armed forces of many countries used the DC-3 and its military variants for the transport of troops, cargo and wounded. Over 10,000 aircraft were produced (some as licensed copies in Japan as Showa L2D, and in the USSR as the Lisunov Li-2).
- Span: 95 ft (28.96 m)
- Length: 64 ft 5 in (19.65 m)
- Height: 16 ft 11 in (5.16 m)
- Engines: 2× Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp S1C3G 14-cylinder radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) or Wright Cyclone
- Cruising Speed: 170 mph (274 km/h)
- First Flight:December 17, 1935
- Number built: 13,140 (including license built types)
Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager
(born February 13, 1923) is a retired Brigadier-General in the United States Air Force
and a noted test pilot. In 1947, he became the first pilot (at age 24) to travel faster than sound
in level flight and ascent.
His career began in World War II as a private in the U.S. Army Air Forces. After serving as an aircraft mechanic, in September 1942 he entered enlisted pilot training and upon graduation was promoted to the rank of Flight Officer (WW 2 U.S. Army Air Forces rank equivalent to Warrant Officer) and became a P-51 Mustang fighter pilot. After the war he became a test pilot of many kinds of aircraft and rocket planes. Yeager was the first man to break the sound barrier on October 14, 1947, flying the experimental Bell X-1 at Mach 1 at an altitude of 45,000 ft (13,700 m). Although Scott Crossfield was the first man to fly faster than Mach 2 in 1953, Yeager shortly thereafter exceeded Mach 2.4. He later commanded fighter squadrons and wings in Germany and in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, and in recognition of the outstanding performance ratings of those units he then was promoted to Brigadier-General. Yeager's flying career spans more than sixty years and has taken him to every corner of the globe, even into the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.
Wikinews Aviation portal
Template:/box-header December 14
- 2009 – Cabin crew at British Airways vote overwhelmingly in favor of a planned 12 days of strike action over Christmas and the New Year in a dispute over job cuts and changes to staff contracts. On 17 December the High Court rules that Unite, the representing trade union, had not correctly balloted its members on the strike action, meaning that the strikes could not go ahead.
- 1988 – JAL (Japan Air Lines) announces that they will be the first airline to add personal video screens on their 747-400 s in the first and business class cabins.
- 1986 – (14-23) First non-stop flight around the planet without refueling – The Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, on a distance of 40,212 kilometres (24,987 mi).
- 1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of Apollo 17. This was the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
- 1967 – As part of a Centennial project, Col. Robert (Bud) White sets a Canadian altitude record by flying a fighter jet to 30,030 metres (98,520 ft) Col. White dives 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) at full throttle to gain speed for his supersonic climb at Mach 2.4.
- 1965 – A Learjet 23 executive transport shows off its impressive capabilities by climbing to 40,000 feet (12,000 m) in 7 min 21 seconds with seven people aboard.
- 1959 – Captain Joe B. Jordan, USAF, set a new world altitude record of 31,513 meters (103,389 feet) in a Lockheed F-104C Starfighter, 56-885. This exceeded the previous record, set just 8 days earlier by Commander Lawrence E. Flint, USN, in a prototype McDonnell YF4H-1 Phantom II, by 4.95%.
- 1959 – Boeing KC-97 Stratotanker, 53-0231, c/n 17113, of the 384th Air Refueling Squadron, out of Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts, collides with a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress during a refueling mission at an altitude of ~15,000 feet (4,600 m). The aircraft loses the whole left horizontal stabilizer and elevator, the rudder, and the upper quarter of the vertical stabilizer. Crew makes a no-flap, electrical power off landing at night at Bangor Air National Guard Base (DOW AFB), Maine, seven crew okay. "Spokesmen at Dow Air Force, Bangor, said the B-52 apparently 'crowded too close' and rammed a fuel boom into the tail of a 4 engined KC95 tanker plane." Aircraft stricken as beyond economical repair. Two crew on the B-52 eject, parachute safely, and are recovered by helicopters in a snow-covered wilderness area. The bomber and remaining eight crew members continue to Westover AFB, where a safe landing is made.
- 1952 – A Royal Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress, WF570, of 35 Squadron, RAF Marham, flies into ground 5 miles (8.0 km) ENE of Marham whilst attempting a radio compass let down in bad weather. Both pilots, the nav/plotter and the radio operato are killed, whilst the flight engineer and one of the air gunners suffer serious injuries.
- 1944 – (14–16) Task Force 38 carrier aircraft attack Japanese airfields on Luzon, employing for the first time the “Big blue blanket” tactic of keeping aircraft over the airfields day and night to prevent Japanese air attacks on the beachhead at Mindoro. Flying 1,671 sorties, they drop 336 tons (304,817 kg) of bombs, claiming 62 Japanese aircraft destroyed in the air and 208 on the ground, for a loss of 27 U. S. aircraft in combat and 38 due to non-combat causes.
- 1943 – Aircraft of the U. S. Army Air Forces’ Fifth Air Force attack Japanese forces at Arawe with 433 tons (392,815 kg) of bombs.
- 1931 – RAF pilot Douglas Bader (21 February 1910 – 5 September 1982), undertaking a low-level roll in Bristol Bulldog Mk. IIA, K1676, of 23 Squadron at RAF Woodley, Great Britain, hooks a wingtip, rolls the biplane into a ball, and loses both his legs. Undeterred, he returns to the air and becomes a renowned World War II fighter pilot with 22 credited "kills" before being downed over France, 9 August 1941. As a POW, he has such determination to escape that he is eventually sent to Colditz Castle for recidivist escapees.
- 1924 – First flight of the Martin MO, is launched using an explosive-driven catapult fitted to a turret on USS Mississippi, requiring less distance than ever for the take-off.
- 1916 – Flight Sub Lt. Arthur Ince a RFC Observer shot down a Geman seaplane off the coast of Belgium. This was the first Canadian aerial victory. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
- 1914 – A Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504 of the No. 203 Squadron RAF (Eastchurch Squadron]) drops four 16 pounds (7.3 kg) bombs on the Ostend-Bruges railway in Belgium.
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