Seven Grievances

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The Seven Grievances (Manchu: 20px nadan koro; Chinese: 七大恨; pinyin: Qī Dà Hèn) was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci on the Thirteenth day of the Fourth lunar month in the Third year of Tianming era (Chinese: 天命; 7 May 1618[1]). It effectively declared war against the Ming dynasty.

The seven grievances are:[2]

  1. The Ming killed Nurhaci's father and grandfather without reason;
  2. The Ming suppressed Jianzhou and favored Yehe and Hada clans;
  3. The Ming violated agreement of territories with Nurhaci;
  4. The Ming sent troops to protect Yehe against Jianzhou;
  5. The Ming supported Yehe to break its promise to Nurhaci;
  6. The Ming forced Nurhaci to give up the lands in Chaihe, Sancha and Fuan;
  7. The Ming's official Shang Bozhi abused his power and rode roughshod over the people.

After the announcement of the Seven Grievances, Manchu troops forced their way into Fushun and obtained the surrender of the city's commander Li Yongfang (d. 1634). In retaliation, a year later, a Ming punitive force of about 100,000 men, which included Korean and Yehe troops, approached Nurhaci's Manchus along four different routes. The Manchus scored successive victories, the most famous[by whom?] of which was near the town of Sarhu. The Ming dynasty was wearied by a combination of internal strife and constant harassment by the Manchu.

On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a peasant rebel army led by Li Zicheng. During the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hanged himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. The Manchus then allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing and overthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun dynasty, establishing the Qing dynasty rule in China.

See also


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