100 metres

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100 metres
London 2012 Olympic 100m final start.jpg
Start of the 100 metres final at the 2012 Olympic Games.
Men's records
World Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
Olympic Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
World United States Florence Griffith 10.49 (1988)
Olympic United States Florence Griffith 10.62 (1988)

The 100 metres, or 100-meter dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world." The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world and Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

Race dynamics


Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.1-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[4] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]


Runners typically reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.


The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal."

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts (explaining why many athletes choose not to breathe for the duration of the race)[citation needed]. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A."[10]

10-second barrier

Gender and ethnicity

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (who has Irish and Indigenous Australian heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.[15] Of the six men's continental record holders, currently three of them were born in Nigeria.

It is believed that biological factors may be largely responsible for the notable success in sprinting events enjoyed by athletes of West African descent. This includes:[16]

Relatively less subcutaneous fat on arms and legs and proportionately more lean body and muscle mass, broader shoulders, larger quadriceps, and bigger, more developed musculature in general;

Denser, shallower chests;

Higher center of gravity, generally shorter sitting height, narrower hips, and lighter calves;

Longer arm span and "distal elongation of segments" – the hand is relatively longer than the forearm, which in turn is relatively longer than the upper arm; the foot is relatively longer than the tibia (leg), which is relatively longer than the thigh;

Faster patellar tendon reflex;

Greater body density, which is likely due to higher bone mineral density and heavier bone mass at all stages in life, including infancy (despite evidence of lower calcium intake and a higher prevalence of lactose intolerance, which prevents consumption of dairy products);

Modestly, but significantly, higher levels of plasma testosterone (3-19 percent), which is anabolic, theoretically contributing to greater muscle mass, lower fat, and the ability to perform at a higher level of intensity with quicker recovery;

The ACTN3 protein, a "speed gene" most common among persons of West African descent that renders fast twitch muscle fibers fast. African American 200 m and 400 m world champion Michael Johnson has suggested that the presence of ACTN3 is at the root of the success of these athletes in sprinting events;[17][18]

And finally, a higher percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II) and more anaerobic enzymes, which can translate into more explosive energy. The enzyme creatine kinase is abundantly expressed in these fibers. The enzyme rapidly regenerates the biological fuel molecule ATP needed for the sprint. The enzyme has been reported to be twice as high in subjects of sub-Saharan African descent.[19] Creatine kinase is the final common pathway of muscle activity. It is tightly bound to the muscle fibers and directly fuels fast muscle contraction. Therefore, the creatine kinase system is considered to be the major factor, downstream of other factors, that modulates the biological capacity to sprint.[20]

Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting.[18] Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[21] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[22]

Record performances

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[23] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[24] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988.[25]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Green were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records

Updated 5 July 2015.[26]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 10.79 +1.1 Blessing Okagbare  Nigeria
Asia (records) 9.93 +0.4 Femi Ogunode  Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France
9.86 +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut  France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson  Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen  Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva  Brazil 11.01 +1.4 Ana Cláudia Lemos  Brazil


Fastest 100 metres runners

All-time top 25 men

Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics

As of 5 July 2015:[28]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
−0.1 Yohan Blake  Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell  Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne
5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin  United States 15 May 2015 Doha
6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter  Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti
7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene  United States 16 June 1999 Athens
8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings  Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene
9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson  Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain
10 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey  Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin  Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.3 Trayvon Bromell  United States 25 June 2015 Eugene
13 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell  United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 12 May 2006 Ad-Dawhah
+1.3 Mike Rodgers  United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
16 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis  United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks  Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon  Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman  Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut  France 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis
22 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie  United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.2 Obadele Thompson [A]  Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
24 9.88 +1.8 Shawn Crawford  United States 19 June 2004 Eugene
+1.0 Walter Dix  United States 8 August 2010 Nottwil
+0.9 Ryan Bailey  United States 29 August 2010 Rieti
+1.0 Michael Frater  Jamaica 30 June 2011 Lausanne

More facts about these male runners

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record).
  • Tyson Gay ran a time of 9.68 s set on 29 June 2008 during the 2008 U.S. Olympic Track & Field Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon, but the tail wind speed was +4.1 m/s, more than double the IAAF legal limit of +2.0 m/s.[29]
  • Obadele Thompson ran 9.69 in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100m time for 12 years until Tyson Gay's June 2008 performance, but the tail wind speed was +5.7 m/s.
  • Andre De Grasse of Markham, Ontario, Canada, ran 9.75 s on June 12, 2015, during the NCAA Track and Field Championships, in Eugene, Oregon, U.S.A, but the tail wind speed was +2.7 m/s.
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006.
  • Carl Lewis ran a time of 9.78 seconds at the 1988 US Olympic trials in Indianapolis, but the tail wind speed was +5.2 m/s.
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognized as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.

All-time top 25 women

Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.

As of August 2015

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones  United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce  Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
5 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France 19 August 1998 Budapest
6 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey  Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
7 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart  Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
8 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford  United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
10 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova  Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova  Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
12 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell  United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards  United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
14 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller  United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare  Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
+1.5 English Gardner  United States 26 June 2015 Eugene [30]
18 10.80 +0.8 Tori Bowie  United States 18 July 2014 Monaco
19 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+1.7 Murielle Ahoure  Ivory Coast 30 May 2015 Eugene [31]
−0.3 Dafne Schippers  Netherlands 24 August 2015 Beijing [32]
22 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers  United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+0.4 Gwen Torrence  United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block  Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson  Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston

More facts about these female runners

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's World Record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[33] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record."[34] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[35] Sheila Echols' 10.83 clocking was set in the same quarter-final race at the US Olympic trials as Griffith-Joyner's world record, her next best time is 10.99, from the semi-finals of the same meet.
  • Gail Devers also has two other 10.82 performances, 7 July 1993 in Lausanne (+1.5) and 16 August 1993 in the World Championship final in Stuttgart (−0.3).

Best Year Performances

As of June 1, 2015

Junior (under-20) men

Updated 26 July 2015[36]

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell  United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.00 +1.6 Trentavis Friday  United States 5 July 2014 Eugene
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland  United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
7 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry  United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre  France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
9 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili  Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona
10 10.06 +2.0 Dwain Chambers  Great Britain 25 July 1997 Ljubljana
+1.5 Walter Dix  United States 27 May 2005 New York City


  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinters Davidson Ezinwa and Sunday Emmanuel ran 10.05 (4 January 1990) and 10.06 (26 April 1997), respectively, but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[37]


Junior (under-20) women

Updated 25 July 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr  East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe  East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill  United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [38]
4 10.99 +0.9 Ángela Tenorio  Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto [39]
5 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner  United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
7 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams  United States 5 June 1999 Boise
8 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight  United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
9 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
10 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney  United States 5 July 2014 Eugene

Youth (under-18) boys

Updated 13 September 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
2 10.20 +1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela  South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia [40]
3 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo  Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson  United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
5 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
6 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels  United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
8 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom  United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel  Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
10 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas  United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson  United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams  United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy  Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay

Youth (under-18) girls

Updated 20 June 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill  United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [38]
2 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney  United States 5 July 2014 Eugene [41]
3 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
4 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones  United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams  United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
6 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
7 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen  United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
8 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle  Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City
9 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams  Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford

Paralympic men

Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated to 1 January 2015[42]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown  United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov  Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth  Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 +0.0 Martin McDonagh  Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 16.81 +0.8 Ahmad Almutairi  Kuwait 20 October 2014 Incheon
T34 15.33 +1.2 Walid Ktila  Tunisia 27 February 2014 Sharjah
T35 12.29 −0.3 Yang Sen  People's Republic of China 13 September 2008 Beijing
T36 11.90 -0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov  Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T37 11.48 -0.7 Andrey Vdovin  Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T38 10.79 +0.4 Evan O'Hanlon  Australia 1 September 2012 London
T42 12.11 +1.2 Heinrich Popow  Germany 12 July 2013 Leverkusen
T43 10.57 +1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira  Brazil 28 July 2013 London
T44 10.75 +1.9 Richard Browne  United States 28 July 2013 London
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento  Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T47 10.72 +0.0 Ajibola Adeoye  Nigeria 6 September 1992 Barcelona
T51 21.11 +1.2 Toni Piispanen  Finland 17 May 2012 Pratteln
T52 16.73 +0.4 Paul Nitz  United States 20 May 2012 Nottwil
T53 14.17 +1.0 Brent Lakatos  Canada 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti  Finland 1 September 2012 London

Paralympic women

Updated to 1 January 2015[43]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 12.01 +1.2 Terezinha Guilhermina  Brazil 5 September 2012 London
T12 11.91 +0.6 Zhou Guohua  People's Republic of China 1 September 2012 London
T13 11.99 −0.9 Omara Durand  Cuba 17 November 2011 Guadalajara
T32 37.67 +0.0 Lindsay Wright  United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer  United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.31 +1.0 Hannah Cockroft  United Kingdom 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T35 14.63 +0.4 Maria Lyle  United Kingdom 31 May 2014 Bedford
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang  People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.68 +0.4 Mandy François-Elie  France 8 June 2013 Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire
T38 13.04 +0.3 Sophie Hahn  United Kingdom 18 May 2014 Loughborough
T42 15.18 −0.5 Martina Caironi  Italy 6 June 2013 Rome
T43 12.96 +0.8 Marlou van Rhijn  Netherlands 15 June 2013 Berlin
T44 12.98 +0.0 April Holmes  United States 1 July 2006 Atlanta
T45 14.00 +0.0 G Cole  Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo  Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 +0.0 V Hill  United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell  Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.22 −0.2 Huang Lisha  People's Republic of China 12 September 2008 Beijing
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu  People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medalists


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
 Thomas Burke (USA)  Fritz Hofmann (GER)  Francis Lane (USA)
 Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
 Frank Jarvis (USA)  Walter Tewksbury (USA)  Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
 Archie Hahn (USA)  Nate Cartmell (USA)  William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
 Reggie Walker (RSA)  James Rector (USA)  Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
 Ralph Craig (USA)  Alvah Meyer (USA)  Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
 Charlie Paddock (USA)  Morris Kirksey (USA)  Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
 Harold Abrahams (GBR)  Jackson Scholz (USA)  Arthur Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
 Percy Williams (CAN)  Jack London (GBR)  Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
 Eddie Tolan (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
 Jesse Owens (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
 Harrison Dillard (USA)  Barney Ewell (USA)  Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
 Lindy Remigino (USA)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
 Bobby Morrow (USA)  Thane Baker (USA)  Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
 Armin Hary (EUA)  Dave Sime (USA)  Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
 Bob Hayes (USA)  Enrique Figuerola (CUB)  Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
 Jim Hines (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)  Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
 Valeriy Borzov (URS)  Robert Taylor (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
 Hasely Crawford (TRI)  Don Quarrie (JAM)  Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
 Allan Wells (GBR)  Silvio Leonard (CUB)  Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Sam Graddy (USA)  Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[44][45]
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Linford Christie (GBR)  Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
 Linford Christie (GBR)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
 Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)  Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Francis Obikwelu (POR)  Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Richard Thompson (TRI)  Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Yohan Blake (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
 Betty Robinson (USA)  Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)  Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
 Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Hilda Strike (CAN)  Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
 Helen Stephens (USA)  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)  Dorothy Manley (GBR)  Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
 Marjorie Jackson (AUS)  Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)  Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS)  Christa Stubnick (EUA)  Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
 Wilma Rudolph (USA)  Dorothy Hyman (GBR)  Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Edith McGuire (USA)  Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Barbara Ferrell (USA)  Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
 Renate Stecher (GDR)  Raelene Boyle (AUS)  Silvia Chibás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
 Annegret Richter (FRG)  Renate Stecher (GDR)  Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
 Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)  Marlies Göhr (GDR)  Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Alice Brown (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)  Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
 Gail Devers (USA)  Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)  Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
 Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
Vacant[46]  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
 Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
 Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Sherone Simpson (JAM) none awarded
 Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)

World Championship medalists


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Carl Lewis (USA)  Calvin Smith (USA)  Emmit King (USA)
1987 Rome  Carl Lewis (USA)  Raymond Stewart (JAM)  Linford Christie (GBR)
1991 Tokyo  Carl Lewis (USA)  Leroy Burrell (USA)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1993 Stuttgart  Linford Christie (GBR)  Andre Cason (USA)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1995 Gothenburg  Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Bruny Surin (CAN)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
1997 Athens  Maurice Greene (USA)  Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Tim Montgomery (USA)
1999 Seville  Maurice Greene (USA)  Bruny Surin (CAN)  Dwain Chambers (GBR)
2001 Edmonton  Maurice Greene (USA)  Bernard Williams (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2003 Paris  Kim Collins (SKN)  Darrel Brown (TRI)  Darren Campbell (GBR)
2005 Helsinki  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Michael Frater (JAM)  Kim Collins (SKN)
2007 Osaka  Tyson Gay (USA)  Derrick Atkins (BAH)  Asafa Powell (JAM)
2009 Berlin  Usain Bolt (JAM)  Tyson Gay (USA)  Asafa Powell (JAM)
2011 Daegu  Yohan Blake (JAM)  Walter Dix (USA)  Kim Collins (SKN)
2013 Moscow  Usain Bolt (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Nesta Carter (JAM)
2015 Beijing  Usain Bolt (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Trayvon Bromell (USA)
 Andre De Grasse (CAN)


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR)  Marita Koch (GDR)  Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome  Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)  Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo  Katrin Krabbe (GER)  Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart  Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg  Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Marion Jones (USA)  Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)  Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville  Marion Jones (USA)  Inger Miller (USA)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton  Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Paris  Torri Edwards (USA)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2005 Helsinki  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)  Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Kerron Stewart (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Murielle Ahouré (CIV)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2015 Beijing  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Dafne Schippers (NED)  Tori Bowie (USA)

See also


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  2. The Day – 23 January 1983
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  37. Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
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  44. Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
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  46. On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance-enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relinquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.

External links