Executive Order 13769
||This article documents a current political event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. (January 2017)|
|Executive Order 13769
Protecting the Nation from Foreign
Terrorist Entry into the United States
|Enacted by||U.S. President Donald Trump|
|Date signed||January 27, 2017|
|Date effective||January 27, 2017|
|Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965|
Executive Order 13769, entitled "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States", is an executive order that was signed by U.S. President Donald Trump on January 27, 2017.
The order limited the number of refugee arrivals to the U.S. to 50,000 for 2017 and suspended the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) for 120 days, after which the program would be conditionally resumed for individual countries while prioritizing refugee claims from persecuted minority religions. The order also indefinitely suspended the entry of Syrian refugees. Further, the order suspended the entry of alien nationals from seven Muslim-majority countries — Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen — for 90 days, after which an updated list will be made. The order allows exceptions to these suspensions on a case-by-case basis. The Department of Homeland Security later exempted U.S. lawful permanent residents (green card holders).
Dozens of travelers were detained and held for hours without access to family or legal assistance. In addition, up to 60,000 visas have been "provisionally revoked", according to the State Department. Legal challenges to Executive Order 13769 were immediately filed, arguing that the order, or actions taken pursuant to the order, violated the U.S. Constitution, federal statutes, and treaty obligations. Federal courts issued emergency orders halting detention, expulsion, or blocking of lawful travelers, pending final rulings. A district court ruling in State of Washington v. Trump temporarily restrained major provisions of the order nationwide, including the travel ban and refugee suspension, except the 50,000 limit. Homeland Security and State Departments stopped enforcing the order and reinstated the revoked visas.
Domestically, the order was criticized by Democratic and Republican members of Congress, universities, business leaders, Catholic bishops, and Jewish organizations. A record 1,000 U.S. diplomats signed a dissent cable opposing the order. Public opinion was divided, with initial national polls yielding inconsistent results. Protests against the order erupted in airports and cities. Internationally, the order prompted broad condemnation, including from longstanding U.S. allies. The travel ban and suspension of refugee admissions was criticized by top United Nations officials and by a group of 40 Nobel laureates and thousands of other academics.
- 1 Background
- 2 Development of the order
- 3 Provisions
- 4 Impact
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Legal challenges
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Donald Trump became the U.S. president on January 20, 2017. He has said, despite evidence, that large numbers of terrorists are using the U.S. refugee resettlement program to enter the country. As a candidate, Trump's "Contract with the American Voter" pledged to suspend immigration from "terror-prone regions". Trump-administration officials then billed the executive order as fulfilling this campaign promise.[unreliable source?]
During his initial election campaign, Trump had proposed a temporary, conditional, and "total and complete" ban on Muslims entering the United States. His proposal was met by opposition by U.S. politicians. Mike Pence and James Mattis were among those who opposed the proposal. On 12 June, in reference to the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting that occurred on the same date, Trump, via Twitter, renewed his call for a Muslim immigration ban. On 13 June, Trump proposed to suspend immigration from "areas of the world" with a history of terrorism, a change from his previous proposal to suspend Muslim immigration to the U.S; the campaign did not announce the details of the plan at the time, but Jeff Sessions, an advisor to Trump campaign on immigration, said the proposal was a statement of purpose to be supplied with details in subsequent months. In a speech on August 31, 2016, Trump vowed to "suspend the issuance of visas" to "places like Syria and Libya."
President Trump told the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) that Christian refugees would be given priority in terms of refugee status in the United States, after saying that Syrian Christians were "horribly treated" by his predecessor, Barack Obama. Christians make up very small fractions (0.1% to 1.5%) of the Syrian refugees who have registered with the UN High Commission for Refugees in Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon; those registered represent the pool from which the U.S. selects refugees. António Guterres, then the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said in October 2015 that many Syrian Christians have ties to the Christian community in Lebanon and have sought the UN's services in smaller numbers. During 2016, the U.S. had admitted almost as many Christian as Muslim refugees. Based on this data, Senator Chris Coons accused Trump of spreading "false facts" and "alternative facts."
A 2015 report published by the Migration Policy Institute found that 784,000 refugees had resettled in the United States since September 11, 2001, with only 3 arrested for suspected terrorism. In January 2016, the Department of Justice (DOJ), upon request by the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and the National Interest, provided a list of 580 public international terrorism and terrorism-related convictions from September 11, 2001 through the end of 2014. Based on this data and news reports and other open-source information, the committee determined that at least 380 among the 580 convicted were foreign-born. The Cato Institute's Alex Nowrasteh said that the list of 580 convictions shared by DOJ was problematic in that "241 of the 580 convictions, or 42 percent, were not even for terrorism offenses"; they started with a terrorism tip but ended up with a non-terrorism charge, like "receiving stolen cereal."
Stephen Miller, Senior Advisor to the Trump White House, on January 29, 2017 suggested in an interview with Fox News the purpose of the order was to stop people who would “infiltrate” through the old system. He subsequently stated: “By our estimates, there're more than 40 refugees in recent history who’ve been subsequently implicated in terrorism, and nearly 400 foreign nationals or naturalized foreigners who became U.S. citizens subsequent to their entry, who’ve been implicated in terrorism since 9/11 so it is a very large number of people who have infiltrated the immigration program."
Development of the order
The New York Times observed that candidate Trump in his June 13, 2016 speech was reading from statutory language to justify the President’s authority to suspend immigration from areas of the world with a history of terrorism. The Washington Post identified the referenced statute as 8 U.S.C. 1182(f). This was the statutory subsection eventually cited in Sec. 3 of the executive order.
According to CNN, the executive order was developed primarily by White House officials (which the Los Angeles Times reported as including "major architect" Stephen Miller and Steve Bannon) without input from the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) that is typically a part of the drafting process. This was disputed by White House officials. The OLC usually reviews all executive orders with respect to form and legality before issuance. The White House under previous administrations, including the Obama administration, has bypassed or overruled the OLC on sensitive matters of national security.
Trump aides said that the order had been issued in consultation with DHS and State Department officials; however, multiple officials at the State Department and other agencies said it was not. An official from the Trump administration said that parts of the order had been developed in the transition period between Trump's election and his inauguration. On January 29, NBC News reported that the order was not reviewed by the Justice Department or by the departments of Homeland Security (DHS), State, or Defense, and that attorneys at the National Security Council were blocked from evaluating the order. However, CNN reported that Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly and Department of Homeland Security leadership saw the final details shortly before the order was finalized. John Kelly himself on January 31, told reporters that he "did know it was under development" and had seen at least two drafts of the order. For the Defense Department, James Mattis did not see a final version of the order until the morning of the day President Trump signed it (the signing occurred shortly after Mattis' swearing-in ceremony for Secretary of Defense in the afternoon), and the White House did not offer Mattis the chance to provide input while the order was drafted.
Former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani said on Fox News that President Trump came to him for guidance over the order. He said that Trump called him about a "Muslim ban" and asked Giuliani to form a committee to show him "the right way to do it legally". The committee, which included former U.S. Attorney General and Chief Judge of the Southern District of New York Michael Mukasey, and Reps. Mike McCaul and Peter T. King, decided to drop the religious basis and instead focused on regions where Giuliani says that there is "substantial evidence that people are sending terrorists" to the United States.
Section 1, describing the purpose of the order, invoked the September 11 attacks stating that then State Department policy prevented consular officers from properly scrutinizing the visa applications of the attackers However, none of the September 11 hijackers were from any of the seven banned countries. When announcing his executive action, Trump made similar references to the attacks several times.
The seven countries targeted by the executive order exclude Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and other Muslim-majority countries where The Trump Organization has conducted business or pursued business opportunities. Legal scholar David G. Post, through an opinion column in Washington Post, initially suggested that Trump had "allowed business interests to interfere with his public policy making" and called for Trump's impeachment. However, he later modified that call to instead ask for Trump's financial information.
Visitors, immigrants and refugees
Section 3 of the order blocks entry of aliens Libya, Sudan, Somalia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, and Yemen, for at least 90 days regardless of whether or not they have a valid non-diplomatic visa. After 90 days a list of additional countries , (not just those listed in [lower-alpha 1] of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)) must be prepared. The cited section of the INA refers to aliens who have been present in or are nationals of Iraq, Syria, and other countries designated by the Secretary of State. Citing Section 3(c) of the Executive Order, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs Edward J. Ramotowski issued a notice that "provisionally revoke[s] all valid nonimmigrant and immigrant visas of nationals" of the designated countries.
The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence, must conduct a review to determine the information needed from any country to adjudicate any visa, admission, or other benefit under the INA. Within 30 days, the Secretary of Homeland Security must list countries that do not provide adequate information. The foreign governments then have 60 days to provide the information on their nationals, after which the Secretary of Homeland Security must submit to the President a list of countries recommended for inclusion on a Presidential proclamation that would prohibit the entry of foreign nationals from countries that do not provide the information.
Section 5 suspends the U. S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) for at least 120 days but stipulates that the program can be resumed for citizens of the specified countries if the Secretary of State, Secretary of Homeland Security and the Director of National Intelligence agree to do so. The suspension for Syrian refugees is indefinite. The number of new refugees allowed in 2017 is capped to 50,000, down from 110,000. After the resumption of USRAP, refugee applications will be prioritized based on religion-based persecutions only in the case that the religion of the individual is a minority religion in that country.
The order said that the Secretaries of State and Homeland Security may, on a case-by-case basis and when in the national interest, issue visas or other immigration benefits to nationals of countries for which visas and benefits are otherwise blocked. Another provision calls for an expedited completion and implementation of a biometric entry/exit tracking system for all travelers coming into the United States, regardless of whether they are foreigners or not.
Green card holders
There was some confusion about the status of green card holders (permanent residents). Initially, the Department of Homeland Security said that the order barred green card holders from the affected countries, and White House officials said that they would need a case-by-case waiver to return. On January 29, White House Chief of Staff Reince Priebus said that green card holders would not be prevented from returning to the United States. According to the Associated Press, as of January 28 no green card holders were ultimately denied entry to the U.S., although several initially spent "long hours" in detention. On January 29, the Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly deemed entry of lawful permanent residents into the U.S. to be "in the national interest", exempting them from the ban according to the provisions of the executive order. On February 1, White House Counsel Don McGahn issued a memorandum to the heads of State, Justice, and Homeland Security departments clarifying that the ban provisions of the executive order do not apply to lawful permanent residents.
There was similar confusion about whether the order affected dual citizens of a banned country and a non-banned country. The U.S. State Department said that the order did not affect U.S. citizens who also hold citizenship of one of the seven banned countries. On January 28, the State Department stated that other travelers with dual nationality of one of these countries—for example, an Iranian who also hold a Canadian passport—would not be permitted to enter. However, the International Air Transport Association told their airlines that dual nationals who hold a passport from a non-banned country would be allowed in. The United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office also issued a press release saying that it applies to those traveling from the listed countries, not those that merely have their citizenship. The confusion led companies and institutions to take a more cautious approach; for example, Google told its dual national employees to stay in the United States until more clarity could be provided.
Deleted provision regarding safe zones in Syria
A prior draft of the order (leaked to a human rights organization[vague][which?] before the order went into effect) would have ordered that “the Secretary of State, in conjunction with the Secretary of Defense, is directed within 90 days of the date of this order to produce a plan to provide safe areas in Syria and in the surrounding region in which Syrian nationals displaced from their homeland can await firm settlement, such as repatriation or potential third-country resettlement.”  This provision was not in the final order. Rex Tillerson, Trump’s Secretary of State, had not yet taken office at the time the executive order went into effect.
During and after his campaign, Trump proposed establishing safe zones in Syria as an alternative to Syrian refugees’ immigration to the U.S. In the past “Safe Zones” have been interpreted as establishing, among other things, no-fly zones over Syria. During the Obama administration, Turkey encouraged the U.S. to establish Safe Zones; the Obama administration was concerned about the potential for pulling the U.S. into a war with Russia.
On January 30, Saudi Arabia told Trump it supported the creation of safe zones in Syria and Yemen. On February 2, Trump discussed safe zones with the government of Jordan. On February 3, the U.S. secured Lebanon’s backing for Safe Zones in Syria.
Implementation at airports
Shortly after the enactment of the executive order at 4:42 pm on January 27, border officials across the country began enforcing the new rules. The New York Times reported people with various backgrounds and statuses being denied entry or sent back, including refugees and minority Christians from the affected countries as well as students and green card holders returning to the United States after visits abroad.
People from the countries mentioned in the order with valid visas were turned away from flights to the U.S. Some were stranded in a foreign country while in transit. Several people already on planes flying to the U.S. at the time the order was signed were detained on arrival. On January 28, the American Civil Liberties Union estimated that there were 100 to 200 people being detained in U.S. airports, and hundreds were barred from boarding U.S.-bound flights. About 60 legal permanent residents were reported to have been detained at Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C. The Department of Homeland Security said that on January 28 the order was applied to "less than one percent" of the 325,000 air travelers who arrived in the United States. By January 29, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that 375 travelers had been affected with 109 travelers in transit and another 173 prevented from boarding flights. In some airports, there were reports that Border Patrol agents were requesting access to travelers' social media accounts.
On February 3, 2017, attorneys for the DoJ's Office of Immigration Litigation advised a judge hearing one of the legal challenges to the order that more than 100,000 visas have been revoked as a consequence of the order. They also advised the judge that no legal permanent residents have been denied entry. The State Department later revised this figure downward to fewer than 60,000 revoked visas and clarified that the larger DoJ figure incorrectly included visas that were exempted from the travel ban (such as diplomatic visas) and expired visas.
Debate over the numbers of affected persons
On January 30, Trump said in a Twitter post that "Only 109 people out of 325,000 were detained and held for questioning." The agency also reported 1,060 waivers for Green Card holders had been processed; 75 waivers had been granted for persons with immigrant and nonimmigrant visas; and 872 waivers for refugees had been granted.
The Washington Post fact-checker compared the 109 number quoted by Trump to 90,000, which is the number of U.S. visas issued in the seven affected countries in fiscal year 2015. It later edited the story to blame the White House to not use the overall daily number of travelers as a comparison. The New York Times cited figures of 86,000 visitors, students and workers in addition to 52,365 who passed the requirements for green cards.
Impact on U.S. companies
Google called its traveling employees back to the U.S., in case the order prevents them from returning. About 100 of the company's employees were thought to be from the countries in the order. Google CEO Sundar Pichai wrote in a letter to his staff that "it's painful to see the personal cost of this executive order on our colleagues. We've always made our view on immigration issues known publicly and will continue to do so." Amazon.com Inc. and Expedia Inc. filed declarations in support of Washington State and Minnesota in their case against the executive order, State of Washington v. Trump.
Impact on the national populations of the banned nationals
According to Trita Parsi, the president of the National Iranian American Council, the order distressed citizens of the affected countries, including those holding valid green cards and visas. Those outside the U.S. fear that they will not be allowed in, while those already in the country fear that they will not be able to leave, even temporarily, because they would not be able to return.
Impact on U.S. health care
According to an analysis by a group of Harvard Medical School professors, research analysts and physicians, the executive order is likely to reduce the number of physicians in the United States, as approximately 5% of the foreign-trained physicians in the United States were trained in the seven countries targeted by the executive order. These doctors are disproprtionately likely to practice medicine in rural, underserved regions and specialties facing a large shortage of practitioners.
Trump faced much criticism for the executive order. Democrats "were nearly united in their condemnation" of the policy, with Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer saying that "tears are running down the cheeks of the Statue of Liberty tonight as a grand tradition of America, welcoming immigrants, that has existed since America was founded, has been stomped upon". Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont said the order "plays into the hands of fanatics wishing to harm America". Senator Kamala Harris of California and the Council on American–Islamic Relations denounced the order and called it a Muslim ban. Trump's order was also criticized by former U.S. Secretaries of State Madeleine Albright and Hillary Clinton. Kevin Lewis, spokesperson to Trump's predecessor Barack Obama, also said (in apparent reference to the order) that the ex-president "fundamentally disagrees" with religious discrimination.
Among Republicans, some praised the order, with Speaker of the House Paul Ryan saying that Trump was "right to make sure we are doing everything possible to know exactly who is entering our country" while noting that he supported the refugee resettlement program. Republican Congressman Bob Goodlatte said that he was "pleased that President Trump is using the tools granted to him by Congress and the power granted by the Constitution to help keep America safe and ensure we know who is entering the United States". However, some top Republicans in Congress criticized the order. In a statement, Senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham cited the confusion that the order caused and the fact that the "order went into effect with little to no consultation with the Departments of State, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security". McCain stated that the order would "probably, in some areas, give ISIS some more propaganda". Senator Susan Collins, who announced in August 2016 that she would not vote for Trump because she felt he was "unsuitable for office", also objected to the ban, calling it "overly broad" and saying that "implementing it will be immediately problematic". Several other Republican senators offered more muted criticism. In response to McCain and Graham's statement, Trump criticized them on Twitter January 29, questioning their stance on immigration and saying that they "should focus their energies on ISIS, illegal immigration and border security instead of always looking to start World War III".
Some 1,000 career U.S. diplomats signed a "dissent cable" (memorandum) outlining their disagreement with the order, sending it through the State Department's Dissent Channel, which was put into place in 1971 in order to allow senior leadership in the department to have access to differing viewpoints on the Vietnam War. This was a record number, far surpassing the previous record in June 2016 when 51 diplomats signed a dissent cable calling the Obama administration to launch airstrikes against Syria's President Bashar Assad. White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer responding by telling dissenting diplomats to leave their jobs if they do not agree with the Trump administration saying "They should either get with the program or they can go", despite the rules protecting dissenters in the State Department. Dozens of medical and scientific groups protested the order as well.
The order prompted broad condemnation from the international community, including longstanding U.S. allies. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau stated Canada would continue to welcome refugees regardless of their faith. British Prime Minister Theresa May was initially reluctant to condemn the policy, having just met with Trump the day prior, saying that "the United States is responsible for the United States policy on refugees", but said she "did not agree" with the approach. France and Germany condemned the order, with both countries' foreign ministers saying in a joint news conference that "welcoming refugees who flee war and oppression is part of our duty" and that "the United States is a country where Christian traditions have an important meaning. Loving your neighbor is a major Christian value, and that includes helping people". Some media outlets said Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull avoided public comment on the order, with Turnbull saying it "is not my job" to criticize it. However, Australian opinion soured after a Tweet by Trump appeared to question a refugee deal already agreed by Turnbull and Obama. The deal, which would have seen the US "take an interest in" up to 1,250 asylum seekers from Australia's offshore detention centers at Manus Island and Nauru, was described on Twitter by Trump as a "dumb deal" which he would "study". Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs characterized Trump's order as insulting to the Islamic world and counter-productive in the attempt to combat extremism. It announced that Iran would take "reciprocal measures in order to safeguard the rights of its citizens". On February 1, the United Arab Emirates became the first Muslim-majority nation to back the order. Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan said that most of the world's Muslim-majority nations were not covered by the order, which he characterized as temporary and a "sovereign decision" of the United States.
The Catholic Church has condemned the ban and encouraged mercy and compassion towards refugees. The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops stated that "The church will not waiver in her defence of our sisters and brothers of all faiths who suffer at the hands of merciless persecutors". The executive director of the Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty, Amanda Tyler, stated that the executive order was "a back-door bar on Muslim refugees." The director of the Alliance of Baptists, Paula Clayton Dempsey, urged the support of American resettlement of refugees. However, members of the Southern Baptist Convention were largely supportive of the executive order. The Economist noted that that the order was signed on International Holocaust Remembrance Day, "a time when many Americans recall with anguish the hundreds of German Jewish refugees denied entry to American ports". This fact, as well as Trump's omission of any reference to Jews or Anti-Semitism in his concurrent address for Holocaust Remembrance Day and the ban's possible effect on Muslim refugees, led to condemnation from Jewish organizations, including the Anti-Defamation League, the HIAS, and J Street, as well as Holocaust survivors. Some of these organizations were involved in the protests against the immigration ban at the JFK International airport and in Manhattan, with groups of Jews, on the Sabbath, joining interfaith protests with Muslims against the immigration ban.
Some "alt-right" groups, including white nationalists, anti-Semites, conspiracy theorists and the Klu Klux Klan praised the executive order. Some European far-right groups and politicians applauded the executive order. 2017 French presidential candidate and frontrunner Marine Le Pen supported the executive order, pointing out that many Muslim-majority countries have a permanent travel ban against Israeli citizens, whereas Trump's executive order is a temporary measure.
Jihadist and Islamic terrorist groups celebrated the executive order as a victory, saying that "the new policy validates their claim that the United States is at war with Islam." ISIS-linked social media postings "compared the executive order to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, which Islamic militant leaders at the time hailed as a 'blessed invasion' that ignited anti-Western fervor across the Islamic world."
Protests and impact on airports
On January 28 and thereafter, thousands of protesters gathered at airports and other locations throughout the United States to protest the signing of the order and detention of the foreign nationals. Members of the United States Congress, including Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) and Congressman John Lewis (D-GA) joined the protests in their own home states. Google co-founder Sergey Brin and Y Combinator president Sam Altman joined the protest at San Francisco airport. Virginia governor, Terry McAuliffe, joined the protest at Dulles International Airport on Saturday.
On January 28, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed a lawsuit on behalf of two Iraqis who were detained at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport on January 27, hours after the order was signed. The lawsuit said that the executive order was in violation of procedural due process under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the Immigration and Nationality Act, the Convention Against Torture, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, and the Administrative Procedure Act. The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) also said that it planned to file a lawsuit.
On January 28 at about 9:00 p.m. EST, Ann Donnelly, a U.S. District Judge from the Eastern District of New York, blocked part of the order, ruling that refugees, naturalized citizens, visa holders, and green-card holders from the seven affected countries could not be sent back to their home countries. Donnelly was acting her capacity as miscellaneous duty judge, and the case was assigned to Judge Carol Bagley Amon the following Monday, along with other related cases in the same district. The decision covers airport detainees and those already in transit, estimated to number between 100 and 200. Although the court found a "strong likelihood" that the enforcement of the order violated the detainees' constitutional rights, the court did not address whether the order is facially constitutional. The stay will be in effect until a hearing scheduled for February 21.
On January 29 at 1:51 a.m. EST, U.S. District Judge Allison Burroughs and Magistrate Judge Judith Dein ordered that the same group of people shall not be detained or removed, and explicitly applied the same protections to U.S. permanent residents. Specially, the order barred the detention of those "who, absent the Executive Order, would be legally authorized to enter the United States". Further, the judges ordered the U.S. Customs and Border Protection to notify airlines with flights arriving at Logan Airport of the court order and "the fact that individuals on these flights will not be detained or returned based solely on the basis of the Executive Order". This court order restores the ability for lawful immigrants from the seven barred nations to enter the U.S. through Logan Airport.
On February 3, District Judge Nathaniel M. Gorton declined to extend the order past its scheduled expiration, saying that "because plaintiffs have not demonstrated that they are likely to succeed on the merits of any of their claims, an extension of the restraining order at the present time is not warranted." He based his judgement on the fact the Trump administration had excluded green card holders named in the suit from the executive order since the suit had been filed, and that visa-holding immigrants had a lower standard of legal protection.
Lawyers representing the affected travelers said on January 29 that some authorities were unwilling to follow the judge's ruling, citing the refusal of Border Patrol agents at Washington Dulles Airport to allow attorneys to communicate with detainees in violation of a district judges' ruling that required such access. Many detainees were held for hours without access to family, friends, or legal assistance.
On February 1, District Judge André Birotte Jr. in the Central District of California issued a preliminary injunction in a case brought on behalf of 28 Yemeni immigrants suspended in transit to the US as a result of the executive order. The ruling, worded to apply more broadly than to the case's plaintiffs alone, said that anyone "from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen with a valid immigrant visa" be allowed to enter the United States. However, as a State Department official had previously issued a memo "provisionally" revoking all immigrant visas in the wake of Trump's issuing of the executive order, it was unclear whether the ruling would in practice apply to anyone.
On February 2, a federal judge in Detroit ruled that the order not be applied to permanent residents nationwide and permanently, given the White House's prior declaration that the order did not apply to permanent residents, in the case Arab-American Civil Rights League v. Trump.
State of Washington v. Trump
The state of Washington filed a legal challenge, State of Washington v. Trump, against the executive order; Minnesota later joined the case. Amazon.com Inc. and Expedia Inc. filed declarations in support of the case.
On February 3, District Judge James Robart issued a ruling temporarily blocking major portions of the executive order; he said that the plaintiffs had "demonstrate[d] immediate and irreparable injury," and were likely to succeed in their challenge to the federal government. Robart's ruling denied the federal government the ability to enforce the 90-day travel ban from the seven countries, as well as all limits on refugee acceptance imposed by the executive order.
Citing a Texas district court's prior ruling against an immigration program from the Obama administration that blocked it nationally, Robart explicitly wrote his judgement to apply nationwide. In response to Robart's ruling, the Department of Homeland Security said on February 4 that it had stopped enforcing the executive order, while the State Department activated visas that had been previously suspended.
In response to the lawsuits, the Department of Homeland Security issued a statement on January 29 saying that that it would continue to enforce all of the executive order and that "prohibited travel will remain prohibited", noting that "no foreign national in a foreign land, without ties to the United States, has any unfettered right to demand entry into the United States or to demand immigration benefits in the United States". On the same day, a White House spokesperson said that the rulings did not undercut the executive order, and that "All stopped visas will remain stopped. All halted admissions will remain halted. All restricted travel will remain prohibited."
On January 30, Acting Attorney General Sally Yates, an Obama administration appointee holding the position until the confirmation of Jeff Sessions, barred the Justice Department from defending the executive order in court. According to Yates, the department's Office of Legal Counsel conducted a review of the order in order to determine if it was "lawful on its face", but she said that the review did not address the order's effects, which she felt were not in keeping "with this institution's solemn obligation to always seek justice and stand for what is right". She went on further to say that, regardless of the Office of Legal Counsel's opinion, she was not "convinced that the executive order is lawful". After Yates spoke against Trump's refugee ban, however, Trump quickly relieved her of her duties, calling her statement a "betrayal" to the administration. He replaced her with Dana J. Boente, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. In addition, acting director of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Daniel Ragsdale was replaced with Thomas Homan soon after Yates's removal. This leadership alteration became known as the Monday Night Massacre.
In response to the firing of Yates and the demotion of Ragsdale, a bipartisan group of more than 70 former Assistant U.S. Attorneys—including 50 who had served under a Republican administration—defended the decision of the former acting Attorney General. In their statement, they said:
Struck by one stunning headline after another, we stopped to think: if we were called upon to defend the Executive Order, could we do it within the guidelines we learned and lived by as lawyers for the United States? We could not. We could not candidly tell a court, consistent with these principles, that the Executive Order is not, in fact, a thinly veiled attempt to exclude Muslims from certain countries based on their religion. We could not candidly tell a court that the United States has the right to turn away refugees fleeing grave danger, even though they have already been fully vetted and approved for admission. (...) If asked whether the language of the Executive Order would permit the President to give preference to Christians over Muslims for admission to the United States, a position the President has publicly expressed, we would have to say, yes, the language would allow that. If asked whether such a religious preference comports with our Constitution, we would have to say we do not believe so.
Not all responders were supportive of Yates, however. Journalist Gregg Jarrett of Fox News applauded the removal, saying that Yates had "committed an egregious violation of ethical standards and a serious breach of her duties" and "deserved to get canned." Jack Goldsmith, a former US Assistant Attorney General, said:
If Yates feels this way, she should have resigned. Instead, she wrote a letter that appears to depart sharply from the usual criteria that an Attorney General would apply in deciding whether to defend an EO in court. As such, the letter seems like an act of insubordination that invites the President to fire her. Which he did.
Yates's successor, acting Attorney General Dana J. Boente, issued guidance to Justice Department employees on the evening of January 30 stating that the Office of Legal Counsel "found the Executive Order both lawful on its face and properly drafted."
On February 3, in response to Judge Robart's ruling temporarily blocking the executive order nationwide, the Justice Department asked for an emergency stay to honor President Trump's executive action on immigration admissions, according to a statement released by the White House's Office of the Press Secretary. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit denied Trump's immediate petition to stay the TRO from the Federal District Court in Washington State.
- Ideological restrictions on naturalization in U.S. law
- Immigration reduction in the United States
- List of executive actions by Donald Trump
- Patriot Act
- United States Citizenship and Immigration Services
- Visa policy of the United States
- Diamond, Jeremy; Almasy, Steve. "Trump's immigration ban sends shockwaves". CNN. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Caldwell, Alicia A. (3 February 2017). "State Says Fewer Than 60,000 Visas Revoked Under Order". ABC News. The Associated Press. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
- 82 FR 8977
- Green, Emma (January 27, 2017). "Where Christian Leaders Stand on Trump's Refugee Policy". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
It also allows the secretaries of State and Homeland Security to jointly admit individuals on a case-by-case basis, 'including when the person is a religious minority ... facing religious persecution.'
- Bulos, Nabi (January 29, 2017). "Trump's refugee policy raises a question: How do you tell a Christian from a Muslim?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
The order notes, however, that the secretaries of State and Homeland Security may jointly decide to admit some refugees 'including when the person is a religious minority in his country of nationality facing religious persecution.' But in proposing what commentators have called a 'religious test,' Trump has not yet answered one crucial question: Just how does one differentiate between Muslims and Christians?
- Dewan, Angela; Smith, Emily (January 30, 2017). "What it's like in the 7 countries on Trump's travel ban list". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
Life is also grim for many living under ISIS rule.
- Dearden, Lizzie (January 28, 2017). "Donald Trump immigration ban: Most Isis victims are Muslims despite President's planned exemption for Christians". Independent. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Blaine, Kyle; Horowitz, Julia (January 30, 2017). "How the Trump administration chose the 7 countries in the immigration executive order". CNN.
- Bierman, Noah (February 1, 2017). "Trump administration further clarifies travel ban, exempting green card holders". Los Angeles Times.
- "Over 100,000 visas revoked by immigration ban, government lawyer reveals". nbcnews.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- (PDF) https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/3438487/Dissent-Memo.pdf. Missing or empty
- Felicia Schwartz (February 1, 2017). "State Department Dissent, Believed Largest Ever, Formally Lodged". Wall Street Journal.
- Bump, Philip (February 2, 2017). "Do Americans support Trump's immigration action? Depends on who's asking, and how". Washington Post.
- "Trump's refugee and travel suspension: World reacts". BBC News. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Chmaytelli, Maher; Noueihed, Lin. "Global backlash grows against Trump's immigration order". Reuters.
A global backlash against U.S. President Donald Trump's immigration curbs gathered strength on Sunday as several countries including long-standing American allies criticized the measures as discriminatory and divisive.
- Hjelmgaard, Kim (January 29, 2017). "World weighs in on Trump ban with rebukes and praise". USA Today.
President Trump's suspension of all refugee admissions and temporary ban on millions of Muslims entering the United States drew broad international condemnation Sunday — but also some support.
- Sengupta, Somini (February 1, 2017). "U.N. Leader Says Trump Visa Bans 'Violate Our Basic Principles'". New York Times.
- "U.N. rights chief says Trump's travel ban is illegal". Reuters. January 30, 2017.
- Svrluga, Susan (January 28, 2017). "40 Nobel laureates, thousands of academics sign protest of Trump immigration order". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Report of the Visa Office 2016". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Greenwood, Max (January 28, 2017). "ACLU sues White House over immigration ban". The Hill.
- Trump, Donald (October 23, 2016). "Donald Trump's Contract with the American Voter" (PDF). DonaldJTrump.com. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
my administration will immediately pursue the following ... actions to restore security ... suspend immigration from terror-prone regions where vetting cannot safely occur.
- Bush, Daniel (November 9, 2016). "Read President-elect Donald Trump's plan for his first 100 days". PBS Newshour.
- Boyer, Dave (25 January 2017). "Trump executive order to stem refugees from 'terror-prone' regions". Washington Times. Washington, USA. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
Honoring more campaign promises, President Trump is readying executive orders to restrict refugee admissions to the U.S. from "terror-prone" regions… officials said Wednesday… A White House official confirmed the existence of the draft orders… the official said action by Mr. Trump on the orders could come as early as this week.
- "Pence once called Trump's Muslim ban 'unconstitutional.' He now applauds a ban on refugees.". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "Trump expected to order temporary ban on refugees". Reuters. January 25, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Donald J. Trump (7 December 2015). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Rally (Speech) (Online Video). Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: C-SPAN. Event occurs at 30:30. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
[I am] calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what the hell is going on.
- Bender, Bryan; Andrew, Hanna (December 1, 2016). "Trump picks General 'Mad Dog' Mattis as defense secretary". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Trump renews call for Muslim ban in wake of Orlando attack, challenges Clinton to say 'radical Islamic terrorism'". Business Insider. June 12, 2016.
- @realDonaldTrump (June 12, 2016). "What has happened in Orlando is just the beginning. Our leadership is weak and ineffective. I called it and asked for the ban. Must be tough" (Tweet).
- "DONALD TRUMP RELEASES IMMIGRATION REFORM PLAN DESIGNED TO GET AMERICANS BACK TO WORK". DonaldJTrump.com. August 16, 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2017 – via Breitbart.
The ["detailed policy position"/"immigration reform plan"], which was clearly influenced by Sen. Jeff Sessions who Trump consulted to help with immigration policy ...
- Preston, Julia (18 June 2016). "Many What-Ifs in Donald Trump's Plan for Migrants". New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- Trump, Donald (August 31, 2016). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Remarks on Immigration Policy (Speech). C-SPAN. Event occurs at 56:42.
- Stephenson, Emily (August 31, 2016). "Trump returns to hardline position on illegal immigration". Phoenix: YahooNews – via Reuters.
- Brody, David (January 27, 2017). "Brody File Exclusive: President Trump Says Persecuted Christians Will Be Given Priority As Refugees". The Brody File. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- J.A. (January 28, 2017). "Donald Trump gets tough on refugees". The Economist. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Connor, Phillip (October 5, 2016). "U.S. admits record number of Muslim refugees in 2016". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on January 30, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
... refugee status was given to 12,587 Syrians. Nearly all of them (99%) were Muslim and less than 1% were Christian.
- "Trump's claim that it is 'very tough' for Christian Syrians to get to the United States". Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Fact check: Christian refugees 'unfairly' kept out?". Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Gambino, Lauren (September 2, 2016). "Trump and Syrian refugees in the US: separating the facts from fiction". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Berger, Judson (June 22, 2016). "Anatomy of the terror threat: Files show hundreds of US plots, refugee connection". foxnews.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Nowrasteh, Alex (26 January 2017). "Guide to Trump's Executive Order to Limit Migration for "National Security" Reasons". Cato Institute. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Jackson, Brooks, and Eugene Kiely, Lori Robertson and Robert Farley (1 February 2017). "Facts on Trump's Immigration Order". FactCheck.org.
Cato Institute, September 13, 2016: The chance that an American would be killed in a terrorist attack committed by a refugee was 1 in 3.64 billion a year...actually only 40 of the foreign-born individuals on Sessions' list were convicted of carrying out or attempting to carry out a terrorist attack in the U.S... Many of the investigations started based on a terrorism tip like, for instance, the suspect wanting to buy a rocket-propelled grenade launcher. However, the tip turned out to be groundless and the legal saga ended with only a mundane conviction of receiving stolen cereal.
- "Profiles". Mother Jones. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
Abuali was charged with getting two truckloads of stolen cereal. The FBI had been told that one of the men may have tried to buy a rocket propelled grenade, but the tip didn't pan out. Though the case has no clear terrorist links, the DOJ has classified it as terrorism-related.
- Lewin, Tamar (28 November 2001). "A Nation Challenged". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
The federal criminal charges against 93 people in the terrorist investigation range from relatively minor counts that seem to have only the most tenuous connection to terrorism to a few that involve actions that would raise suspicions in any climate.
- Pirro, Jeanine; Miller, Stephen (January 29, 2017). Stephen Miller defends President Trump's travel ban. Event occurs at 2:22 quote=MILLER: The ban is applied to seven countries that the Obama administration has identified as of especial risk to the homeland. That was a decision that was made by the Obama administration in 2015 and 2016 and they put in place the first travel restriction. President Trump has taken decisive action to ensure that those restrictions are expanded while new vetting procedures are put into place—it would be irresponsible to have no restrictions during the 90-day review-period and allow terrorists to infiltrate through the old system until new screening measures are put in place, which they will be, three months from now.
- Pirro, Jeanine; Miller, Stephen (January 29, 2017). Stephen Miller defends President Trump's travel ban. Event occurs at 3:56.
- Preston, Julia (June 18, 2016). "Many What-Ifs in Donald Trump's Plan for Migrants". The New York Times.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (June 15, 2016). "Donald Trump's almost-true claim that the president has power to ban 'any class of persons'". The Washington Post.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (January 29, 2017). "What you need to know about the terrorist threat from foreigners and Trump's executive order". The Washington Post.
- Bennett, Brian (January 29, 2017). "Travel ban is the clearest sign yet of Trump advisors' intent to reshape the country". L.A. Times. Washington. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Perez, Evan; Brown, Pamela; Liptak, Kevin (January 29, 2017). "Inside the confusion of the Trump executive order and travel ban". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Johnson, Carrie (January 27, 2017). "Key Justice Dept. Office Won't Say If It Approved White House Executive Orders". NPR. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Feuer, Alan (January 28, 2017). "Judge Blocks Part of Trump's Immigration Order". The New York Times.
- "Trump Team Kept Plan for Travel Ban Quiet". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "White House Defends Executive Order Barring Travelers From Certain Muslim Countries". The Wall Street Journal. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- The policy team at the White House developed the executive order on refugees and visas, and largely avoided the traditional interagency process that would have allowed the Justice Department and homeland security agencies to provide operational guidance, according to numerous officials who spoke to CNN on Saturday.
- Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly and Department of Homeland Security leadership saw the final details shortly before the order was finalized, government officials said.
- Before the President issued the order, the White House did not seek the legal guidance of the Office of Legal Counsel, the Justice Department office that interprets the law for the executive branch, according to a source familiar with the process.
- White House officials disputed that Sunday morning, saying that Office of Legal Counse signed off and agency review was performed.
- A source said the creation of the executive order did not follow the standard agency review process that's typically overseen by the National Security Council.
- Separately, a person familiar with the matter said career officials in charge of enforcing the executive order were not fully briefed on the specifics until Friday. The officials were caught off guard by some of the specifics and raised questions about how to handle the new banned passengers on US-bound planes.
- Administration officials also defended the process Saturday. They said the people who needed to be briefed ahead of time on the plane were briefed and that people at the State Department and DHS who were involved in the process were able to make decisions about who to talk and inform about this.
- "Along with confusion surrounding the order's implementation, reports also trickled out over the weekend that top administration officials, among them Kelly and Defense Secretary James Mattis, had not been consulted in crafting the order and were not aware of it until shortly before it was signed last week. On Tuesday, Kelly pushed back against those reports, telling reporters that he "did know it was under development" and had seen at least two drafts of the order".
- Wittes, Benjamin (January 28, 2017). "Malevolence Tempered by Incompetence: Trump's Horrifying Executive Order on Refugees and Visas". Lawfare. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump Signs Orders to Rebuild the Military, Block Terrorists". January 27, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Ceremonial Swearing-in of Defense Secretary Mattis. C-SPAN. January 30, 2017. Event occurs at 2:46.
- Shear, Michael D.; Nixon, Ron (29 January 2017). "How Trump's Rush to Enact an Immigration Ban Unleashed Global Chaos".
- Hensley, Nicole (January 29, 2017). "Rudy Giuliani says Trump tasked him to craft 'Muslim ban'". Daily News. New York. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Full Video: Trump lays out his 'Contract with America'". MSN. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Wang, Amy B. "Trump asked for a 'Muslim ban', Giuliani says — and ordered a commission to do it 'legally'". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "EXECUTIVE ORDER: PROTECTING THE NATION FROM FOREIGN TERRORIST ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES". January 27, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Berman, Mark (January 30, 2017). "Trump and his aides keep justifying the entry ban by citing attacks it couldn't have prevented". Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
when Trump announced Friday that he was suspending travel from seven Muslim-majority countries, his order mentioned the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks three times.
- Blaine, Kyle; Horowitz, Julia (January 29, 2017). "How the Trump administration chose the 7 countries in the immigration executive order". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
The executive order specifically invoked the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina (January 27, 2017). "Trump signs 'extreme vetting' executive order for people entering the US". Guardian. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
While announcing his executive action at the Department of Defense on Friday, Trump summoned the memory of the 9/11 terror attacks, saying 'we will never forget the lessons of 9/11, nor the heroes who have lost their lives at the Pentagon.' However, none of the 19 hijackers who committed those attacks were from countries cited in the order.
- Melby, Caleb; Migliozzi, Blacki; Keller, Michael (January 27, 2017). "Trump's Immigration Ban Excludes Countries With Business Ties". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Trump's Immigration Freeze Omits Those Linked To Deadly Attacks In U.S.". NPR. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Post, David G. (January 30, 2017). "Was Trump's executive order an impeachable offense?". Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Cooper, Helene (January 27, 2017). "Trump Bars Refugees and Citizens of 7 Muslim Countries". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Trump, Donald (February 1, 2017). "PROTECTING THE NATION FROM FOREIGN TERRORIST ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES". Federal Register. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- "8 U.S. Code § 1187 - Visa waiver program for certain visitors". law.cornell.edu. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Gerstein, Josh (January 31, 2017). "State Department notice revoking visas under Trump order released". Politico. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Ramotowski, Edward. "revocation order". Politico. United States Department of State. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Full Executive Order Text: Trump's Action Limiting Refugees Into the U.S.". The New York Times. January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- McKay, Hollie (January 25, 2017). "U.S.-backed Iraqi fighters say Trump's refugee ban feels like 'betrayal'". Fox News Channel. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Judges temporarily block part of Trump's immigration order, WH stands by it". CNN. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Liptak, Adam (January 28, 2017). "President Trump's Immigration Order, Annotated". The New York Times. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump's refugee and travel suspension: Key points". BBC News. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Nicholas, Peter; Nicholas, Peter (January 28, 2017). "White House Defends Executive Order Barring Travelers From Certain Muslim Countries". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Nordland, Rod (November 19, 2011). "Afghanistan Has Big Plans for Biometric Data". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Shear, Michael D.; Feuer, Alan (January 28, 2017). "Judge Blocks Part of Trump's Immigration Order". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Shear, Michael (January 29, 2017). "White House Official, in Reversal, Says Green Card Holders Won't Be Barred". The New York Times. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Tears and detention for US visitors as Trump travel ban hits". Fox News Channel. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Statement By Secretary John Kelly On The Entry Of Lawful Permanent Residents Into The United States". Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Josh Gerstein (February 1, 2017). "White House tweaks Trump's travel ban to exempt green card holders". Politico. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Merica, Dan. "How Trump's travel ban affects green card holders and dual citizens - CNNPolitics.com". Cnn.com. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "Presidential executive order on inbound migration to US". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. January 29, 2017. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017.
- "Draft executive order would begin 'extreme vetting' of immigrants and visitors to the U.S.".
- "Read the draft of the executive order on immigration and refugees".
- David, Sherfinski (February 1, 2017). "Chuck Schumer wants delay on Rex Tillerson vote, possibly other nominees, after executive order". The Washington Times.
- "Trump says he will order 'safe zones' for Syria". 25 January 2017.
- "Saudis tell Trump they support safe zones for refugees in Syria". Financial Times.
- "The Latest: Sanders says Trump may be right about his voters". Tulsa World. 2 February 2017 – via Associated Press.
President Donald Trump and the king of Jordan have discussed with the possibility of establishing safe zones for refugees in Syria.
- "Lebanon backs returning Syrian refugees to 'safe zones'". U.S. News and World Report. 3 February 2017.
- Jorgensen, Sarah (January 29, 2017). "Syrian Christian family, visas in hand, turned back at airport". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump executive order: Refugees detained at US airports". BBC News. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Almasy, Steve. "Trump's immigration ban sends shockwaves". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Yuhas, Raya Jalabi Alan (January 28, 2017). "Federal judge stays deportations under Trump Muslim country travel ban". The Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Protests Spread at Airports Nationwide Over Trump's Executive Order". ABC News. January 28, 2017.
- Wadhams, Nick; Sink, Justin; Palmeri, Christopher; Van Voris, Bob (January 29, 2017). "Judges Block Parts of Trump's Order on Muslim Nation Immigration". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Department of Homeland Security Response To Recent Litigation". United States Department of Homeland Security.
- Torbati, Yeganeh; Mason, Jeff; Rosenberg, Mica (January 29, 2017). "Chaos, anger as Trump order halts some Muslim immigrants". Reuters. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Brandom, Russell (January 30, 2017). "Trump's executive order spurs Facebook and Twitter checks at the border". The Verge. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- CNN, Laura Jarrett. "Over 100,000 visas revoked, government lawyer says in Virginia court". cnn.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "State Dept: Fewer than 60,000 Visas Canceled by Trump Order". Fox News (from the Associated Press). February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Glenn Kessler (January 30, 2017). "The number of people affected by Trump's travel ban: About 90,000". Washington Post.
- Ron Nixon (January 31, 2017). "More People Were Affected by Travel Ban Than Trump Initially Said". New York Times.
- Kessler, Glenn. "Fact check: White House claims 109 affected by travel ban - it's more like 90,000". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Trump's Immigration Ban: Who Is Barred and Who Is Not". 31 January 2017.
- "Trump executive order prompts Google to recall staff". BBC News. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Worley, Will (January 28, 2017). "Google recalling staff from abroad following Trump's immigration ban". The Independent. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Levine, Dan (January 30, 2017). "Washington state to sue over travel ban, pressures on Trump grow". Reuters. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris (2017-01-31). "Amazon, Expedia back lawsuit opposing Trump travel ban". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- Erdbrink, Thomas; Gettleman, Jeffrey (January 27, 2017). "In Iran, Shock and Bewilderment Over Trump Visa Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Jena, Anupam B. (2017-02-03). "Trump's Immigration Order Could Make It Harder To Find A Psychiatrist Or Pediatrician". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
- Fandos, Nicholas (January 29, 2017). "Some Top Republicans in Congress Criticize Trump's Refugee Policy". New York Times. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Owen, Paul; Siddiqui, Sabrina (January 28, 2017). "US refugee ban: Trump decried for 'stomping on' American values". The Guardian. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Greenwood, Max (January 28, 2017). "Sanders: Trump 'fostering hatred' with refugee ban". The Hill. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "Advocacy, aid groups condemn Trump's order, call it 'Muslim Ban'". NBC News. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Jacobs, Harrison (January 28, 2017). "HILLARY CLINTON: 'This is not who we are'". Business Insider. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Kevin Lewis on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Ryan, Paul (January 27, 2017). "Statement on President Trump's Executive Actions on National Security" (Press Release). Speaker.gov. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Knecht, Eric (January 28, 2017). "Trump bars door to refugees, visitors from seven mainly Muslim nations". Reuters. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Sabur, Rozina; Swinford, Steven (January 29, 2017). "Donald Trump's ban on Muslims: Global backlash as ministers told to fight for British citizens' rights - but president is defiant". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump executive order: White House stands firm over travel ban". BBC News. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "GOP senator Susan Collins: Why I cannot support Trump". Washington Post. August 8, 2016.
- Collins, Steve (January 28, 2017). "Maine's senators denounce Trump's ban on immigration from 7 Muslim countries". Sun Journal.
- King, Laura; Hansen, Matt (January 29, 2017). "Confusion reigns at U.S. airports as protests of Trump executive order enter second day". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Jeffrey Gettleman (January 31, 2017). "State Dept. Dissent Cable on Trump's Ban Draws 1,000 Signatures". New York Times.
- Labott, Elise (January 30, 2017). "State Department diplomats may oppose Trump order". CNN Politics. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "Dozens of U.S. Diplomats Press Obama to Strike Syria's Assad: Reports". nbcnews.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Former U.S. Diplomat Weighs In On State Department Dissent Cable". All Things Considered. NPR. February 1, 2017.
SHAPIRO: This memo criticizing President Trump's executive order has reportedly been signed by close to a thousand State Department staff members. How unusual is that? KIESLING: Completely unusual. It's never happened before. I think the previous record must be around 50. SHAPIRO: That's quite a jump from 50 to a thousand.
- Landler, Mark; Sanger, David E. (January 30, 2017). "White House to Dissenting U.S. Diplomats: 'Get With the Program' or Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Fox, Maggie (February 1, 2017). "Doctors and Scientists Denounce Trump's Immigration Order". NBC News.
Dozens of medical and scientific groups, universities and advocacy organizations have piled on to protest President Donald Trump's immigration order.
- Erickson, Amanda (January 28, 2017). "Here's how the world is responding to Trump's ban on refugees, travelers from 7 Muslim nations". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Oliphant, Roland; Sherlock, Ruth (January 28, 2017). "Donald Trump bans citizens of seven muslim majority countries as visa-holding travellers are turned away from US borders". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
She proceeded to praise Britain's record on refugees, but avoided commenting on US policy.
- "Theresa May fails to condemn Donald Trump on refugees". BBC News. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
Prime Minister Theresa May has been criticised for refusing to condemn President Donald Trump's ban on refugees entering the US ... But when pressed for an answer on Donald Trump's controversial refugee ban she first of all, uncomfortably, avoided the question. Then on the third time of asking she would only say that on the United States policy on refugees it was for the US
- Farmer, Ben (January 29, 2017), Swinford, Steven, ed., "Donald Trump petition: MPs to debate whether UK state visit should go ahead as more than 1.5m call for it to be cancelled", The Telegraph, retrieved January 29, 2017
- "Theresa May finally passes judgment on Donald Trump's immigration ban". The Independent. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Malcolm Turnbull refuses to denounce Trump's travel ban, The Guardian, January 30, 2017, retrieved January 3, 2017
- Murphy, Katharine; Doherty, Ben (February 2, 2017). "Australia struggles to save refugee agreement after Trump's fury at 'dumb deal'". The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran". Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 28, 2017. 436947. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Ellis, Ralph; Mazloumsaki, Sara; Moshtaghian, Artemis (January 29, 2017) [2017-01-28]. "Iran to take 'reciprocal measures' after Trump's immigration order" (updated ed.). CNN. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "UAE Becomes First Muslim-majority Country to Back Trump's Executive Order". Haaretz. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- "UAE says Trump travel ban an internal affair, most Muslims unaffected". Reuters. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- "Christian leaders denounce Donald Trump 'Muslim ban'". January 30, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Some of the U.S.'s most important Catholic leaders are condemning Trump's travel ban". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Trump's action banning refugees brings outcry from U.S. church leaders". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Allen, Bob (30 January 2017). "Baptists weigh in on Muslim travel ban". Baptist News Global. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Statement by the President on International Holocaust Remembrance Day" (Press release). whitehouse.gov. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Koran, Laura (January 28, 2017). "Jewish groups pan Trump for signing refugee ban on Holocaust Remembrance Day". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Fox-Belivacqua, Marisa (January 28, 2017). "Holocaust survivors respond to Trump's refugee ban with outrage, empathy". Haaretz. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Nathan-Kazis, Josh (January 28, 2017). "At JFK Protest Against Muslim Ban, Cries of 'Never Again'". Forward. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Nathan-Kazis, Josh (January 28, 2017). "At Interfaith Rally Against Trump's Muslim Ban, Prayers for Resistance". Forward. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Nelson, Ellot (31 January 2017). "The KKK And Their Friends Are Overjoyed With President Trump's First 10 Days". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Gillman, Todd J. (29 January 2017). "This Day in Trump, Day 9: Muslim ban fallout". Dallas News. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Jordans, Frank (January 29, 2017). "European leaders oppose Trump travel ban, far right applauds". Stars and Stripes. Associated Press.
- "European leaders oppose Trump travel ban; far right applauds". Chicago Tribune. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- CNN, Angela Dewan. "French far-right leader Le Pen applauds Trump's travel ban". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Warrick, Joby (January 29, 2017). "Jihadist groups hail Trump's travel ban as a victory". Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Warren, Lewis, headline Congressional members at Trump immigration ban protests". USA Today. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Sottek, T (January 29, 2017). "Google co-founder Sergey Brin joins protest against immigration order at San Francisco airport". Forbes. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Mac, Ryan (January 29, 2017). "Y Combinator's Sam Altman At Airport Protest: This May Be A Defining Moment When People Oppose Trump". Forbes. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Langmaid, Tim; Hackney, Deanna (January 29, 2017). "The ban that descended into chaos: What we know". CNN Politics. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Darweesh v. Trump Complaint" (PDF). American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Muslim leaders to file lawsuit against Donald Trump's refugee ban". The Independent. January 28, 2017.
- Darweesh v. Trump (E.D.N.Y. 2017) (“There is imminent danger that, absent the stay of removal, there will be substantial and irreparable injury to refugees, visa-holders, and other individuals from nations subject to the January 27, 2017 Executive Order”). Text
- "Petitioners' Emergency Motion For Stay of Removal" (PDF). United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Farias, Cristian (January 28, 2017). "Court Temporarily Blocks Parts Of Trump's Syrian Refugee And Travel Ban". The Huffington Post.
- Digangi, Diana. "ACLU: Emergency stay has been granted to halt immigration ban". DCW50.com. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Administrative Order No. 2017-03: In the Matter of the Assignment of Cases Related to Darweesh, et. al, v. Trump, et. al, Docket No. 17-cv-480" (PDF). United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. January 30, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- David, Javier E.; Pramuk, Jacob (January 28, 2017). "Judge temporarily blocks US from deporting visa holders detained after Trump's refugee order". CNBC. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Patel, Nilay (January 28, 2017). "Federal court halts Trump's immigration ban". The Verge. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Dreyfudd, Ben (January 28, 2017). "A Federal Judge Just Issued a Stay Against Donald Trump's "Muslim Ban"". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Jalabi, Raya; Yuhas, Alan (January 28, 2017). "Federal judge stays deportations under Trump Muslim country travel ban". The Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- W.D.Wash (January 28, 2017). "2:17-cv-00126 Order Granting Emergency Motion for Stay of Removal" (pdf). clearinghouse.net. University of Michigan Law School, Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- "Federal Judge Orders Nationwide Halt To Deportations Under Trump Order". BuzzFeed. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Sacchetti, Maria (January 29, 2017). "Judges put temporary stop to Trump immigration order". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump lashes out at judge as travel ban is put on ice". politico.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Federal judge in Mass. won't extend order halting Trump immigration ban". Boston Globe. February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "MEMORANDUM & ORDER - GORTON, J". US District Court of Massachusetts. February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "U.S. judges limit Trump immigration order; some officials resist curbs". January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017 – via Reuters.
- McDonnell, Mary; Tracy, Thomas; McShane, Larry (January 28, 2017). "Iraqi man, Hameed Darweesh, free after detainment at JFK Airport". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Hayden, Michael Edison (January 28, 2017). "At Least 27 People Detained or Sent Home Following Trump's Executive Order". ABC News. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Jamieson, Amber; Taylor, Matthew (January 29, 2017). "Protests spread over Trump travel ban on Muslim majority countries – live". The Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Yemeni immigrants prevail in lawsuit challenging Trump's executive order". The Sacramento Bee. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- "Another judge's order targets Trump travel ban". Politico. February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Smithsays, Ron (2017-02-03). "Federal Judge In Detroit Orders Trump Administration To Halt Enforcement Of Immigration Restrictions". Retrieved 2017-02-03.
- "AG Bob Ferguson files lawsuit — first by any state — to invalidate Trump's order". The Seattle Times. 2017-01-30. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- Landler, Mark (2017-02-04). "Trump Officials Move to Appeal Ruling Blocking Immigration Order". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- Isidore, Chris (2017-01-31). "Amazon, Expedia back lawsuit opposing Trump travel ban". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- "US judge temporarily blocks Trump's travel ban nationwide". The Washington Post. February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Court Temporarily Blocks Trump's Travel Ban, and Airlines Are Told to Allow Passengers". The New York Times. February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Homeland Security Stops Enforcing Trump's Immigrant Order". The Wall Street Journal. February 4, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Melvin, Don; Arouzi, Ali; Walters, Shamar (February 4, 2017). "Homeland Security Suspends Implementation of President Trump's Travel Ban". NBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- de Vogue, Ariane; Watkins, Eli; Orjoux, Alanne. "Judges temporarily block part of Trump's immigration order, WH stands by it". CNN. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Gajanan, Mahita (January 30, 2016). "Acting Attorney General Sally Yates Tells Justice Department Not to Defend President Trump's Immigration Ban". Time. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- Apuzzo, Matt; Lichtblau, Eric; Sheer, Michael D. (January 30, 2017). "Acting Attorney General Orders Justice Dept. Not to Defend Refugee Ban". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin (January 30, 2017). "Acting Attorney General Orders Justice Dept. Not to Defend Trump's Immigration Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Apuzzo, Mark Landler, Matt; Lichtblau, Eric (January 30, 2017). "Trump Fires Acting Attorney General". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Sean Spicer on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Trump suddenly replaces acting Customs head Daniel Ragsdale with Thomas Homan". Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Zelizer, Julian. "Monday night massacre is a wake-up call to Senate Democrats". CNN. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- CNN, Laura Jarrett, Pamela Brown and Theodore Schleifer. "First on CNN: Bipartisan group of federal prosecutors backs Yates". CNN. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
- Jarrett, Gregg (2017-01-31). "Gregg Jarrett: Trump was right to fire acting Attorney General Yates for breaching her duty". Fox News. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
- Goldsmith, Jack (January 30, 2017). "Quick Thoughts On Sally Yates' Unpersuasive Statement". Lawfare. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Boente, Dana J. (30 January 2017). "Acting Attorney General Boente Issues Guidance to Department on Executive Order" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Justice News. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
- Giaritelli, Anna (February 3, 2017). "DOJ seeking emergency stay of federal judge's 'outrageous order'". Washington Examiner (online). MediaDC. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "17-35105 State of Washington & State of Minnesota v. Trump. WD Wash. 2:17-cv-141, Judge Robart.". ca9.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- "Trump bid to restore travel ban rejected". BBC News. 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
Find more about
Executive Order 13769
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Wikinews has related news: U.S. federal judge halts Trump's ban on refugees, people from Muslim countries entering U.S.|
- Full text of the executive order via the Federal Register
- Fact Sheet by the United States Department of Homeland Security
- Questions and Answers about the Executive Order. U.S. Customs and Border Protection
- Relevant court filings and orders
- Office of Legal Counsel memorandum on the order's legality obtained due to a FOIA request via the New York Times
- Site Created For Appeal Case in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals